Depression is a chronic, recurring disorder that impacts children’s academic, interpersonal, and family functioning. The heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be in the range of 31% to 42%. This chapter begins with a brief overview of the etiology of depression. It presents a description of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed to be delivered in a group format, an individual interpersonal intervention, and an individual behavioral activation (BA) intervention that includes a great deal of parental involvement. The ACTION program is a manualized program that is based on a cognitive behavioral model of depression. There are four primary treatment components to ACTION: affective education, coping skills training (BA), problem-solving training, and cognitive restructuring. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of universal therapeutic techniques to be incorporated into work with depressed youth regardless of the therapeutic orientation or treatment strategy.
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- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Eating disorders (EDs) are a complex and comparatively dangerous set of mental disorders that deeply affect the quality of life and well-being of the child or adolescent who is struggling with this problem as well as those who love and care for him or her. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) outlines specific criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or ED. Treatment of eating disordered behavior typically involves a three-facet approach: medical assessment and monitoring, nutritional counseling, and psychological and behavioral treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are also evidence-based approaches to treatment for AN. The treatment of EDs should be viewed as a team effort that integrates medical, nutritional, and mental health service providers.
Asthma, a pulmonary condition, is a chronic respiratory disorder typified by persistent underlying inflammation of tissues, airway obstruction, congestion, hyperresponsive airways, and the narrowing of smooth airway muscle. Asthma is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in children and is the leading cause of school absenteeism. This chapter describes childhood asthma, including its causes and triggers. It elucidates the extant research supporting treatment of the disorder and provides step-by-step empirically based interventions to ameliorate asthmatic symptomatology in children. The psychological underpinnings of asthma have been investigated in the field of psycho-neuroimmunology (PNI), which examines the interplay of the central nervous system, neuroendocrine, and immune system with psychological variables and their relation to physical health. Researchers have shown that relaxation and guided imagery (RGI), written emotional expression, yoga, and mindfulness therapy improve pulmonary lung functioning, decrease rates of absenteeism, and improve overall quality of life.
The most challenging and arguably most important part of any assessment is the diagnostic formulation and recommendations for intervention. This chapter explains clinical decision making and diagnostic formulation using a developmental systems approach (DSA) that is based on developmental bioecological theory. It provides suggestions for organizing assessment data and methods for thinking about the data in order to formulate the case systemically. The chapter discusses key issues involved in linking assessment with academic and psychosocial intervention. It reviews the knowledge, strategies, skills, and attitudes that are essential competencies for psychologists who conduct assessments with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents. Assessments and intervention with CLD children and adolescents are both challenging and rewarding. Psychologists who work with these children and families effectively have a set of attitudes that stimulate them to find information and research, as well as develop effective strategies.
Many developmental models view human growth from a space of lack or abundance, a perpetual fulcrum swinging from the word survive at one end to thrive at the other. This chapter discusses Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory of human development to conceptualize female adolescent and young adult development. The contextual focus of this theory provides a global framework for counselors to view young women as individuals who both influence, and are influenced by, their surroundings. Customs, beliefs, and the government all play a role in the development of children and adolescents. When young females overcome the stigma associated with mental health services, they typically seek treatment in one of two primary settings: community mental health centers and schools. Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that views connection to others as essential to growth and disconnection as a major cause of disrupted functioning.
This chapter presents the best measures for resilience and community protection for some of the social determinants of digital diseases in the future for further discussion with families, school workers, and allied health professionals. It suggests that high levels of resilience may prevent development of mental health problems, like depression, stress, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, supporting the suggestion that fostering resilience may prevent development of mental health problems in adolescents. The chapter presents a case report of a 14-year-old, brought to consultation by his mother, who has been worried about his weight. This case report points out how important it is to build up resilience skills through the development of caring and supportive relationships within and outside the family. The chapter suggests a four-pronged approach to prevent the excessive use and the problems associated with the Internet. It includes regulatory, parental, educational, and technological approaches.
One of the emerging approaches to explaining the normative spike in adolescent risk-taking, with delinquent/antisocial behavior as one expression, is based on recent advances in developmental neuroscience. Brain imaging studies have identified two main processes for which co-occurrence in the healthy adolescent brain directly impacts delinquent behavior. The first neuropsychosocial process implicated in heightened risk-taking involves sudden and dramatic changes in activity in the limbic system that coincides with puberty. The second process is associated with a developing ability to self-regulate behavior that continues to mature into the early 20s. Mindfulness meditation may be an effective method for reducing delinquency in juvenile justice involved youth because of its association with increases in self-regulation. The juvenile justice system was built on the argument that children and youth are less culpable for criminal and delinquent behavior than adults, making adolescence a mitigating circumstance in determining the state’s response to youth criminality.
