Eating disorders (EDs) are a complex and comparatively dangerous set of mental disorders that deeply affect the quality of life and well-being of the child or adolescent who is struggling with this problem as well as those who love and care for him or her. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) outlines specific criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or ED. Treatment of eating disordered behavior typically involves a three-facet approach: medical assessment and monitoring, nutritional counseling, and psychological and behavioral treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are also evidence-based approaches to treatment for AN. The treatment of EDs should be viewed as a team effort that integrates medical, nutritional, and mental health service providers.
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Many developmental models view human growth from a space of lack or abundance, a perpetual fulcrum swinging from the word survive at one end to thrive at the other. This chapter discusses Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory of human development to conceptualize female adolescent and young adult development. The contextual focus of this theory provides a global framework for counselors to view young women as individuals who both influence, and are influenced by, their surroundings. Customs, beliefs, and the government all play a role in the development of children and adolescents. When young females overcome the stigma associated with mental health services, they typically seek treatment in one of two primary settings: community mental health centers and schools. Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that views connection to others as essential to growth and disconnection as a major cause of disrupted functioning.
This chapter presents the best measures for resilience and community protection for some of the social determinants of digital diseases in the future for further discussion with families, school workers, and allied health professionals. It suggests that high levels of resilience may prevent development of mental health problems, like depression, stress, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, supporting the suggestion that fostering resilience may prevent development of mental health problems in adolescents. The chapter presents a case report of a 14-year-old, brought to consultation by his mother, who has been worried about his weight. This case report points out how important it is to build up resilience skills through the development of caring and supportive relationships within and outside the family. The chapter suggests a four-pronged approach to prevent the excessive use and the problems associated with the Internet. It includes regulatory, parental, educational, and technological approaches.
This chapter presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses the linguistic and cultural issues to consider when assessing children and adolescents from diverse backgrounds, with a major focus on immigrants and refugees. It addresses research on the typical developmental trajectory of language and literacy of children and adolescents who must learn in a language that is not the language of their home, and the implications of that research for distinguishing whether their learning difficulties are due to inadequate proficiency in the societal language or due to a learning disability. The book describes the methods for assessing children and adolescents’ oral language proficiency (OLP) in their first and second languages. It then discusses the issues involved and methods for assessing intelligence, academic achievement, and behavioral, social, and emotional functioning.
Studies have evaluated the usefulness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) following disaster events finding that this approach could be effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms. EMDR has been reported as effective in the treatment of children following a hurricane in Hawaii. Group therapy is a well-proven form of treatment for traumatized children and adolescents. The EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) was developed by members of AMAMECRISIS when they were overwhelmed by the extensive need for mental health services after Hurricane Pauline ravaged the western coast of Mexico in 1997. This protocol combines the Standard EMDR Treatment Phases 1 through 8. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims ages 7 to 50 +.
Assessment of intelligence and diagnosis of intellectual disability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents are controversial and challenging. This chapter discusses some of these controversial and challenging issues, and describes methods of assessing intelligence in CLD children and adolescents, that is, individuals whose language and cultural backgrounds are significantly different from the normative group of most standardized Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. It addresses several issues that psychologists need to consider when evaluating intelligence, including developing rapport; fluid and crystallized intelligence; adaptive behavior; using IQ tests to establish IQ/achievement discrepancies to diagnose learning disabilities; and determining when to use formal IQ tests. The chapter then turns to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of assessment techniques, including several types of intelligence tests, and offers alternative approaches for evaluating intelligence that can help to overcome some of the difficulties, including modifying test administration, dynamic assessment, and ecological assessment.
This chapter describes the overall health, sleep and diet and nutrition. The importance of focusing on health promotion during adolescence is apparent when considering that close to two-thirds of premature deaths in adulthood can be attributed to unhealthy lifestyle choices made in the adolescent years. The approach adolescents take to their overall physical health is driven by competing cognitive forces producing behaviors that sometimes seem contradictory. Boys tend to exercise more often than girls, and girls are more likely to engage in healthy eating habits in comparison to boys. The adolescent years are an opportunity to develop healthy eating patterns that can carry into adulthood. Family is also important in helping adolescents develop healthy eating patterns. Close to 80% of obese adolescents continue to be obese throughout their adult years, with many of them eventually having to contend with serious health issues such as heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
This chapter describes the external and internal physical changes and the brain. The hormonal changes of puberty initiate drastic growth in the body and organs of adolescents. Recent advances in brain-imaging technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans have contributed greatly to understanding of brain development in adolescence. Similar to what happens during infancy, the early adolescent’s brain begins a process of overproduction, which is an increase in neural connections in the brain’s gray matter. The development of gray matter follows a pattern of maturation from the back of the brain to the front of the brain. By eliminating unused synapses the adolescent brain becomes more efficient and is able to process mental functioning at an accelerated speed. The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped structure in the midbrain charged with emotional expression.
This chapter describes Piaget’s formal operational stage, thinking in context, and educating adolescents. According to Piaget, during the formal operations stage adolescents advance in their ability to assess questions in scientific ways. Engaging in hypothetico-deductive reasoning does not just occur when adolescents are trying to solve complex questions about math and science. Adolescents have the ability to manipulate and talk about concepts such as love, the future, and God in very tangible ways. Adolescents develop perspective taking, which is the ability to understand the thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of others. In order for adolescents to be successful at social interactions, in which they will be engaged quite often, they need to understand other people. Adolescents value the ability to make independent decisions and consider this to be an integral part of the transition into adulthood.
This chapter describes the beginning of puberty, the timing of puberty and off-time puberty. Puberty is marked by striking differences between the physical development of males and females. The puberty process is an illustration of the magnificent way in which multiple systems in the body interact to produce growth. Puberty is initiated in the hypothalamus, an almond-sized structure in an area of the limbic system called the midbrain. As a child nears the adolescent years, and a threshold level of body fat is reached, fat cells produce the hormone leptin, which provides the signal to the hypothalamus to begin the puberty process. Parents, teachers, or mental health personnel should prompt discussions about the emotions linked with having the first period, feelings connected with the rite of passage of menarche, and the mixed feelings associated with puberty, such as the combination of embarrassment and pride.