Clinical Nurse Specialists (
Clinical Nurse Specialists (
Clinical Nurse Specialists (
This chapter describes nurses’ care of acute and critically ill patients’ families, highlighting the clinical judgment and skill required for this important relational work. A crucial aspect of family care is ensuring that a family can be with their ill loved one, as family access promotes family cohesion, connection, and closure, fosters patient well-being and provides the family with information. Commonly cited rationales to limit family access include: concerns regarding patient stability, infection, rest, privacy, the effect of visitation on the family, space limitations and healthcare providers’ performance abilities. Encouraging family involvement in care giving activities is another essential aspect of family care, and can range from minor involvement to major involvement. An excerpt highlights some of the difficulties associated with shifting care giving responsibilities from healthcare providers to family members who may be unable to see other options.
This chapter focuses on behaviors, addiction, and eating disorders. These conditions play a major role in the recognition and treatment of obesity. The chapter identifies specific diseases in relation to the understanding of this complex issue. Behavior can be established at ages as early as toddlers or preschool age. This includes basic eating patterns. Development of good eating habits is further promoted by adult influence. The advanced practice nurse (APN) should provide education and encourage the patient and/or family to engage in the eating experience. If the APN suspects an eating disorder, proper referral to a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP), psychologist and/or psychiatrist, and/or treatment center can be considered. There are five examples of an eating disorder not otherwise specified by the DSM-IV criteria: atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, purging disorder, and night eating syndrome.
An initial psychological assessment should take place on the first appointment with the patient. This chapter focuses on tools that are useful for the advanced practice nurse (APN) in an outpatient clinic setting. Screening tools are one way for the APN to identify depression. Several screening tools exist for use in an outpatient setting. These include the Beck Depression Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Patient Health Questionnaire. Along with depression, the APN should also screen for a possible eating disorder. Patients may be sensitive about weight, so one should approach this subject with care. Motivational interviewing can be used to address weight, weight loss, and management. Motivational interviewing is a form of counseling that uses focused conversation in collaboration with the patient in order to strengthen his or her motivation toward a goal and commitment to change.
For graduate nurses and advanced practice nurses, the use of simulation is generally limited to acquiring various clinical skills or clinical management scenarios. Simulation is being used in the health care field to promote team training and nontechnical skills such as teamwork, communication, collaboration, and leadership. Recognizing the preference for simulation training by students and the reported increased learning and confidence in clinical skills, this chapter attempts to expand the use of simulation beyond clinical and teamwork skills into the management and administrative courses of graduate nursing education. Although incorporating simulation into the root cause analysis (RCA) process and error identification is increasing, its use in undergraduate and graduate nursing education is still limited. This chapter discusses the implementation of a hybrid simulation program for nonclinical skills, which was implemented in a graduate nursing class focused on quality, safety, and process improvement.
Critical thinking is required in performing an accurate physical assessment. Critical thinking encompasses analysis of data using the scientific knowledge base, experience, clinical competencies, attitude, and standard of care. These specific areas allow the advanced practice nurse (APN) to hone in on the health assessment and physical examination. Prior to the physical examination, a thorough health history needs to be taken. The health history or history of present illness (HPI) provides the patient’s reason for seeking out the APN and documents the chronological signs and symptoms of the problem from beginning to end. The APN should complete a head-to-toe physical assessment and review vitals and measurements. A complete physical examination for the obese patient should be similar to a normal physical examination with some slight variations. A head-to-toe physical examination includes four basic skills: inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
Though distant relatives to ethics, the policy and legal aspects of health care finance must underlie the doctor of nursing practice (DNP). This chapter discusses the key financial issues such as fraud, the cost of medical error and the cost of birth and death. The three key areas are not the only financial issues in which law, ethics, and public policy intersect, but ones that relate specifically to the DNP. Two principles, legal and ethical, define the scope of practice for the DNP and are fundamental to the ability for a DNP to remain a strong advocate in the development of health care policy. The chapter discusses eight essentials in relation to those two principles. Some of the essentials include: (1) scientific underpinnings for practice; (2) organizational and systems leadership for quality improvement and systems thinking; (3) clinical scholarship and analytical methods for evidence-based practice; and (4) advanced nursing practice.
This chapter addresses the indications and options with regard to bariatric surgery. Referring a patient for bariatric surgery can be one of the easiest as well as one of the toughest decisions for the advanced practice nurse (APN). The chapter defines the candidates for bariatric surgery as well as addresses the different surgical procedures available. Data in more recent years have shown evidence that bariatric surgery may be safe and effective for some adolescents and patients older than age 60 under certain conditions. Candidates should also be deemed acceptable surgical patients and present optimal operative risk. The APN plays a big role in assisting the bariatric care team prior to surgery. Several surgical options exist for those requesting surgery for weight loss. Surgical options can include laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), and BPD/duodenal switch (BPD-DS).
Disease management focuses on the concept of reducing health care costs while improving the quality of treatment for chronic diseases. Health improvement and cost containment are the focus of disease management. With disease management, the advance practice nurse (APN) works with other providers as well as with a health care team to provide the best overall care for the treatment of the overweight and/or obese individual and his or her comorbid conditions. A proactive approach with multidisciplinary providers is developed from evidence-based practice guidelines. Chronic disease management commonly includes diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma. APNs play an integral role in management of chronic disease. Although obesity is not identified as a chronic disease, it coexists with these diseases. A team approach and routine follow-up are essential for long-term success.
This book is a must-buy book, particularly for creating and integrating clinical simulations in nursing program. It presents step-by-step guidelines for nursing faculty to design, develop, and implement clinical simulation scenarios in diverse settings, with diverse patients, and for different levels of students, from the novice in a fundamentals course to the student in a senior-level critical care or capstone course, to a nurse practitioner in a graduate program. The book is organized into four parts: (a) setting the foundation, (b) innovative nursing scenarios in diverse settings for diverse students, (c) interdisciplinary and inter-professional scenarios, and (d) simulation journey containing fifty-six chapters. Part I provides an introduction to simulation-focused pedagogy with an explanation and updates on the Framework for Simulation Learning in Nursing Education©. Part II presents a collection of 27 exemplars divided into five key areas of specialty undergraduate nursing: (a) medical-surgical; (b) obstetric and pediatric; (c) older adult; (d) thematic scenarios on cultural humility, Quality and Safety Education in Nursing, and mental health; and (e) advanced practice nurses. Part III focuses on 16 scenarios that capture many of the key themes in nursing, including ethics, spirituality, palliative care, communication, and cultural humility. Part IV explores the continuing simulation journey in nursing education. The role of certification in simulation for nursing education has been updated to incorporate the changing landscape. It also presents a model for “writing across the curriculum” that focuses on how to write like a nurse in clinical simulation environments, support for publishing simulation work, and evolution of simulation and its integration in nursing curriculum and practice. The book provides concrete information about the use of simulation in a variety of programs, courses, and schools with flexible simulator uses, including static and live actors, and low-, medium-, and high-fidelity human patient simulators.