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- Go to article: The Power of Wholeness, Consciousness, and Caring: A Dialogue on Nursing Science, Art, and Healing
The past few decades have seen immense change in the conceptualization of vulnerability, resulting in members of vulnerable groups requesting that their subjective experiences be seen as valid. In response, researchers have proposed the use of emancipatory and participatory research; forms of research that would alter the traditional power relationships between researchers and their subjects. This article relates these developments specifically to nursing research and proposes that adopting a humanist philosophy could assist in achieving research that acknowledges vulnerable individuals and their personal experiences, challenges the current norm that puts researchers in control of the research agenda, and frames nursing practice according to caring science principles (ethos).
- Go to article: Patients’ Communication with Nurses: Relational Communication and Preferred Nurse Behaviors
Communication between a nurse and a patient is a shared process that forms the basis for the professional relationship that is foundational for enhancing patient care and affecting patient outcomes. Both hermeneutical and descriptive methodologies were used to examine nurse-patient communication dimensions and identify patient-preferred nurse behaviors. Patients in three age groups participated in an interview and survey questionnaire. Use of the Nurse-Patient Communication Assessment Tool recognized a one-dimension model of patient-nurse relational communication comprised of calm, comfortable, caring, interested, sincere, accepting, and respectful. Responses to the Health Communication Interview questionnaire identified preferred behaviors patients want and expect from nurses as caring, warm/friendly, professional, competent, empathy, listens, and honest/sincere.
- Go to article: Experience of Taiwanese Families of an Individual with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness: Family Demand and Adaptation
The application of Swanson’s (1991) mid-range caring theory in clinical practice is the focus of this paper. The clinical practice example chosen to highlight this theory was an interaction observed by a nursing student between a nursing instructor and an elderly woman who had experienced an embarrassing incidence of bowel incontinence. This example of caring behavior will have a significant influence on the nursing student’s future nursing practice.
This study was conducted to examine the nurse’s perception of being cared for in the hospital work environment. A survey design was used with a modified questionnaire based on Watson’s (2008) caring theory. Physical needs, spiritual needs, intellectual stimulation, and authentic relationships were domains measured. Results indicated an overall perception of caring (5.27 on a 7-point scale); however, there is significant variation in perception of caring among units within the hospital. Additional research is recommended for tool refinement and the development of a language of caring to help promote more meaningful communication among staff and patients.
- Go to article: An Educational Strategy to Enhance Caring in Nursing Students in an Associate Degree Program
This article describes a course to enhance caring ability, which the author designed and taught for 3 consecutive years, including course foundations, course themes, teaching strategies, and outcomes. Course design was based on two models established by the author in previous studies. The semester-long course focused sequentially on care for self, others, and the community. Each class session was arranged to include opportunities for reflection, group discussion, oral presentation, and lecture. Both student feedback and quantitative analysis indicated that student caring behavior significantly improved.
This article presents findings from a literature review concerning grandparenting in healthcare. Using qualitative content analysis, data were collected from CINAHL and organized in three categories: transition to grandparenthood; grandparental roles; and grandparental health and well-being due to transitions and roles. The review demonstrated a growing number of studies on grandparents rearing grandchildren and sparse studies on other issues. Grandparenting is discussed in a human caring paradigm as a phenomenon based on love and care, and as containing suffering that gives health problems. Directions for future research encompass how nurses include grandparents in the care of the sick grandchild.
The aim of this study was to explore care encounters in homes of patients living in a multicultural area. The shadowing method enabled researchers to closely follow nurses in their everyday work. Complexities in the care environment, ambivalent roles played by the family, and varying meanings of care encounters were found. Despite difficulties in communication, nurses and patients created mutual space for caring. Regular meetings were essential for creation of trust, support, and consolation. Nurses’ sensitivity regarding patients’ needs and awareness of diversity of space for caring gave insights into the complexity of home care encounters in multicultural contexts.
This descriptive study explores the concept of caring in nursing education from the students’ perspective. Students were asked to share moments of caring that they experienced in a nursing course. A content analysis revealed a relational nature of humanistic caring demonstrated by the following themes: connectedness, presence, growth, and respect. Results identified caring as relational and being connected with other; that is, caring is grounded in nurse-educator-student relationships.
Supervision in clinical placements provides a multidimensional learning context for student nurses and their supervisors. This study reports that students ask for more time, competencies, and supportive relationships with supervisors. The students seek to form their identity as nurses through participating in practice and clinical work. They create identities through learning from experiences, skill development, dialogues, and reflections. It is necessary to revitalize supervisors’ roles, competencies, assessment strategies, and skills in clinical supervision. Research gives reasons to evolve and implement new models that accentuate reflection and transformation to facilitate caring in clinical practice, for both students and supervisors.