This chapter presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses the linguistic and cultural issues to consider when assessing children and adolescents from diverse backgrounds, with a major focus on immigrants and refugees. It addresses research on the typical developmental trajectory of language and literacy of children and adolescents who must learn in a language that is not the language of their home, and the implications of that research for distinguishing whether their learning difficulties are due to inadequate proficiency in the societal language or due to a learning disability. The book describes the methods for assessing children and adolescents’ oral language proficiency (OLP) in their first and second languages. It then discusses the issues involved and methods for assessing intelligence, academic achievement, and behavioral, social, and emotional functioning.
Psychological Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children and Adolescents:A Practitioner’s Guide
This book is intended for school and clinical psychologists who work with children and adolescents, as well as for graduate students who are taking advanced courses in psychological assessment or the assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse children and adolescents. The strategies described in the book are based on up-to-date research on typical cognitive, language, emotional, and social development of culturally and linguistically diverse children and adolescents, including those who are studying in their second language; cultural differences and acculturation; culturally based perspectives on disabilities and disorders; and disorders that might develop due to the challenges experienced by some immigrants and refugees. It discusses demographic, socioeconomic, policy-related, and educational contexts of cultural and linguistic diversity that pertain to the academic achievement of children of immigrants and refugees and other marginalized groups in countries that have high levels of immigration. The book addresses research on the typical developmental trajectory of language and literacy of children and adolescents who must learn in a language that is not the language of their home. It describes methods for assessing children and adolescents’ oral language proficiency (OLP) in their first and second languages, and discusses the issues involved and methods for assessing intelligence, academic achievement, and behavioral, social, and emotional functioning. Strategies for communicating assessment results to culturally and linguistically diverse children and adolescents and to their parents, teachers, physicians, and other professionals who work with them as well as consultation, advocacy, and report writing issues are also described.
This chapter provides an orientation to the critical issues, history, trends, policies, programs, and intervention strategies of the juvenile justice system. It reviews the types, functions, and legal responsibilities of the various juvenile justice agencies and institutions. The chapter describes the case flow within the juvenile justice system. It also discusses systems of care in juvenile justice, and specialized assessment and treatment issues with adolescents, including sexually abusive youth. It explores the foundation and groundwork for the study of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice system while delineating the legal definitions of juvenile status offenses and juvenile delinquency, examining the nine steps in the juvenile justice case-flow process. The chapter also gives attention to systems of care, the link between trauma and delinquency, as well as the assessment and treatment considerations for forensic social workers when addressing the specialized needs of juveniles in the justice system.
Studies have evaluated the usefulness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) following disaster events finding that this approach could be effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms. EMDR has been reported as effective in the treatment of children following a hurricane in Hawaii. Group therapy is a well-proven form of treatment for traumatized children and adolescents. The EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) was developed by members of AMAMECRISIS when they were overwhelmed by the extensive need for mental health services after Hurricane Pauline ravaged the western coast of Mexico in 1997. This protocol combines the Standard EMDR Treatment Phases 1 through 8. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims ages 7 to 50 +.
Assessment of intelligence and diagnosis of intellectual disability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents are controversial and challenging. This chapter discusses some of these controversial and challenging issues, and describes methods of assessing intelligence in CLD children and adolescents, that is, individuals whose language and cultural backgrounds are significantly different from the normative group of most standardized Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. It addresses several issues that psychologists need to consider when evaluating intelligence, including developing rapport; fluid and crystallized intelligence; adaptive behavior; using IQ tests to establish IQ/achievement discrepancies to diagnose learning disabilities; and determining when to use formal IQ tests. The chapter then turns to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of assessment techniques, including several types of intelligence tests, and offers alternative approaches for evaluating intelligence that can help to overcome some of the difficulties, including modifying test administration, dynamic assessment, and ecological assessment.
Working with justice-involved youth and employment-related services requires a wide range of social work and systems knowledge, skills, and expertise. This chapter enhances understanding of the role employment services play in forensic social work with youth. It presents relevant findings from recent research on employment services for justice-involved youth and their effects on recidivism. The chapter discusses the targeted programs and services for justice-involved youth, providing case examples and discussion of how social workers assist this population, and the skills required for effective intervention. It also provides a basic understanding for how employment services fit within the system. The chapter aims to connect research with real-life examples. It outlines two of the ways inequality and oppression impact juvenile justice and employment. The chapter also discusses two evidence-based employment intervention strategies that are available to justice-involved youth in New York.
