Despite the growing attention in the literature addressing the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender (LBGT) youth and family acceptance, few researchers are examining these experiences in the relational context of being a grandchild or how grandparent–grandchild relationships enhance or hinder LGBT grandchildren’s experiences, especially when grandchildren disclose their sexual orientation to grandparents. This chapter discusses the important theoretical lenses used to understand and aids the study of LGB grandparenthood and reviews the literature on LGB grandparenthood and when grandchildren identify as lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender, and queer (LBGTQ). Perhaps more importantly to the advancement of the literature on LGB grandparenting, the chapter provides recommendations for future research on grandparenthood in the context of sexual orientation, and hopes that discussion is a call to action for family scientists, gerontologists, psychologists, and sociologists to closely examine grandparenthood when grandparents, grandchildren, or grandchildren’s parents identify as LGBTQ.
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- Go to chapter: Grandparent–Grandchild Relationships: A Proposed Mutuality Model With a Focus on Young Children and Adolescents
Grandparent–Grandchild Relationships: A Proposed Mutuality Model With a Focus on Young Children and Adolescents
This chapter aims to more fully develop the often-overlooked observation that the grandparent and grandchild relationship is a mutual one. It focuses on conceptual model of the grandparent–grandchild relationships that one developed based on a linked-lives perspective, on their lived experience, their past research, and a careful review of the existing literature. In this model, it show that grandparent proactivity and grandchild–grandparent mutuality are essential features of a constructively interdependent relationship. The chapter starts by introducing a new mutuality model of grandparent–grandchild relationships. It provides a brief historical overview of the evolution of literature on grandparent–grandchild relationships. The chapter reports on major empirical studies that address relationships between young or adolescent grandchildren and their grandparents. It offers an experiential context and humanize the discussion by adding some personal reflections regarding grandparent–grandchild relationships and mutuality across multiple generations of the author’s family.
This chapter begins with a discussion of juvenile sex offenders affected by the 2006 Adam Walsh Act. It presents a brief review of statutory rape laws and adolescent sexual behavior. The chapter presents data on the prevalence of youth sexting and discusses the controversies of criminal prosecution. As noted by Levine, there has long been a concern about the criminalization of adolescent sexuality. Data from the FBI’s National Incident-Based Reporting System (
NIBRS) in 2010 suggest that juveniles accounted for approximately 23” of sex offenses reported to law enforcement. The chapter examines the associated legal, psychological, and policy issues associated with sexting and statutory rape. Criminal justice responses to youth sexting incidents vary depending on state laws, facts of the case, and the priorities of prosecutors and judges. However, child pornography statutes, originally meant to protect children, can actually harm them when used in sexting cases.
It is not uncommon for children, adolescents, and families to seek counselors’ services when they are in crisis. Despite a growing literature base in school crisis prevention, intervention, and preparedness, there is a relatively scant literature base addressing mental health crisis intervention for professional counselors. This chapter addresses elements pertinent to crisis intervention, including mandated reporting, and associated trauma or grief. Children understand and process grief and trauma differently based on developmental and cognitive ability levels. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for children to experience traumatic events before reaching adulthood. As an example, international studies document that child sexual abuse, physical abuse, or domestic violence affects approximately 25% of children. War, natural disasters, motor vehicle accidents, violence, terrorist acts, and refugee experiences can all contribute to trauma reactions. Regrettably, if left untreated, complications associated with unresolved trauma or grief can last well into adulthood.
This chapter presents the elements of counseling that can influence self-awareness and growth among children and adolescents. It builds on the basics and offers guidance to enhance counseling effectiveness. Children and adolescents thrive within the context of responsive relationships and these relationships are central to emotional growth. A good counselor balances the child or adolescent’s need for support and the necessity of independence in self-reflection. The fields of motivational interviewing (MI), self-determination theory, and counseling with children and adolescents are filled with specific techniques to encourage growth and change. Accordingly, the chapter highlights key elements of counselor action. Of equal importance, there will be instances in which being present, in absence of action, will create space for the child or adolescent to experience and consequently increase awareness of his or her own self—a critical foundation for growth and change.
