Grief is the process that occurs before people come to acceptance. It can be a painful experience involving many different feelings. Losses includes health issues, loss of a career, loss of relationships, an unborn child, and/orability or desire to have children. Experiencing loss and grieving may include physical, emotional, social, and spiritual responses. Grieving is essential for coming to terms with and processing the trauma and resultant losses. Trauma and its accompanying sense of loss may result in a terrible sense of disappointment and failure. Working with mental health professionals and other survivors can be extremely helpful in working through the grieving process. The grieving process involves acknowledgment and acceptance of loss. Psychotherapy is a process of “re-parenting” the inner child who may have had less than ideal caretaking. The neural connections in the brain can heal and change with new experiences.
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Grief counseling refers to the interventions counselors make with people recent to a death loss to help facilitate them with the various tasks of mourning. These are people with no apparent bereavement complications. Grief therapy, on the other hand, refers to those techniques and interventions that a professional makes with persons experiencing one of the complications to the mourning process that keeps grief from progressing to an adequate adaptation for the mourner. New information is presented throughout the book and previous information is updated when possible. The world has changed since 1982; there are more traumatic events, drills for school shootings, and faraway events that may cause a child’s current trauma. There is also the emergence of social media and online resources, all easily accessible by smart phones at any time. Bereavement research and services have tried to keep up with these changes. The book presents current information for mental health professionals to be most effective in their interventions with bereaved children, adults, and families. The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one discusses attachment, loss, and the experience of grief. The next two chapters delve on mourning process and mediators of mourning. Chapter four describes grief counseling. Chapter five explores abnormal grief reactions. Chapter six discusses grief therapy. Chapter seven deals with grieving for special types of losses including suicide, violent deaths, sudden infant death syndrome, miscarriages, stillbirths and abortion. Chapter eight discusses how family dynamics can hinder adequate grieving. Chapter nine explores the counselor’s own grief. The concluding chapter presents training for grief counseling.
- Go to chapter: A Developmentally Grounded and Integrative Clinical Approach for Treating Complex Trauma and Dissociative Disorders in Children
A Developmentally Grounded and Integrative Clinical Approach for Treating Complex Trauma and Dissociative Disorders in Children
Children are exposed to distress, violence, and trauma even before they are born. In-utero and early childhood exposure can contribute to severe medical and psychological consequences. Children who have been exposed to such traumatic events often arrive at the psychotherapist’s office with emotional and behavioral symptoms suggestive of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociation. This chapter reviews relevant theories of dissociation integrated with theories of development to provide a summary of how attachment impacts dissociation. With a developmentally grounded theory of dissociation, the chapter describes clinical interventions for treating the dissociative sequelae of attachment trauma in children. This theoretical framework offers a developmentally grounded and integrative framework for working with children with complex trauma and dissociation. Symptoms of dissociation are common with PTSD, but an extreme response to trauma can be dissociation and dissociative disorders.
- Go to chapter: The Role of Neurobiology in Social Work Practice With Youth Transitioning From Foster Care
This chapter presents advances in the understanding of adolescent brain development that can inform and improve social work practice with youth leaving foster care. Foster care populations have a high rate of mental health disorders, and the association of types of child maltreatment with elevated risk for such disorders is well known; discussion of specific mental health problems and their treatment can be found elsewhere. Conventional mental health approaches have often targeted the innervated cortical or limbic neural systems, rather than the innervating source of the dysregulation. Psychotherapy, whether psychodynamic or cognitive, acts on and has measurable effects on the brain, its functions, and metabolism in specific brain areas. The ethical response is a sharing of the dilemma, and of information about the neurobiology of the client’s struggle, to enable the client to make as informed a decision as possible. In addition, neuroimaging techniques themselves lead to other ethical dilemmas.
In the therapeutic community (TC), the therapeutic and educational component that focuses specifically on the individual consists of the various forms of group process. The groups that are TC-oriented, such as encounters, probes, and marathons, retain distinctive self-help elements of the TC approach. This chapter provides an overview of general elements and forms of group process in the TC. Conventional psychotherapy and group therapy have not been particularly effective with substance abusers entering TCs for various reasons. Group tools are certain strategies of verbal and nonverbal interchange that are employed by participants to facilitate individual change in group process. There are two main classes of group process strategies: provocative tools and evocative tools. Provocative tools, hostility or anger, engrossment, and ridicule or humor, are most pointedly used to penetrate denial and break down deviant coping strategies such as lying.