Evidence that nurses’ interactions with hospitalized patients lack expressive caring invites questions about the workforce providing care and the specific skill sets required to provide emotional care effectively. As discussion of care protocols and other means to evaluate caring outcomes are developed, specific skills that support such outcomes need to be identified. This study examined the multigenerational nature of the current nursing workforce by exploring one set of abilities essential for caring, those of emotional intelligence. Despite stereotypes to the contrary, study findings indicated no difference in measured emotional intelligence abilities among the study generational cohorts.
Early nurse leaders identified compassion as a characteristic of a “good” nurse, while contemporary nurses identified caring as the single most important attribute of a nurse. If nursing accepts this premise, it is important to gather baseline data from applicants. Admission essays were analyzed for themes to determine how students described caring and compared to Sadler’s (1997) concept analysis of caring. Students described beginning levels of caring and drew relationships between caring and nursing. Essays may provide one method to garner baseline data, which can be used to facilitate the development of caring in students.
- Go to article: The Relationship Between Caring Ability and Competency with Caring Behaviors of Nursing Students
A descriptive correlational study was undertaken to provide insight into the relationship between caring ability (innate caring) and competency with caring behaviors (professional caring) of student nurses. Currently, little research addresses these aspects of caring simultaneously. The study found significant correlations between caring ability and caring competency for first and fourth semester students, but no significant difference in caring ability between first semester and fourth semester students. The results suggest that nursing education significantly impacts the development of professional caring behaviors, but has little effect on innate caring ability. Higher caring ability scores were associated with increased caring competency
This three-round Delphi study generated an international standard of care for caring for potential use by nurses and other health care providers in health care agencies and communities. The caring elements, based on related literature, were surveyed from members of the International Association for Human Caring (IAHC) and attendees of the IAHC meeting held in Boca Raton, Florida (USA), in 2000. The standard was constructed from questionnaire responses and provides a starting point for developing a practice model and subject matter for debate among clinicians, educators, and researchers from diverse cultures.and quantitative analysis indicated that student caring behavior significantly improved.
The purpose of this phenomenological research was to capture the meaning of caring as experienced by nurse managers during interactions with staff nurses. Data analysis was guided by the phenomenological method (Ray, 1985; van Manen, 1990). Essential themes of growth, listening, support, intuition, receiving gifts, and frustration were described by participants. Variant themes of touch, humor, flexibility, counseling, limitations, and competency also emerged. Interpretive themes of nurses’ way of being, reciprocal caring, and caring moment as transcendence were identified. The unity of meaning, which unfolded, is presented as a poetic expression. Implications for transforming nursing administration into a practice grounded in caring are presented.
In this metasynthesis we portray a changed understanding of the concept of spirituality. In addition, we discuss implications for spiritual care. Through a hermeneutical approach influenced by Gadamer, 17 studies were synthesized. Connectedness with inner space is at the center of spirituality. This category is partly overlapping and is in interaction with connectedness with a higher power, nature, others, and community. Love in connectedness is an ontological core category and a motivating force. This study contributes to the theoretical development in caring science and, through hermeneutical application, such knowledge might lead to changed perspectives in clinical practice.
- Go to article: Empowerment and Authorization – Who Provides and Who Receives? A Qualitative Meta-Study of Empowerment in Nursing Research: A Caring Science Perspective
Empowerment and Authorization – Who Provides and Who Receives? A Qualitative Meta-Study of Empowerment in Nursing Research: A Caring Science Perspective
The findings show how different conceptions of power occur within nursing science, differences that can be interpreted as different views of human beings and ethics. Among the advocates of empowerment in caring, there is a desire to eliminate the difference in power between nurse and patient. The relationship between nurse and patient becomes mutual through the patient’s participation in and responsibility for his/her own care. But from a caring science perspective, a caring relationship is not mutual since nurse and patient cannot change places due to being on different levels nor can responsibility be delegated from nurse to patient.
- Go to article: Holism, Hermeticism, and the Elements of Environmental Care of Mid-19th Century Nurses
- Go to article: The Deteriorating Health of “Nursing” in the United Kingdom Today: An Acute Episode or a Long-Term Condition?
The Deteriorating Health of “Nursing” in the United Kingdom Today: An Acute Episode or a Long-Term Condition?
In the United Kingdom today there appears to be an escalating theme of poor nursing care and negative patient experience. As caring is recognized as the spirit of nursing and is its underlying principal cultural value, this paper aims to explore and examine the nursing as caring theory and associated model of nursing, to ascertain if the care required to “nurse” the profession back to health, to deliver and manage patient expectations in today’s healthcare, is not only familiar, but actually underpins the very essence of nursing itself.