This chapter presents an overview of intrapsychic theories, cognitive theories, behavioral and environmental theories, biological theories, and integrative theories. Past ideas about the nature of adolescent development serve as foundations for current adolescent developmental theories. In many ways, the adolescent years are the culmination of childhood; hence, in order to truly understand adolescence a review of what happens in the years leading up to adolescence can help clarify the nature of adolescents. Although the early biological process of puberty begins to develop several years before adolescence, in Freud’s theory puberty and adolescence are considered roughly equivalent. Adolescents experience a reawakening of and an obsession with sexuality. Studies indicate that occurrences of eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive patterns, and self-reports of same-sex attraction surface during the adolescent years as a result of the reawakening of the underlying subconscious conflicts.
This chapter describes family, friends and enemies, dating and love, tv and media, technology and cyberbullying. Children with close family relationships during middle childhood are more likely to have closeness in these relationships during adolescence than those with detached family relationships during middle childhood. Studies indicate that adolescents with high levels of parental monitoring are less likely to engage in problem behaviors than those with little or no parental monitoring. Many adolescents have little or no conflict, and those with elevated levels of conflict are often experiencing other difficulties in their lives such as substance abuse or depression. The way in which adolescents engage in victimization shifts from primarily physical aggression, which is more common during middle childhood, to social or relational bullying. An additional aspect of the reorganization of an adolescent’s social network discussed earlier involves a shakeup of the peer group to include more cross-sex interactions.
Many clinicians and researchers who work with adolescents classify the adolescent problems into two general categories of difficulties: externalizing problems and internalizing problems. Externalizing problems are difficulties that affect the external world of adolescents, such as drug abuse, delinquency, and engaging in risky behaviors. The adolescent who is abusing drugs is likely to also be engaged in risky sexual behaviors and delinquency. The discovery of and experimentation with drugs are common for adolescents and vary primarily from socially acceptable and legal drugs such as caffeine, cigarettes, and alcohol to socially rejected and illegal drugs, ranging from marijuana to heroin and cocaine. Unfortunately, adolescents often do not think that drug abuse is harmful, despite the fact that both alcohol consumption and marijuana use have short-term and long-term negative effects. However, sexuality during adolescence has the potential to become a serious health concern.
This chapter describes the overall health, sleep and diet and nutrition. The importance of focusing on health promotion during adolescence is apparent when considering that close to two-thirds of premature deaths in adulthood can be attributed to unhealthy lifestyle choices made in the adolescent years. The approach adolescents take to their overall physical health is driven by competing cognitive forces producing behaviors that sometimes seem contradictory. Boys tend to exercise more often than girls, and girls are more likely to engage in healthy eating habits in comparison to boys. The adolescent years are an opportunity to develop healthy eating patterns that can carry into adulthood. Family is also important in helping adolescents develop healthy eating patterns. Close to 80% of obese adolescents continue to be obese throughout their adult years, with many of them eventually having to contend with serious health issues such as heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
This chapter describes the external and internal physical changes and the brain. The hormonal changes of puberty initiate drastic growth in the body and organs of adolescents. Recent advances in brain-imaging technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans have contributed greatly to understanding of brain development in adolescence. Similar to what happens during infancy, the early adolescent’s brain begins a process of overproduction, which is an increase in neural connections in the brain’s gray matter. The development of gray matter follows a pattern of maturation from the back of the brain to the front of the brain. By eliminating unused synapses the adolescent brain becomes more efficient and is able to process mental functioning at an accelerated speed. The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped structure in the midbrain charged with emotional expression.
This chapter describes the interacting forces, understanding the self, identity and emotions. It examines adolescent self and identity, which will serve as a basis for understanding much about the social and emotional world of adolescents. The adolescent years bring with them the long process of departing childhood and emerging into adulthood. Similar to many aspects of development during adolescence that proceed somewhat differently based on gender, males and females differ in the process of self-exploration and identity formation as well. Sexual experimentation is common during adolescence as part of this gender identity struggle. An inability to develop a mature ethnic identity may entail denying one’s culture of origin, whereas a healthy identity process may result in adolescents who are proud of both their culture of origin and the culture they find themselves in currently.
