Grief counseling refers to the interventions counselors make with people recent to a death loss to help facilitate them with the various tasks of mourning. These are people with no apparent bereavement complications. Grief therapy, on the other hand, refers to those techniques and interventions that a professional makes with persons experiencing one of the complications to the mourning process that keeps grief from progressing to an adequate adaptation for the mourner. New information is presented throughout the book and previous information is updated when possible. The world has changed since 1982; there are more traumatic events, drills for school shootings, and faraway events that may cause a child’s current trauma. There is also the emergence of social media and online resources, all easily accessible by smart phones at any time. Bereavement research and services have tried to keep up with these changes. The book presents current information for mental health professionals to be most effective in their interventions with bereaved children, adults, and families. The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one discusses attachment, loss, and the experience of grief. The next two chapters delve on mourning process and mediators of mourning. Chapter four describes grief counseling. Chapter five explores abnormal grief reactions. Chapter six discusses grief therapy. Chapter seven deals with grieving for special types of losses including suicide, violent deaths, sudden infant death syndrome, miscarriages, stillbirths and abortion. Chapter eight discusses how family dynamics can hinder adequate grieving. Chapter nine explores the counselor’s own grief. The concluding chapter presents training for grief counseling.
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The Myers–Briggs type indicator (MBTI) was designed to help people understand themselves and others by helping them appreciate the diverse strengths of different personality types. It has been widely used in counseling as well as business to work on team building and relationships. There is, therefore, room for using this assessment within the field of student affairs to help build teams and groups both for professionals in the field and for students. This chapter discusses the basic information about the MBTI and implications for student affairs. The instrument is considered as a personality assessment for normal individuals designed to assess personality type. The MBTI offers strength-based guidance in every realm of living concerning individual growth to interpersonal relationships, in academic matters to spiritual terrains. From the office of the president to the chaplain, the MBTI is a useful and effective tool on a college campus.
This chapter reviews the questions that are frequently asked in solution-focused therapy (SFT) and how they can be used with couples. It discusses the miracle question, the scaling question, and exception-finding questions, many of which have been written about extensively over the years. Solution-focused questions spring from a therapist’s curiosity curiosity is the foundation of solution building. Deciding which partner to question at a particular moment in the session is an important skill for a couple’s counselor. Solution building is a process of co-constructing a conversation between the couple and the therapist, and all three must take their turn in the conversation. Third-person questions are also a powerful way to bring a couple’s entire support system into the session. Presumptive language is very important in developing solution-building questions. Some questions are crafted to create a picture of the preferred future and to fill it with as many details as possible.
Eliciting a description of a couple’s ideal future without getting sucked into the problem story is one of the hardest tasks in solution-focused therapy. In order to stick to a description of the “future” a therapist must have the discipline to refrain from following the client’s lead toward the use of “problem language”. The process of gathering details about a preferred future is therapeutic in itself. Often nothing more needs to happen for the couple to make significant and lasting changes in their lives and in their relationship, and the more thorough their description of their future, the more good it’s likely to do. The role of a solution-focused marriage counselor is to remind couples of the process that was in play when they first fell in love, and what skills each partner brought to the relationship in its early days.
Students may enter higher education with a strong set of ideals, firm models of career options, and certain confidence in their ultimate direction; however, it is not uncommon for students to begin college unprepared for life after graduation, let alone housing assignments and first semester coursework. This chapter focuses on the difficulties surrounding the major choice, the factors that influence decision making, career theories in student affairs, and campus and community resources available to assist students in gathering important data about their major and career choices. Selecting a college major and making career decisions are not easy, and require self-knowledge, self-examination, and research on what is available in the world of work. Essential to student success is the ability of student affairs professionals to accurately recognize when students are struggling and make an appropriate referral for career counseling, academic support services, or personal counseling.
This chapter describes the various roles and functions of the treatment program or clinical management staff in the residential facility. It characterizes the roles of support staff and agency personnel. Teachers, physicians, nurses, psychologists, social workers, lawyers, and accountants in the TC ply their professions in the usual way. The relationship between staff and peer roles is rooted in the evolution of the Therapeutic Community (TC). In the TC approach, the role of staff is complex and can be contrasted with that of mental health and human service providers in other settings. An array of staff activities underscores the distinctively humanistic focus of the TC. The chapter describes how primary clinical staff in the treatment program supervise the daily activities of the peer community through their interrelated roles of facilitator, counselor, community manager, and rational authority. Other staff provide educational, vocational, legal, medical, and facility support services.
This book provides a better understanding of emerging disabilities and their impact on all areas of life and explores implications for rehabilitation counseling practice, policy, and research. It first defines emerging disabilities and examines current societal trends that contribute to the onset and diagnoses of chronic illnesses and disabilities that are considered to be emerging in the United States. Then, the book provides an overview of medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects that distinguish emerging disabilities from traditional disabilities. The first section of the book includes four chapters on emerging disabilities with organic causes or unknown etiologies. It examines disabilities and chronic illnesses that are characterized by chronic pain. The second section of the book examines the role of natural and sociocultural environments in creating new patterns and types of disabling conditions. It focuses on both lifestyle factors and climate change and how these contribute to the onset and/or exacerbation of chronic illness and disability and explains physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health conditions that result from violence. The final section of the book explores implications for rehabilitation practice, policy, and research to better respond to the unique concerns and needs of rehabilitation consumers with emerging disabilities. It suggests research topics, designs, and procedures for building upon our knowledge about the rehabilitation needs of emerging disability populations and developing evidence-based practices to facilitate successful rehabilitation outcomes for individuals in these populations.
This chapter discusses the type of group work using rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) principles and practices. Several methods of psychotherapy, such as psychoanalysis, employ group therapy for expediency reasons. REBT distinctly uses an educational rather than a medical or psychodynamic model. REBT includes a number of role-playing and behavior modification methods that can be done during individual therapy sessions but that are more effective in group. Clients who are shy or who have interpersonal problems are particularly encouraged to join a group because it is often more therapeutic for them to work out their problems with their peers than to work on them only with an individual therapist. In cognitive-behavioral therapy in general and in group REBT in particular, the activity level of the therapist tends to be high. Group REBT and counseling especially have intrinsic disadvantages and limitations when compared to more individualized REBT proc.
This chapter explores vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue, and burnout and the potential impact on professionals who treat victims of military sexual trauma (
MST). Professionals who provide counseling to sexual trauma survivors will be affected by the exposure to the personal and, sometimes, graphic accounts of sexual victimization reported by their clients. Although brief exposure to extreme or shocking trauma material can have a significant impact on the helping professional, prolonged exposure to emotional pain and the explicit details of other people’s suffering can be more problematic. Psychologist Jacob Lindy pointed to this concern in his book on treating war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Burnout was originally used in the 1970s by psychoanalyst Hebert Freundenberger in reference to occupational exhaustion. Burnout may involve psychological, physical, or behavioral symptoms in both personal and professional settings.Source:
This chapter addresses three categories of supervision models: developmental models, counseling theory-based models, and social role models. Clinical supervision is a core function of counselor training and development. In early stages of the supervision process, counselors use supervision to become more fully competent in all areas of professional practice, which includes theory development and utilization. Supervisors use models of supervision in a manner similar to the way counselors use counseling theories. Developmental models of supervision center around the belief that change occurs over time and that supervision will adjust supervisory interventions to align with the counselor’s evolving performance. Cognitive behavioral supervision (CBS) models represent the convergence of cognitive theories, behavioral theories, and counselor supervision. Social role models may be conceptualized as the combination of a carefully selected role and an intentional focus on a specific area.