The nursing as caring theory asserts that knowing emerges from within the nursing situation and that knowledge can be transformed for nursing purposes into nursing science, which evolves from nurturing persons living caring and growing in caring. The purpose of this paper is to describe research-as-praxis methodology, as it was applied to the nursing as caring theory in a recent study, as an effective way to simultaneously engage in research, practice, and theory application. Because caring is a central exemplar of nursing, it is appropriate to consider the usefulness of this research-as-praxis methodology to examine questions that emerge from within any nursing situation, and it is cogent to suggest that this research methodology would be applicable and appropriate for generating nursing knowledge using the broad expanse of nursing theoretical perspectives.
- Go to article: Posters: Mending Broken Hearts—The Lived Experience of Nurses Caring for Patients in a Heart Failure Clinic
This study was conducted to examine nurses’ perception of being cared for in the hospital work environment. a survey design was used with a modified questionnaire based on Watson’s caring theory. Physical needs, spiritual needs, intellectual stimulation, and authentic relationships were domains measured. Results indicated an overall perception of caring (5.27 on a 7-point scale). However, there is significant variation in perception of caring among units within the hospital. Additional research is recommended for tool refinement and the development of a language of caring to help promote more meaningful communication among staff and patients.
Nurse caring in hospital settings may be demonstrated without direct intention and without the language to express caring actions. Therefore, nursing students educated in a curriculum grounded in caring may not recognize the transformation of theory to the practice environment. This manuscript describes the baccalaureate student perspective of caring behaviors of nurse preceptors. Athematic analysis of unstructured, qualitative interview data revealed six themes: welcoming presence, demonstrating empathy, encouraging growth, patience and time as compassionate care, building relationships, and communicating therapeutically. In addition, students as role models and caring for each other emerged as themes related to student-student caring behaviors.
- Go to article: Distance Caring: Freshman and Sophomore Students’ Perceptions of Caring in an Interactive Television Course
The nursing shortage is increasing and on-line learning has become an attractive recruitment tool in a competitive marketplace. The study investigated current nursing students’ perceptions of their interactions with instructors in on-line nursing courses using the Organizational Climate of Caring Questionnaire (Hughes, 1993). Relationships with demographic factors of age, professional and on-line learning experience, and type of program were also explored. The outcomes of this study support the use of Watson’s human caring theory to facilitate the evolution of on-line nursing education pedagogy.
This study examined the relationship between caring and burnout in a sample of 888 registered nurses. The revised Caring Behaviors Inventory (Wolf, Giardino, Osborne, & Ambrose, 1994) was used to measure the dimensions of caring. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986) was used to measure the dimensions of burnout. Multiple regression analysis was conducted between each dimension of burnout and carative factors. Four carative factors were identified that affected a nurse’s level of burnout. These factors had the greatest impact on the burnout dimension of reduced personal accomplishment. Overall, increases in caring led to decreased burnout for this sample.
- Go to article: The Power and Possibilities of Self-Appreciative Caring: An Aesthetic Personal Journey
Nursing is a discipline of knowledge and a field of professional practice grounded in caring (Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing Philosophy, 2005). Simulation in nursing education generally does not take an approach that recognizes the unique individual who is dynamically interconnected with others and the environment in a caring relationship. The challenge has been to develop simulation scenarios that integrate and appreciate multiple ways of knowing in nursing. This paper describes a process for assuring that the learning of nursing using simulation technology is grounded in caring.
This paper explores caring within the context of healthcare access in vulnerable populations. Specifically, it connects how underserved status heightens an individual’s vulnerability to poor health. With the increase of disparities and inequalities that exist in the healthcare delivery system, implementation of caring and caring theory are examined as a plausible means to ameliorate the impact of inadequate healthcare coverage. Halldorsdottir’s (1996) theory of caring and uncaring encounters, within nursing and healthcare, from the patient’s perspective frames the discussion.
- Go to article: Caring:The Essence of Professional Nursing Practice and an Integral Component of the Magnet Journey
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate proficient first-line nurse leaders’ caring for the nursing staff. The study was undertaken in Benner and Wrubel’s caring framework. Ten leaders were interviewed and data were analyzed following a hermeneutic approach. Caring for the nursing staff was imperative for the leaders; it was a moral agency linked to an ambition to perform high-quality care. The ambition could be assistance in bedside care, dialoguing with the staff, or planning for staff development. Further studies are needed and proficient nurse leaders need opportunities to discuss their ways of caring for the staff.
Caring is an action that moves us to do something on behalf of a person in need and is usually associated with the person’s vulnerability. The present study presents the caring process in nursing and attempts to contribute to a better understanding of the experience that the caregiver and the cared for have in the hospital context. This paper aims to contribute to the practice of caring, as many elements of the process underline abilities, attitudes, and behaviors that should be observed when caring actions are conducted from a humanistic perspective.