The adolescent stage of life does not occur in isolation from other developmental stages. When an adolescent is experiencing difficulties with parents and friends leading to feelings of sadness, studies of average adolescents and their natural propensity toward difficulties during the adolescent years can help us assess whether this particular adolescent’s problems go beyond the norm. Understanding normative adolescent development can help clarify for professionals working with teens if the issue they encounter with a client is clinical or developmental. The majority of the time, when a teen is experiencing sadness it is an expression of a normal part of the adolescent experience. Understanding normal adolescent development can help in making the types of determinations thoughtfully, without jumping to conclusions and over diagnosing adolescents with major depression when all they are experiencing is a normal developmental process.
This chapter describes Piaget’s formal operational stage, thinking in context, and educating adolescents. According to Piaget, during the formal operations stage adolescents advance in their ability to assess questions in scientific ways. Engaging in hypothetico-deductive reasoning does not just occur when adolescents are trying to solve complex questions about math and science. Adolescents have the ability to manipulate and talk about concepts such as love, the future, and God in very tangible ways. Adolescents develop perspective taking, which is the ability to understand the thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of others. In order for adolescents to be successful at social interactions, in which they will be engaged quite often, they need to understand other people. Adolescents value the ability to make independent decisions and consider this to be an integral part of the transition into adulthood.
This chapter describes the beginning of puberty, the timing of puberty and off-time puberty. Puberty is marked by striking differences between the physical development of males and females. The puberty process is an illustration of the magnificent way in which multiple systems in the body interact to produce growth. Puberty is initiated in the hypothalamus, an almond-sized structure in an area of the limbic system called the midbrain. As a child nears the adolescent years, and a threshold level of body fat is reached, fat cells produce the hormone leptin, which provides the signal to the hypothalamus to begin the puberty process. Parents, teachers, or mental health personnel should prompt discussions about the emotions linked with having the first period, feelings connected with the rite of passage of menarche, and the mixed feelings associated with puberty, such as the combination of embarrassment and pride.
Peer aggression is a pervasive and costly problem in schools. Physical aggression, which consists of hitting or pushing others, and verbal aggression, which includes threatening, name-calling, and teasing, have long been recognized as the most common forms of aggression, especially among boys. All forms of aggressive behavior have been associated with various maladaptive outcomes throughout childhood and adolescence such as increased substance use, academic underachievement, and negative peer relationships. To determine best-practice strategies to prevent and intervene with aggressive behavior, it is crucial to understand the etiology of anger and aggression. Many aggression prevention programs are rooted in the ecological framework of development, with programming occurring across many settings in the school, and include both school staff and parents. Coping power; walk away, ignore, talk, seek help (WITS); and preventing relational aggression in schools everyday (PRAISE) are three evidence-based interventions that focus on aggression and victimization prevention.
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has been associated with a number of negative behavioral, academic, and interpersonal outcomes for children and adolescents. It initially received a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. High rates of comorbid anxiety disorders have also been found in children with PBD. Psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) uses a biopsychosocial model and combines family therapy, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques with the goal of helping families to better understand and manage the symptoms of PBD and coordinate more effective treatment. This chapter focuses on a description of PEP, including three key interventions of this therapeutic approach: Psychoeducation and Motto, Building a Tool Kit, and Thinking-Feeling-Doing. PEP is a manual-based treatment designed for youth with mood disorders and their caregivers, broken down into separate youth and caregiver sessions. Sessions focus primarily on psychoeducation and skills building and are delivered in individual family (IF-PEP) and multiple family formats (MF-PEP).
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
The content of the obsessions and compulsions varies among individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, there are five themes that are commonly experienced across both children and adults: contamination, symmetry/ordering, forbidden or taboo thoughts, harm, and hoarding. Notably, OCD becomes more gender balanced into adolescence and adulthood. Comorbid diagnoses are common among youth with OCD. Common comorbid disorders include anxiety disorders, tic disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and major depressive disorder. The etiology of OCD is multidetermined with behavioral, cognitive, genetic, and biological factors being implicated. This chapter describes three successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions: CBT with exposure and response prevention (ERP), family-based CBT with ERP, and cognitive therapy interventions that can be used in conjunction with ERP. Treatment guidelines for pediatric OCD suggest the most efficacious treatment is CBT with ERP, either alone or in combination with pharmaco-therapy for the most severe cases.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Treating emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents is a complex issue; that is, practitioners must understand children’s typical patterns of social, emotional, and cognitive development and determine what is responsible for having taken the referred child off that “normal” path. Most children identified as socially maladjusted benefit from treatment and schooling provided in alternative education classes. Social maladjustment has historically also been synonymous with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and oppositional-defiant disorder. The diathesis-stress model is the balance between stressors and coping that accounts for the onset and continuation of mental health and other medical disorders. Three psychosocial intervention approaches are effective for all youth with conduct problems: parent training, contingency management, and cognitive behavioral skill training. As skills develop and stabilize, interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence form emotional intelligence.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Persistent Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Depression in children and adolescents is a serious, potentially life-threatening problem. Traditionally, depression has been diagnosed using two primary categories: major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymic disorder (DD). When compared with youth diagnosed with MDD, children and adolescents with persistent depressive disorder (PDD) are at increased risk for having a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common treatments of depression include various forms of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychotropic medication. This chapter provides summary of the step-by-step implementation of IPT for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Many youth struggle with chronic, sometimes debilitating depression for extended periods of time, leading to underachievement, secondary substance abuse, school failure and drop-out, violent or self-harming behavior, and even death by suicide. Clearly, evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions are needed.
