The purpose of this chapter is to explicate the impact that war has on members of the military. In describing the effects of war on combat veterans and the challenges posed for those who return from war, potential needs for relevant mental health services are made explicit. The chapter identifies practice implications and offers an online list of resources for professionals working with military veterans.
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This chapter focuses on a major occupational hazard associated with working in the human service field. The work exposure to traumatic material through compassionate listening, case reviews, working during a pandemic, responding to a fatality, delivering a death notification, and attending to acts of hate and terrorism and so much more requires an understanding of how each event has the potential to affect mental health workers in profound ways. There is a cost of caring, and human service professionals owe it to themselves—as well as to those for whom they work, to colleagues, and to loved ones—to learn about vicarious trauma and to understand how to intervene as needed, while creating healthy strategies for self-care.
This chapter focuses on the counseling speciality of disaster mental health. Topics include a discussion of the science behind various natural disasters and the psychological effects experienced by the survivors. Also discussed are the stages of disaster recovery and counselor actions within each phase. Additionally, this chapter describes the unique lived experiences of first responders and ways that professional counselors can intervene to support the unique. behavioral health needs of rescue workers. Finally, the counselor’s role in the
COVID-19pandemic is discussed.
This chapter focuses on conceptualizing addiction in relationship to the experience of trauma. It briefly covers some of the major theoretical orientations used to understand how addiction develops in individuals with diagnosable substance use disorders and co-occurring trauma. The chapter highlights the importance of social neuroscience and identifies stigma-related obstacles to recovery. The chapter concludes with discussions of treatment approaches and strategies as well as the counseling implications of co-occurring substance use and trauma disorders.
Trauma Counseling, 2nd Edition:Theories and Interventions for Managing Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This book is a much-needed update that offers an in-depth and comprehensive exploration of the variety of relevant issues concerning clients’ traumatic, crisis-related, and disaster events that commonly are encountered by professional counselors and other mental health professionals. The textbook is framed, theoretically, within a systemic paradigm, including important recent physiological and neurobiological understandings of the impact of trauma on individuals. The book is organized into six sections. Section I offers a foundation for understanding the various trauma-associated issues. In fact, it tries, with a great deal of intentionality, in the first three chapters, to construct a trauma scaffold of foundational knowledge, upon which students can build increasingly more complex conceptualizations of more nuanced clinical issues associated with trauma. Section II explicates relevant constructs, such as loss and grief; these constructs continue to build upon and expand the trauma scaffolding of the first section. It also offers information about the traumatic events that may be experienced by specific age groups, people who are vulnerable, and other particular populations. Section III begins with his explication of the moral psychology of evil. Section IV presents a broader systemic context for understanding the effects of trauma on groups of people. Section V analyzes assessment methods and interventions associated with psychological trauma. It identifies and discusses the larger scope of integrative approaches to trauma, crisis, and disaster intervention, thus emphasizing the importance of more systemic models. Section VI begins by presenting ethical perspectives on trauma work. It explicates vicarious traumatization, highlighting the need for counselor selfawareness. It also focuses on the importance of mindfulness-based self-care for counselors, encouraging clinicians to be healing counselors rather than wounded healers.
This chapter focuses on understanding issues of loss and grief as well as their intersections with trauma experiences. It examines the classical theories associated with loss and grief, describing the transition to a postmodern perspective of how grief is experienced. The chapter describes interventions that can be used with clients experiencing loss and grief, along with the counseling implications. Practice-based resources are available online.
This chapter focuses on the effects of criminal victimization and ways that counselors can respond effectively. This chapter discusses specific counseling responses, including symptom management, short-term mental health stabilization, and longer-term counseling and psychotherapeutic strategies. The counseling implications for working with crime victims are elaborated.
Counselors and other therapists providing counseling to clients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (
PTSD) may be at greater risk for developing secondary trauma, also called vicarious trauma. While PTSDhad been the focus of much research in the counseling field, less emphasis has been placed on counselor self-care. This chapter focuses on the rationale for counselor self-care.
This chapter focuses on the ethical implications of trauma work. The chapter begins with a discussion of the five ethical principles and connects ethics to practice in trauma work. Next, the chapter defines and describes several key terms and concepts related to ethical practice, including wounded healers, compassion fatigue, ethical and moral behaviors, moral suffering, and self-care. The ethical implications of supervising counselors engaged in trauma work are described next, including the importance of addressing multicultural issues and intersectionality in practice. The crucial process of transforming from victim to survivor is described, as well as counselors’ ethical obligations in that process. Finally, a number of resources, related to ethical practice in trauma work, is provided online.