Grief counseling refers to the interventions counselors make with people recent to a death loss to help facilitate them with the various tasks of mourning. These are people with no apparent bereavement complications. Grief therapy, on the other hand, refers to those techniques and interventions that a professional makes with persons experiencing one of the complications to the mourning process that keeps grief from progressing to an adequate adaptation for the mourner. New information is presented throughout the book and previous information is updated when possible. The world has changed since 1982; there are more traumatic events, drills for school shootings, and faraway events that may cause a child’s current trauma. There is also the emergence of social media and online resources, all easily accessible by smart phones at any time. Bereavement research and services have tried to keep up with these changes. The book presents current information for mental health professionals to be most effective in their interventions with bereaved children, adults, and families. The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one discusses attachment, loss, and the experience of grief. The next two chapters delve on mourning process and mediators of mourning. Chapter four describes grief counseling. Chapter five explores abnormal grief reactions. Chapter six discusses grief therapy. Chapter seven deals with grieving for special types of losses including suicide, violent deaths, sudden infant death syndrome, miscarriages, stillbirths and abortion. Chapter eight discusses how family dynamics can hinder adequate grieving. Chapter nine explores the counselor’s own grief. The concluding chapter presents training for grief counseling.
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One of the most trying aspects of training professionals to work with couples using solution-focused therapy is expecting professionals to go slowly and to develop a connection with their couples before moving on. In fact, the therapist is working to uncover the positive aspects of the couple’s life, and how they were living before their problem. Lipchik calls this process listening with a constructive ear probing for evidence of strengths, resources, and past success, learning what life was like before or without the problem, what the clients want, or anything at all that can be reinforced as a positive aspect of the client’s lives going forward. Every couple comes from a past when the relationship was working much better. The therapist listens for clues about how the relationship was built to understand what worked in the past and continues to work today.
This chapter includes the guiding tenets of solution-focused therapy (SFT). Solution-focused (SF) practice differs from other therapeutic approaches in its use of solution building rather than problem solving. The solution-building process is about creating what is most desired by the couple, and not about problem solving. For a couple to be seeking therapy together, there has to have been a time in the past when the relationship was working better for both the parties. By focusing on the relationship and the skills that each partner uses to contribute to the relationship, the therapist conveys a level of hope to the couple. Solution-building conversations must be co-constructed with input from all participants. Motivation should never be in doubt, even if one member of the couple claims that he or she is only there because the other partner “made” them come to therapy.
In our success-oriented culture, optimal development of giftedness often is construed as fulfilling one’s potential for greatness. In humanistic psychology, optimal development has been conceptualized differently. Self-realization can be understood in terms of Maslow’s self-actualization, Dabrowski’s secondary integration, Jung’s individuation, or other theoretical perspectives of human development. The goals of inner development involve deepening the personality, overcoming conflicts, and actualizing one’s potential for becoming one’s best self. Many parents of the gifted complain that their children are the ones exerting the pressure. Their speed of learning and quest for knowledge often exceed their parents’ comfort level. The purpose of parent guidance is to foster “optimal development” through early intervention and prevention of social and emotional problems. Assessment can act as a prelude to family therapy. Family therapy usually involves a commitment to several successive sessions to deal with family interactions.Source:
Wrapping up a solution-building session is about trusting the clients and trusting the process. Reflection teams play an important role in solution-focused therapy at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee, but by taking a break to develop well thought-out compliments and suggestions for a couple, individual therapists can act as their own reflection teams. Using the couple’s own words is the most important step in formulating helpful feedback. It requires that the therapist pay close attention to the language used throughout the conversation and to stick with it. Feedback should be related to the couple’s strengths and the traits that have the potential to lead them away from their problem toward the preferred future. In early family therapy literature as well as early solution-focused literature, making suggestions and invitations was referred to as assigning tasks.