This chapter reviews the research on expect respect, second step, and the recognize, understand, label, express, and regulate emotions (RULER) program, curricula with outcome data from US schools for step-by-step implementation by mental health professionals in the hopes of ameliorating this serious epidemic and enhancing the academic, behavioral, social, and emotional functioning of children and adolescents. School bullying and peer victimization are pervasive phenomena that affect many youth. Bullying may inflict harm or distress on the targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. Direct bullying is a relatively open aggressive act on the targeted youth, whereas indirect bullying is not directly communicated to the student being targeted. Moreover, physical, verbal, relational, and damage to property have been identified as specific forms or dimensions of bullying. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is an evidence-based framework for reducing a wide variety of problem behavior in school settings.
Many children experience the death of someone close to them before the age of 18 years. This chapter reviews the effects of bereavement on children’s functioning and the risk and protective factors that exacerbate or mitigate grief-related problems. It provides step-by-step instructions for two evidence-based interventions for school-aged children and adolescents. Childhood traumatic grief refers to a condition in which children develop trauma-related symptoms that interfere with their ability to appropriately mourn a death. The Family Bereavement Program (FBP) is a theory-based intervention for parentally bereaved children and their surviving caregivers. The child component focuses on increasing self-esteem, reducing negative appraisals of stressful events, strengthening youths’ relationships with their caregivers, strengthening coping skills, and increasing adaptive emotional expression. The Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) is commonly implemented in schools and community-based settings after children’s exposure to a traumatic, violent, or disastrous event.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injuries and Concussions in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injuries and Concussions in Children and Adolescents
This chapter discusses methods, procedures, and interventions that have been successful in working with children and adolescents with Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and/or concussions and for which there is empirical and clinical support. It provides empirically supported treatments that may be implemented in schools and clinics for youths with TBIs. TBIs are insults that occur from an event external to the individual. These can include open or closed head injuries and are often classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The majority of TBIs in childhood are closed head injuries and involve rapid acceleration, deceleration, and/or rotation of the head in space without impact with the skull. The level of severity depends on the physical and cognitive deficits associated with the injury. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a commonly used scoring system used to assess the severity of acute brain injury.
This book provides useful empirical information about male juvenile delinquents and serves as a model training manual for new programs and people working in existing rehabilitation programs. It also provides guidelines for developing policy on the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents. The book can be used as a resource for academicians and others who teach courses on juvenile delinquency and assigned as a supplementary textbook for students learning about juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice, and mental health. The authors of the book take a multidisciplinary approach that will appeal to everyone who thinks about juvenile delinquency: politicians, judges, police, teachers, clinicians, social workers, educators, and students of criminology, criminal justice, juvenile delinquency, family violence, sociology, psychology, and counseling. This approach appeals to undergraduate students in liberal arts programs that require them to take courses in multiple disciplines, and to graduate students in the mental health fields whose undergraduate training varies. The book also consists of six case histories of boys who resided at Ocean Tides. The information was culled from their files, the clinical consultant’s interviews with the boys when they were in residence, and aftercare information. These cases were selected to provide a sampling of the Ocean Tides boys; their backgrounds, personal, and psychological hurdles; and the outcome of their experience at Ocean Tides.
