This chapter helps the reader to understand how to use tools such as health behavior models, the media, coalitions, and needs assessments to bring a vision to fruition and how to use advocacy tools for policy and program development. It also helps them to understand how to use advocacy tools to influence the practice arena for older adults and people with disabilities. The chapter reviews the various tools and strategies, along with policies that have been addressed thus far, and integrate these issues and skills with one’s vision for either program planning or policy development. When considering program development, all tools and strategies related to policy development apply equally. Some additional strategies or tools to use for program development include the health behavior models. This chapter attempts to integrate the theories and concepts and suggest how a program planner or policy advocate can apply them.
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This chapter helps the reader to understand what a needs assessment is and be acquainted with a framework within which to conduct a needs assessment. and to be familiar with the core concepts of a needs assessment. It helps the reader to be familiar with strategies that encompass a needs assessment. Needs assessments can be carried out by a wide cast of people. Social workers and public health workers, as well as city planners, can carry out needs assessments, as can government organizations. Local citizens or groups of people can also be responsible for carrying out a needs assessment. The chapter provides an overview of strategies to develop a needs assessment. When used in combination with a health behavior framework, a needs assessment can help one determine the needs of a community and attempt to build community support for this resource or policy change through media advocacy and coalition building.
This chapter explores health promotion frameworks, to showcase their role vis-à-vis health policy and programs, and discusses three specific frameworks. Health promotion frameworks are theoretical conceptions of how health behavior can be addressed. These frameworks are conceives for the purpose of program and policy development. The health promotion frameworks are the health belief model (HBM), the theory of reasoned action, the transtheoretical model of stages of change. This chapter addresses these three questions; however, prior to discussing these questions and answers, it is essential to understand some well-known health promotion frameworks. Although a number of health promotion frameworks exist in the literature. It focuses on three that can be specifically applied to older adults. The chapter showcases use of health promotion frameworks in the program planning process for older adults can have a number of positive outcomes.
This chapter provides a backdrop to our current social security program and an overview of some models for social security programs in Europe and Canada. It explores the genesis of the social program in the United States. The chapter also explores contents of the original social security act (SSA) and compares the titles and programs mandated through the current SSA. It offers some guidelines for the current administration of the program, examines the debate around current proposals for revision, and reviews why these proposals are current issues for consideration. The chapter then presents the current social security system, which provides for older adults, but has also grown to cover dependent women and children. Although many people have argued for their vision to privatize the system, the reality is that there is much more political support to maintain the program as a safety net program rather than a means-tested program.
This chapter presents a brief overview of some legislative efforts within the mental health (MH) arena and examined their limitations and application with respect to older adults and people living with mental illness. The chapter also takes us through a journey to examine the current status of MH and older adults, with a particular emphasis on depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. It discusses and reviews the programs, services and issues still outstanding within the MH arena. The chapter helps the reader to understand specific components of the Community Mental Health Act and other MH-related legislation. Many of the community day hospital programs and community MH programs administered through the Community Mental Health Act are based on the deinstitutionalization paradigm since the goal is to treat people outside the institution and within community settings. It concludes with laying out some challenges for the future in the area of MH and older adults.