Eating disorders (EDs) are a complex and comparatively dangerous set of mental disorders that deeply affect the quality of life and well-being of the child or adolescent who is struggling with this problem as well as those who love and care for him or her. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) outlines specific criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or ED. Treatment of eating disordered behavior typically involves a three-facet approach: medical assessment and monitoring, nutritional counseling, and psychological and behavioral treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are also evidence-based approaches to treatment for AN. The treatment of EDs should be viewed as a team effort that integrates medical, nutritional, and mental health service providers.
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This chapter describes the Coping Skills Program, an innovative, school-based, universal curriculum for elementary-school aged children that is rooted in cognitive behavior theory. Rooted in cognitive behavior theory, the Coping Skills Program consists of carefully constructed metaphorical fables that are designed to teach children about their thinking; about the connections among their thoughts, feelings, and behavior; and about how to change what they are thinking, feeling, and doing when their behavior causes them problems. The chapter provides a thorough description of the Coping Skills Program and how it is implemented through a discussion of relevant research-based literature, and the theoretical underpinnings underlying this cognitive behavior approach with school-aged children. It also includes the results of preliminary testing of the Coping Skills Program. The research-based literature shows that cognitive behavior approaches are among the interventions commonly used by social workers to help young children in school settings.
This chapter integrates elements and strategies of internal family systems (IFS) psychotherapy into eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy with complexly traumatized children. It shows a description of healing a part using in-sight with a child. In-sight involves having the client look inside to find and work with parts that he or she sees or senses and describes to the therapist. The IFS therapist starts by ensuring the client’s external environment is safe and supportive of the therapy. In a self-led system, polarizations are absent or greatly diminished, leaving more harmony and balance. However, when and how the self is formed may be seen and conceptualized through different lenses in adaptive information processing (AIP)-EMDR and IFS. According to the AIP model, the human brain and biological systems are shaped by the environmental experiences they encounter.
This book is intended to provide to the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) clinician advanced tools to treat children with complex trauma, attachment wounds, and dissociative tendencies. It covers key elements to develop case conceptualization skills and treatment plans based on the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. A broader perspective is presented by integrating concepts from attachment theory, affect regulation theory, affective neuroscience, and interpersonal neurobiology. These concepts and theories not only support the AIP model, but they expand clinicians’ understanding and effectiveness when working with dissociative, insecurely attached, and dysregulated children. The book presents aspects of our current understanding of how our biological apparatus is orchestrated, how its appropriate development is thwarted when early, chronic, and pervasive trauma and adversity are present in our lives, and how healing can be promoted through the use of EMDR therapy. In addition, it provides a practical guide to the use of EMDR within a systemic framework. It illustrates how EMDR therapy can be used to help caregivers develop psychobiological attunement and synchrony as well as to enhance their mentalizing capacities. Another important goal of the book is to bring strategies from other therapeutic approaches, such as play therapy, sand tray therapy, Sensorimotor Psychotherapy, Theraplay, and Internal Family Systems (IFS) into a comprehensive EMDR treatment, while maintaining appropriate adherence to the AIP model and EMDR methodology. This is done with the goal of enriching the work that often times is necessary with complexly traumatized children and their families.
This chapter clarifies treatment throughout the similarities as well as the differences between eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and sensorimotor psychotherapy in child treatment. Dysregulated arousal and overactive animal defenses biased by traumatic experience are at the root of many symptoms and difficulties observed in traumatized children. Traumatic or adverse experiences are encoded in memory networks in the brain. The adaptive information processing (AIP) looks at different components of the memory network: cognitive, emotional and somatic. EMDR therapy and its phases access not only the cognitive aspects of the memory, but the affective and bodily states. In working with children, microphones may add a playful approach to translating the body’s language. Oscillation techniques are also useful in helping children to shift their focus from dysregulated states to a more resourced experience, which supports flexibility in state shifting and increases awareness of different states.
The Absorption Technique for Children is a protocol that was derived from the work of Arne Hofmann who based his work on an adaptation of “The Wedging Technique”. The absorption technique for children is a resource technique that supports children in creating resources for present issues and future challenges such as dealing with a difficult teacher or handling a disagreement with a classmate and so forth. This chapter uses resource installation for stressful situations. It includes summary sheets to facilitate gathering information, client documentation, and quick retrieval of salient information while formulating a treatment plan. The absorption technique, and the constant installation of present orientation and safety (CIPOS) technique, are excellent ways to encourage children to work with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) step-by-step even if they are not prepared to work with the worst issue in the beginning.
- Go to chapter: EMDR Assessment and Desensitization Phases With Children: Step-by-Step Session Directions
This chapter describes the procedural steps of the Assessment Phase and Desensitization Phase of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Standard Protocol with detailed scripts for steering a child through each phase. It includes summary sheets to facilitate gathering information, client documentation, and quick retrieval of salient information while formulating a treatment plan. Assessment phase note section starts with Target Identification; this is a continuation of what began during the Client History and Treatment Planning Phase. The therapist should already have some idea of what the child may choose given previous target identification procedures such as Mapping and Graphing or other procedures for eliciting targets with children. Once the target has been selected, the therapist continues with Image, negative cognition (NC), positive cognition (PC), validity of cognition (VOC), emotion, subjective units of disturbance (SUD), and body sensation to move on to the desensitization phase.
- Go to chapter: Using Olfactory Stimulation With Children to Cue Resource Development and Installation (RDI)
According to Korn and Leeds, the main goal of developing and installing resources is to increase the client’s capacity for self-regulation by enhancing their ability to access memory networks that contain adaptive and functional information. The Resource Development and Installation (RDI) Protocol should only be considered based on specific criteria that suggest it is needed for the individual child. The purpose of doing RDI is to increase the child’s ability to change state adaptively and tolerate disturbance so the child can prepare for trauma reprocessing. Traumatized children deserve to be treated with the full eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) reprocessing protocol so that they can make a complete recovery. Because of the short attention span in children, this protocol may take two sessions to complete. Often, school-aged children can do the protocol in one session.
Studies have evaluated the usefulness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) following disaster events finding that this approach could be effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms. EMDR has been reported as effective in the treatment of children following a hurricane in Hawaii. Group therapy is a well-proven form of treatment for traumatized children and adolescents. The EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) was developed by members of AMAMECRISIS when they were overwhelmed by the extensive need for mental health services after Hurricane Pauline ravaged the western coast of Mexico in 1997. This protocol combines the Standard EMDR Treatment Phases 1 through 8. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims ages 7 to 50 +.
The Maze, as a metaphor for a place where problems live and are solved, was developed out of the necessity of working with children who were too anxious, embarrassed, or afraid to experience the uncomfortable feelings around their problem areas. Such children often present as actively oppositional or sullenly silent. It was necessary to find a distancing technique that was both nonthreatening and interesting to gradually establish communication between therapist and child about issues that cause them discomfort. The main purpose of the maze is to gradually sensitize the child to the possibility of exploring the defended inner space where unpleasant, scary emotions dwell. The maze is a concept with which most children are acquainted. They have experienced both feelings of frustration and competence as they followed the convoluted lines with their pencils in workbooks. The elements of the protocol for maze include the following: maze, drawings and footsteps.