Homework completion is viewed as a beneficial contributor to student learning and to the fundamental personal characteristics that underpin student academic behavior. This chapter promotes a greater understanding of the benefits of homework compliance while providing evidence-based expectations for appropriate homework loads, special education use of homework, and best practices in homework compliance management. It provides readers with empirically supported strategies for helping parents and teachers maximize the benefits of student homework completion, while reducing parental and student angst associated with compliance enforcement. The chapter offers an approach to promoting collaboration between school personnel and parents to enhance students’ academic competence using a multifaceted, school-based problem-solving model. Homework serves four primary instructional purposes: practice, preparation, extension, and integration. To augment the retention and learning of classroom material, numerous research-based interventions and strategies have been designed to enhance homework performance in children and adolescents.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health conditions to impact school-aged children. A particular diagnostic subtype termed “separation anxiety disorder” accounts for the majority of referrals seen within child and adolescent psychological service delivery systems including schools. The developmental connection between childhood separation anxiety disorder and adolescent/ adult panic disorder has also been well documented in the literature. Associated features of separation anxiety include parent-child dysfunction, school attendance difficulties, and challenges to social functioning. Biological and environmental factors play a role in the development of separation anxiety disorder. Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with separation anxiety disorder include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family therapy, pharmacological treatments, or a combination of these biopsychosocial therapies. Parental behaviors and parenting style are associated with increased risk for childhood anxiety, including separation anxiety disorder.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents
This chapter presents an overview of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence, including how symptoms may present and what factors are associated with risk of developing PTSD. It provides a review of the research literature and a step-by-step guide for practice for two empirically validated treatments for youth PTSD. The symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four clusters: intrusion symptoms, avoidance symptoms, cognition and mood symptoms, and arousal and reactivity symptoms. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) was initially developed to address trauma associated with child sexual abuse and has subsequently been adapted for use with children who have experienced other trauma types. Research indicates that TF-CBT is effective in treating PTSD, depression, and related behavioral problems in children exposed to traumatic events. The chapter provides a step-by-step breakdown of TF-CBT and Prolonged Exposure for Adolescents (PE-A) interventions, including descriptions of core components and standard implementation practices.
School violence as an identified topic of public policy and scientific research emerged in the 1990s out of a more general concern about adolescents’ involvement in violent crime and the occurrence of multiple victim homicides occurring on school campuses. This chapter aims to depict school violence intervention as a broad topic that requires comprehensive and integrated thinking about the behaviors and experiences within schools that should be considered as forms of “violence”. Social disorganization theory contends that an individual’s risk for involvement in problem behavior and perceptions of the environment are influenced by contextual variables suggestive of disorder. The Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence, proposed an integrated pathway to safer schools, guided by four key elements: Balance, Communication, Connectedness, and Support (BCCS). The chapter provides the key components for implementing school-based interventions guided by the BCCS integrated model.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Written-Language Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Writing is a fundamental communication skill that is important for everyday success. Children and adolescents use written language to communicate their thoughts, ideas, and knowledge to teachers in school; send messages to friends; write papers and reports; and engage in expository writing activities. Writing is an exceptionally complex task composed of multiple processes. Theories of writing development recognize three stages of writing, including planning or prewriting, drafting or composing, and revising or editing phases. This chapter focuses on writing instruction/intervention and student motivation. Effective writing instruction relies on evidence-based instructional approaches for developing and increasing writing skills related to planning, drafting, and revising tasks. In addition, it is important to consider student motivation as a primary reason for students not demonstrating success with written-language tasks. Self-monitoring has been shown to increase students’ academic engagement during writing as well as improve the writing performance of students with learning disabilities.
This chapter discusses the impact of gender-role socialization and stereotypes on the development of preadolescent girls. From a very early age, society influences girls’ expectations of themselves, including perceptions of their bodies, competence, and career endeavors. Mental health professionals are in an important position to help empower young girls with contextual awareness and the tools to value their own voices and strength. The chapter explores the sociocultural context of child development. Play is one of the most important avenues through which children begin communicating and understanding the world. Exploring contextual factors (e.g., power structures, gender-role socialization) and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., relationally aggressive behavior) that may be contributing to disempowerment and relational struggles may help girls minimize self-blame and separate their worth from victimizing gender-based societal messages. Modeling from parents, an integral part of children’s learning processes, is especially influential in career development.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Promoting Subjective Well-Being in Children and Adolescents
Perceived quality of life is shaped by internal beliefs and social interactions. There is empirical support for the dual nature of emotions in mental health, both among adults and youth. Although many well-being studies have focused on adults, research over the past two decades has examined subjective well-being (SWB) in school-aged youth. There are empirically validated SWB promotion strategies that warrant attention. This chapter provides an overview of a number of these programs and strategies that have been used to foster youths’ positive SWB, with a particular focus on school-based practices. It describes the benefits of SWB among youth, describes specific domains that have been addressed vis-à-vis SWB promotion strategies and summarizes multicomponent programs and narrowband strategies that have been shown to promote SWB levels. The chapter concludes with a description of the factors to consider when implementing efforts to foster SWB and provides key resources to support these efforts.
