This chapter explores health promotion frameworks, to showcase their role vis-à-vis health policy and programs, and discusses three specific frameworks. Health promotion frameworks are theoretical conceptions of how health behavior can be addressed. These frameworks are conceives for the purpose of program and policy development. The health promotion frameworks are the health belief model (HBM), the theory of reasoned action, the transtheoretical model of stages of change. This chapter addresses these three questions; however, prior to discussing these questions and answers, it is essential to understand some well-known health promotion frameworks. Although a number of health promotion frameworks exist in the literature. It focuses on three that can be specifically applied to older adults. The chapter showcases use of health promotion frameworks in the program planning process for older adults can have a number of positive outcomes.
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This chapter briefly discusses the history of the Caregiver Support Act and its specific components and explains how the Caregiver Support Act provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. It provides an overview of the current status of family members serving as caregivers, with special attention to grandparents raising grandchildren. It then discusses a current profile of relative caregivers raising children in the United States; reasons for the increase in relative caregiving; and issues facing grandparents raising grandchildren. It also provides some background into the literature and promotes an awareness of issues that grandparents face as primary caregivers. A literature review examines some of the current issues and services needed. The chapter discusses resources and services designed to meet the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren, and reviews programmatic responses through the national resources. Finally, the chapter outlines some best practice interventions for review in the text.
This chapter helps the reader to understand the history of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), specific components of the ADA and how the ADA provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. The ADA, while groundbreaking, was not initially intended for people with disabilities rather than for older adults. As time progressed, however, the benefits of the ADA were much more far-reaching than originally intended, especially for aging adults with disabilities. The individual titles of the ADA have had some dramatically positive and specific impact for older adults wishing to remain in their homes or in their communities as long as possible. Although the ADA is still in its young adulthood, the benefits of the ADA have only grown as new and further linkages, such as the ADRCs, have developed in all regions of the United States.
This chapter presents a brief overview of some legislative efforts within the mental health (MH) arena and examined their limitations and application with respect to older adults and people living with mental illness. The chapter also takes us through a journey to examine the current status of MH and older adults, with a particular emphasis on depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. It discusses and reviews the programs, services and issues still outstanding within the MH arena. The chapter helps the reader to understand specific components of the Community Mental Health Act and other MH-related legislation. Many of the community day hospital programs and community MH programs administered through the Community Mental Health Act are based on the deinstitutionalization paradigm since the goal is to treat people outside the institution and within community settings. It concludes with laying out some challenges for the future in the area of MH and older adults.
This chapter focuses on sources of evidence for evidence-based policy development. It explores some of the dilemmas with developing an evidence base and provides a range of empirical sources within the aging and disabilities arenas that can be used in building an evidence-based approach to policy development. The journey, however, will not be without struggle—since philosophical paradigms, and social and economic factors will interface and play a role in the development of evidence-based policy. The chapter helps the reader to be aware of healthy people 2020 benchmarks that are used to guide program planning and policy development. Benchmarks currently have been established in order to identify where health goals for the nation and individual states should be, and the program is evaluated routinely by local and state health departments. Healthy people 2020 is also used to gauge the impact of health policy.
This chapter helps the reader to understand the history of the legislation related to substance use and misuse. It provides specific components of the Controlled Substances Act. The chapter discusses how legislation related to substance use and misuse provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. Since substance use/misuse is often perceived as “blaming the victim”, models of care and rehabilitation are often not taken into serious consideration. Prevention, screening, detection, and intervention strategies to meet the needs of baby boomers as they age will be another challenge. Evidence suggests that substance use has been on the rise for the population in general among people living in the community. The chapter reviews programs and services and issues. The chapter concludes by laying out some challenges for the future in the area of substance use and abuse among older adults and people with disabilities.