This book describes the foundational elements of counseling and psychotherapy with children and adolescents. It includes updates and expanded material about clients’ affect, trauma, substance abuse, progress monitoring, self-care, referral for medication, and mindfulness. Of particular interest is a series of new elements including elements addressing sexual and gender identity, social media, sexuality and harassment, and rules for use of technology. All of these topics have become increasingly important in counselors’ conceptualization of children and adolescent clients and therapy. The book emphasizes the conditions and processes of creating growth within the child, explicating the process of assisting growth and self-inquiry. There are new sections on grounding feelings in the body, teaching tools for distress tolerance, and highlighting the importance of progress monitoring. The book discusses teaching skills for negotiating social conflict—a substantial stressor for children and adolescents. It provides guidance on cocreating individual and family rules for use of technology. It also addresses frequent misconceptions and mistaken assumptions followed by the discussion on crisis intervention, effective referral skills, cultural competency and mandated reporting. The book then addresses issues such as coming to terms with one’s own childhood and adolescence and the rescue fantasy. There is a succinct introduction to interventions (i.e., including a list of more comprehensive texts on counseling with children and adolescents) and an updated review of techniques often used in work with children and adolescents (e.g., play therapy, brief, solution-focused therapy). For ease of reading the word caregiver will be used to indicate a parent, legal guardian, foster parent, and so on. The book focuses on counselor self-care and provides guidance for setting boundaries, knowing their edge, practicing within competency, and assessing and planning personal self-care. Finally, it closes with a brief overview of how to use the text for transcript analysis in training programs.
There are several misconceptions and assumptions that can reduce the effectiveness of counseling with children and adolescents. New therapists and counselors in training may need to ultimately unlearn assumptions that they carried with them—knowingly or not—before entering professional training programs. This chapter reviews some common misconceptions and assumptions made by counselors at all levels. The field of motivational interviewing has emerged to address the resistance to change and the challenges associated with preparing clients for change. It seems that rational, irrational, positive, and negative thinking are important to untangle when working with children and adolescents. The goal is to help clients to challenge erroneous thinking, distortions, or faulty interpretations that lead them to negative outcomes as well as help them to anchor their academic, interpersonal, and other efforts in an effective understanding of their current abilities, skills, and context.
This chapter details the elements of counseling with children and adolescents that are essential to setting a solid stage for deeper work. It covers the techniques addressing the initial contact and important contextual issues, such as setting up a child- and adolescent-friendly office space. Initial contact sets the stage for the therapeutic alliance. Research has shown that educating clients about counseling improves treatment progress and outcome, attendance, and helps to prevent premature termination. Counseling provides a safe, nonjudgmental space in which clients can self-reflect; identify strengths; experiment with new ideas of self and ways of being; and learn effective emotional regulation, relationship, and life skills. Beginning counseling can be quite stressful for some children and their caregivers, and breaking down barriers is essential. Once relationships are established and counseling is flowing naturally, both the counselor and the client feel more relaxed.
The American Psychological Association (APA) has defined evidence-based practice (EBP) as “the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences”. This chapter highlights a number of contemporary approaches to counseling with children and adolescents. First, though, it is important to consider some issues specific to empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with children and adolescents. Children and adolescents are still developing in terms of cognitive style, self-concept, and overall worldview. It is key that interventions are tailored to match emerging abilities and relevant contexts. The chapter deals with evidence-based practice and issues with ESTs. Integrative approaches often involve the combination of two or more standard approaches into one treatment modality. Cognitive behavior therapy is one such integrative approach and, in general, the available empirical evidence demonstrates that, for most emotional and behavioral youth disorders, cognitive, behaviorally oriented therapies produce the best outcomes.
Everyone has needs and struggles. Awareness is a key step in assuring that the counselor’s needs and struggles do not negatively impact the children and adolescents with whom they work. A counselor should begin by knowing and acknowledging his or her own personal issues, strengths, and vulnerabilities and how these issues might be presenting in their work as a professional counselor. Self-awareness, support, supervision, boundaries, and self-care are the foundations of a sustainable counseling practice. It is not a sign of strength or quality of character to be able to individually suffer through or manage the stressors inherent in counseling work. In fact, independent or isolated management of stress is a liability. The counselors, who experience both effectiveness and well-being, acknowledge stress and the compassion fatigue that is inherent to this work. They show willingness to look at themselves and get the help they need.