Stress is a ubiquitous experience in the lives of children and adolescents, regardless of the schools they attend, their families’ income, or the neighborhood in which they live. There is clear evidence correlating low socioeconomic status (SES) with increases in exposure to violence and other traumatic and stressful experiences. Gender and age also are important factors to consider as related to the amount and type of stress experienced by youth. The three main allo-static systems involved in physiologic reactions to stress include the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system. "Zippy’s Friends" is a school-based mental health promotion and intervention program for younger students in Kindergarten through first grade. The Zippy’s Friends program encourages students to understand their feelings and behavior that facilitates self-reliance and self-confidence. The three strategies of coping skill training, stress management, and mindfulness all show promise for very young children to high school students.
A consensus among professionals and the general population holds that helping children develop healthy self-concepts is a worthwhile goal. This chapter describes how healthy self-concepts are developed naturally and remediated through evidence-based interventions. Interventions for enhancing self-concept require a sound working theory, receptive and informed participants, thoughtful planning, and treatment fidelity. This chapter provides the reader with the theory and methodology to develop positive self-concepts in children and adolescents. There are a number of factors and models of self-concept that describe different factors contributing to self-concept development. The prominent models include cognitive and behavioral orientations, each with related contributing factors. People receive environmental feedback on their behavior or attributes from two feedback modes or perspectives-personal perspective and other perspective. The feedback individuals receive can be evaluated according to four standards include the absolute, comparative, ipsative, and ideal.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Tourette’s and Other Chronic Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Tourette’s and Other Chronic Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) lists two chronic tic disorder diagnoses, namely, persistent motor or vocal tic disorder (PMVTD) and Tourette’s disorder (TD). Both disorders require symptom onset before age 18 years and require the clinician to rule out alternative causes of tics, including substance abuse and other medical conditions. Tics may be categorized as either simple or complex. Children with tic disorders may be most impaired by comorbid conditions and associated features, including deficient social skills, sleep problems, anxiety and/or depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. A review conducted in 2007 found that only two approaches—habit reversal therapy (HRT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP)-have adequate evidence to treat tic disorders and TD. Tourette’s disorder and other chronic tic disorders are childhood-onset conditions characterized by sudden, involuntary movements or vocalizations.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Elimination Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Enuresis and Encopresis
Evidence-Based Interventions for Elimination Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Enuresis and Encopresis
Elimination disorders in children, including encopresis as well as nocturnal and diurnal enuresis, are common causes of concern for parents. Although these toileting problems are often grouped together when discussing child and adolescent behavioral and health interventions, their etiology, associated complications, and recommended interventions are diverse enough that for the purposes of adequately describing intervention programs for each, this chapter addresses one of the three elimination disorders. Diurnal enuresis, also referred to as “daytime enuresis” or “daytime urinary incontinence”, is characterized by typically involuntary daytime wetting. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in children decreases as children grow older. There are two types of nocturnal enuresis: primary and secondary. Toileting difficulties are common concerns of parents of young children. It is fortunate that there are intervention programs based largely on behavioral principles that can be implemented by parents either alone or with guidance from a clinician.
This book incorporates an inclusive representation of women and girls across ages and cultures by examining the intersection of their identities and integrating experiences of women and girls around the world. The overarching themes of the book include an examination of the contextual elements that affect the female experience and a focus on prevention and intervention strategies to support the empowerment of women and girls throughout their life spans. The first section of the book provides a foundation for the book and offers a context for understanding gender socialization and the female experience. This section includes chapters introducing empowerment feminist therapy, gender socialization, intersectionality, and relational-cultural theory. The second section offers detailed information on developmental issues and counseling interventions for women and girls throughout their life spans. Chapters focusing on gender identity development, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and middle and older adulthood are included in this section. The third section provides an in-depth look at specific issues affecting women and girls and includes relevant background information and practical application for counselors. In this concluding section, readers will learn about violence against women and girls, educational and work environments, females and their bodies, and engaging men as allies. Each chapter includes helpful resources to further educate yourself and others, as well as practical suggestions for advocacy efforts that can help create social change. Prevention and empowerment are key themes and foci of the book, and counseling implications and interventions are offered for each area of concentration.
Childhood and adolescent obesity is widely recognized as a significant public health concern in the United States. This chapter reviews factors contributing to obesity’s etiology, including individual-, family-, and societal/community-level factors. Although societal factors contribute substantially to obesity’s etiology, the chapter focuses on psychological interventions, primarily targeting factors at the individual and family levels. Evidence-based treatments for obesity include behavioral strategies such as stimulus control, modification of physical and sedentary activities, as well as dietary prescriptions. Overweight and obesity in childhood may result in a wide range of negative physical health problems as well as psychosocial concerns across the life course. The energy balance model, which focuses on achieving an energy deficient state in order to produce weight loss, forms the basis of nearly all weight-loss interventions. Pediatric behavioral weight management interventions exist in many permutations and typically include some combination of contact with the child patient and adult caregiver.