Rational emotive behavior family therapy follows the principles and practice of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) have a good record as far as their basic personality hypotheses and claims for clinical effectiveness are concerned. The author began to do conjoint marital counseling and family therapy but found the techniques to be much more efficient and less time-consuming as he replaced analytical with REBT. Hassles and frustrations of living are the inevitable human condition. Parent or child one has to go along with many domestic restrictions, including room arrangements, money expenditures, meal scheduling, and a hundred other limitations. Family systems therapy tends to require an active-directive therapist who makes clear-cut interventions and who engages in a great deal of problem solving. Clients are held to be responsible for their attendance at family therapy sessions and for doing their homework assignments.
The field of family therapy has been moving ever onward toward attempting to address the complex, multidimensional, diverse, and multicultural needs of the profession. This chapter presents a summary of Systemic Cognitive-Developmental Supervision (SCDS) and integrates a case study to illustrate basic concepts and use of the SCDS supervision model. Systemic Cognitive-Developmental Supervision is a supervision model that was developed upon the same theoretical foundations as Systemic Cognitive-Developmental Therapy (SCDT). SCDS is a supervision model that is built upon the theory of SCDT and is grounded in integrative, developmental, co-constructive, holistic, and systemic assumptions. The intersecting domains of class, gender, race, ethnicity, ability, sexual orientation, spirituality, and so forth also provide important context to supervision and therapy. Although the general SCDS model provides an important framework as a beginning, value is added by a knowledge of the developing literature on culturally sensitive therapy and supervision.
Murray Bowen Family Systems Theory attempts to explain life and the human phenomenon, rather than specific families. As with many early family therapists, the development of Bowen’s theory grew out of the decision to include family members in the treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Bowen Family Systems Theory is based on the need for intrapersonal and interpersonal balance, with chronic anxiety and differentiation serving as the foundational constructs for the theory. These constructs are opposing: the former causing symptoms and the latter acting as the antidote. Bowen believed that family systems theory was describing life, not merely families, arguing that the constructs of his theory were universal to all genders and cultures. The implication of this belief is that culture-including race, ethnicity, gender, and the specific beliefs, values, and traditions that vary between people-does not matter and does not affect the ability for change to occur in therapy.
This chapter examines both the history and benefits of teaching specific models in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) supervision and then focuses on an integrative, moderate common-factors approach. MFT as a profession originated in the late 1950s and 1960s with a series of rebellious pioneers who rejected the dominant individual-based behavior and psychoanalytic models of the time in favor of something new. Supervisors who intend to integrate common factors into the supervisory experience and education have several tasks, possibly the most important of which is to provide education to supervisees about the factors that truly are common to all psychotherapy modalities. The chapter describes the seven common factors: client factors, therapist factors, the therapeutic alliance, hope and expectancy, allegiance of the therapist, feedback, and interventions, such as behavioral, cognitive, affective that cut across all models.
Adolescence is an extremely unique and critical stage of development. In order to provide the helping professional with a clear understanding of typical adolescent development, and to fill the gap many have in understanding adolescence in general, this book offers a concise, in-depth, scientific overview of adolescent development specifically geared toward those applying the information in the helping professions. The intended audience for the book is helping professionals such as psychologists, mental health counselors, social workers, marriage and family therapists, educators, and nurses. The book covers adolescent developmental theories that provide a basis for understanding observations about the nature of adolescents. These theories include the intrapsychic, cognitive, behavioral/environmental, and biological theories. Puberty is also the signal indicating the beginning of physical and neurological growth. The hormonal changes of puberty initiate drastic growth in the body and organs of adolescents. The book reviews several aspects of overall adolescent health, including the issue of adolescent sleep and its importance and how adolescent diet and nutrition impact development. In addition to the “hardware” transformation in an adolescent’s brain, adolescents undergo important changes in their ability to think. The book also examines Piaget’s adolescent stage of cognitive development, the formal operational stage, and how changes in the way adolescents think impact their interactions with others. It introduces the multiple social changes with family and friends that occur during adolescence and examines how adolescents interact with TV, media, and technology and deals with the issue of cyberbullying and reviews the most common adolescent problems, such as drug use, risky behaviors, eating issues, and depression. Each chapter integrates several features to guide helping professionals in applying adolescent development in practice.