This book focuses on the key issues surrounding multicultural neurorehabilitation for a wide range of health care professionals. The study of traumatic brain injury has seen a clear evolution in the sophistication, breadth, and depth of findings concerning neuroepidemiology as it affects racial and ethnic minorities. As large-scale epidemiological studies increasingly include and distinguish individuals of color and linguistic minorities together with religion, sexual orientation, physical disabilities, place of residence, and key socioeconomic variables that interact with race/ethnicity, more information will be available to make changes in policy, training, and clinical service delivery. Neuropsychological assessment involves the administration of a battery of tests that assess a variety of cognitive domains to obtain a clinical picture of brain behavior relationships. Within the inpatient rehabilitation setting, neuropsychologists often perform various functions, including neuropsychological assessment, psychotherapy, and assistance with adjustment issues for patients and their families. The book discusses some of the common cultural issues that impact neuropsychology in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Considerations of race and ethnicity, disability culture, military and veteran culture, and cultural aspects of religiousness and spirituality are all considered in the book. The authors in the book wrote from their own perspectives as clinicians and researchers, representing diverse cultural backgrounds and neurorehabilitation contexts and roles. Hopefully, the book will generate more discussion, research, and literature on multicultural neurorehabilitation.
This book represents a compilation of years of theoretical and clinical insights distilled into a specific theory of disturbance and therapy and deductions for specific clinical strategies and techniques. It focuses on an explication of the theory, a chapter on basic practice, and a chapter on an in-depth case study. A detailed chapter follows on the practice of individual psychotherapy. Using rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) in couples, family, group, and marathons sessions is highlighted. The book commences with a note on the general theory underpinning the practice of REBT, outlines its major theoretical concepts and puts forward an expanded version of REBT’s well-known ABC framework. It then considers aspects of the therapeutic relationship between clients and therapists in REBT, deals with issues pertaining to inducting clients into REBT, and specifies the major treatment techniques that are employed during REBT. A number of obstacles that emerge in the process of REBT and how they might be overcome are noted. The book then distinguishes between preferential and general REBT (or cognitive-behavior therapy [CBT]) and specifies their differences. Individual, couples, family and group therapies are explained. The book talks about the Rational Emotive Behavioral Marathon, a highly structured procedure that is deliberately weighted more on the verbal than on the nonverbal side. The authors’ 8-week psychoeducational group for teaching the principles of unconditional self-acceptance in a structured group setting is described. The book concludes with a discussion on the concept of ego disturbance, REBT treatment of sex difficulties using the cognitive-emotive-behavioral approach, and REBT’s effectiveness with hypnosis.
The importance of the functioning of mind and the limitations of medication has encouraged some clinicians to advance the use of psychotherapy. In the present period this is mostly in the form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia and psychosis, and this is strongly promoted in the British Psychological Society (BPS) publication “Understanding Psychosis and Schizophrenia: Why People Sometimes Hear Voices, Believe Things That Others Find Strange, or Appear Out of Touch With Reality, and What Can Help”. Although this document has not been received without criticism, it makes some very interesting reading for us as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapists and students of the Indicating Cognitions of Negative Networks (ICoNN) model. The meta-analyses that showed the most encouraging effect sizes were looking at two groups: treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and forms of psychotherapy that were highly specific and tailored according to case formulation, targeting delusions and auditory hallucinations.
The scripts included in this chapter exemplify how an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapist might talk with a client when the focus is on positive psychology and performance enhancement: reaching for a goal not yet realized, looking for a way to strengthen a positive quality. The scripts accompany a model that has been taught in a number of countries to therapists, coaches, and human resource advisors. The model combines elements of coaching and psychotherapy. Even if there were sufficient time, it would be inappropriate to do Standard EMDR processing with a large group where the practitioner could not monitor the experiences of individual participants. The performance model can also be applied with clients not yet ready to undergo EMDR desensitization because of ego fragility, emotional latency, or any other feature that suggests they cannot yet handle the affective intensity that accompanies EMDR processing.
The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) method represents a significant advance in psychotherapy. While most of the empirical research on EMDR demonstrates its efficacy as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including relational traumas. Dysfunctional patterns of relating in the family of origin can imprint themselves on the relational template of adults, only to be reenacted in the contemporary couples relationship. Because EMDR can be effective at transforming these earlier relational traumas, adults can become less reactive, enjoy greater distress tolerance, and have a more resilient ego boundary. Thus, EMDR is an invaluable tool in couples therapy. A 5-step protocol is proposed that can guide therapists to develop an EMDR treatment plan within the context of couples therapy. This protocol can and should be applied to both partners in most cases, but of necessity, the therapist must choose one partner to begin with.