A specific phobia is characterized by an excessive and persistent fear of a specific object or situation that almost always provokes a negative avoidant response. Treatment of specific phobias in children is particularly important because phobias may persist over the course of a lifetime, and may result in other disorders such as anxiety, mood, and substance-use problems. Heritability is thought to play a modest but significant role in the development of specific phobias, with up to one third of the variance of specific phobias explained by genetic factors. This chapter discusses cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and one-session treatment (OST), a specific variant of CBT, as well as the role parents may play in the treatment process. It briefly comments on systematic desensitization, which has historically been used to treat specific phobias in children and adolescents.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by chronic problems with noncompliance and defiance, antagonism, and irritability, typically having an onset in early childhood. Significantly, they are at increased risk of comorbid depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conduct disorder (CD). Leadbeater and colleagues examined ODD symptoms from adolescence through young adulthood and found further support for differences in developmental trajectories for men and women. The comorbidity of ODD with behavioral and affective disorders appears to be accounted for by the aforementioned dimensions among the symptoms of ODD. Theories of the development of ODD have focused on parenting practices and/or parent-child relationships. Genetics plays a role in ODD, including behavioral problems and coexisting internalizing difficulties, such as anxiety and depression.
This chapter describes the importance of individual differences and the importance of identifying a person’s strengths in addition to their problems or deficits. The goal is to assess the adolescent’s unique personality characteristics that can contribute to helping him change his behavior rather than focus on only assessing psychopathology and reaching a diagnosis. The notion of individual differences, that every person is a unique individual, is one of the foundations of modern psychology. The chapter focuses on the problems and troublesome nature of talking with these youngsters. It provides both rationales and practical strategies for conducting interviews that are useful for rehabilitation plans with court-adjudicated adolescent male juvenile delinquents. Juvenile delinquents present a special challenge to the professional mental health interviewer. A successful interview is defined by the types and amount of information revealed that is useful for treatment and rehabilitation.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with significant academic and/ or social impairment over time and across settings. Children and adolescents with ADHD are more likely to repeat a grade, to be referred and identified for special education services, suspended, and drop out of school relative to students without disabilities. There is no single risk factor that fully accounts for the development of ADHD. This chapter elucidates the potential causal variables that have been identified, including neurobiological factors, hereditary influences, and environmental toxins. The neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, which are especially prevalent in the prefrontal cortex, seem to play a pivotal role in the development of ADHD. Self-monitoring is a commonly used intervention strategy for students with ADHD that is couched within self-regulation interventions. The most effective treatments are central nervous system (CNS)-stimulant medications, behavior modification, academic interventions, and self-regulation strategies.
Play therapy has been recognized in the counseling profession as a developmentally appropriate model for working with children and adolescents. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to structured, prescriptive approaches to play therapy to those desiring to gain more information and knowledge about the use of different directive play therapy modalities. It introduces the unique integration of play therapy and different theoretical models and encompasses the essential concepts and practices of directive play therapy. Most importantly, the book shares some guidelines for planning and selecting toys and materials for a directive approach. It also incorporates settings and skills necessary for effective implementation and addresses common questions asked about the use of these. The book provides the exploration and detailed description of various theoretical approaches to directive play therapy: post-Jungian directive sandtray in play therapy, solution-focused play therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and play therapy, directive play therapy techniques in trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, child parent relationship therapy, creativity in play therapy using technology, directive filial therapy models with very young children, humanistic sandtray therapy with children and adults, and directive approaches to working with parents. The distinctive techniques and processes of each of these approaches are explained. Finally, case examples are given to demonstrate their application and implementation.
This chapter presents over 100 interventions using art, drama, music, writing, dance, and movement that school counselors can easily incorporate into their practices with individual students and groups, and in classroom settings. These creative interventions, based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model framework, support the key student domains of academic, career, and personal/social development. The chapter provides a wider variety of modalities as well as easy-to-follow step-by-step instructions for each intervention. It focuses on drama-based interventions in the career domain. The career domain activity is designed to be utilized in the working phase of small school counseling groups aimed at career exploration and development with adolescents. Providing a creative atmosphere, this activity encourages adolescents to explore, develop, and articulate career goals during single or multiple group sessions.