The current meta-analysis aims to synthesize existing studies on the effectiveness of both trauma-focused and addiction-focused eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for people with substance use disorder (SUD). Search and selection procedures involved screening 1,733 references, yielding 10 studies published between 2008 and 2021 from 8 countries with 561 participants. After the removal of one outlier study, the results showed EMDR to be effective on a variety of outcomes for people with SUD (n = 9, d = .654, 95% CI [.332, .985], p < .001). Regarding the effects on SUD outcomes, meta-analysis also showed EMDR to be effective (n = 7, d = .580, 95% CI [.209, .951], p = .002). Specifically, EMDR was effective with SUD treatment engagement and severity, but not necessarily the reduction of cravings, and also effective for reducing comorbid posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis is limited by the number of studies and participants, heterogeneity in methods of included studies, the quality of studies, and other factors.
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- Go to article: The Effectiveness of EMDR With Individuals Experiencing Substance Use Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
- Go to article: The Effects of EMDR Therapy on Pregnant Clients With Substance Use Disorders: A Narrative, Scoping Literature Review
The Effects of EMDR Therapy on Pregnant Clients With Substance Use Disorders: A Narrative, Scoping Literature Review
This narrative scoping literature review explores a significant clinical population, pregnant women with co-occurring substance misuse, through the lens of adaptive information processing and the potential for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy intervention. A data search in PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Cochran, and Scopus databases focusing on literature published within the last 10 years. Due to the distinctiveness of the issue, 10 research articles met the required inclusion criteria. The results confirm that EMDR can deliver effective outcomes for women with co-occurring substance use disorder during pregnancy. However, the rationale for using EMDR as a “sole-treatment” intervention appears insufficient. Instead, there is an argument supporting the utilization of integrative approaches. This review highlights the limited research available for this essential population and discusses the need for further study and investigation.
- Go to article: The TraumaClinic Model of EMDR Basic Training in Brazil: A Country Case Study for In-Person and Online Training
The TraumaClinic Model of EMDR Basic Training in Brazil: A Country Case Study for In-Person and Online Training
This article utilizes a country case study design to describe the implementation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy training in Brazil. The primary focus is on the methodology, adaptations, adjustments, and cultural considerations necessary to incorporate in-person and virtual training in this country. Additionally, the article will explore the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic to address National Government Guidance related to social distancing. This guidance required adjustments to training delivery, clinical and self-practice, clinical supervision, and consultation. Finally, the article outlines the advantages and disadvantages of implementing EMDR therapy training in Brazil, expanding to how models of good practice could be implemented in other countries, such as Angola and Mozambique, to include cultural adaptation, sensitivity, and replication.
- Go to article: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Change in Attachment Security: A Pilot Study
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Change in Attachment Security: A Pilot Study
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has a rapidly growing evidence base; however, research into its changes in attachment security during EMDR therapy is limited. This pilot study aimed to explore changes in attachment security in a clinical sample of adults who received EMDR therapy for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). It also explored the quality of the therapeutic alliance in relation to changes in attachment security. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used. Eighteen participants received fifteen EMDR sessions on average and completed self-report measures of attachment, PTSD, CPTSD, and therapeutic alliance. A decrease in attachment insecurity was observed. Changes in attachment security were partially associated with the quality of the therapeutic alliance and changes in symptomatology. This study contributes to the emerging literature on change in attachment and EMDR therapy.
Most mental health clinicians treating trauma survivors are exposed to repeated details of clients’ traumatic experiences, and some of these clinicians may experience symptoms of indirect trauma through vicarious traumatization (VT), which has the potential of negatively impacting professional quality of life (ProQOL). The ProQOL Scale was developed to measure both negative and positive effects of working with those who have experienced traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinicians who are trained in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, as compared to trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and prolonged exposure (PE), would relate to aspects of their ProQOL differently. Second, it was hypothesized that the ProQOL model would predict VT in TF-CBT and PE clinicians, but not in EMDR therapy clinicians. Fifty-four trauma clinicians who reported their primary modality of treatment as EMDR, PE, and TF-CBT were studied. Participants completed a survey that included demographic information, the ProQOL Scale, and the Vicarious Trauma Scale (VTS). Hierarchical ordinary least squared regression revealed that the empirical ProQOL model did not predict VT scores in EMDR therapy clinicians as it did for non-EMDR therapy clinicians. This study implies that there could be aspects of the EMDR therapy methodology that may support a clinician’s healthy worldview when empathetically bonding with traumatized clients, thereby fostering longevity for both clients and clinicians.
Across many countries, the use of dating applications and websites (DAWs) has become increasingly popular over recent years; however, research examining the relationship between DAWs use and experience of dating violence and/or other harms is limited. This study aims to explore the use, motivations, and experiences of harm associated with using DAWs and meeting people in person via DAWs. An online convenience sample pilot survey was completed by adults (n = 217) aged 18+ years, living in the UK or the Republic of Ireland, who had used a DAW in the past two years. Differences were found in usage, motivations, and experiences of using DAWs in age and gender. Nearly half, 46.5% of respondents reported having been a victim of at least one harm as a result of meeting someone in person via DAWs in their lifetime; 33.2% reported experiencing sexual violence, 27.2% verbal abuse, 8.3% sexual activity in exchange for goods and 6.5% physical assault. Further to this, 41.9% of respondents reported being “Catfished” in the past two years (i.e., the other person looking different in person compared to their DAWs profile). In multivariate analysis, experiencing at least one harm was significantly associated with female gender (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.0; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 3.1; p < .01; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 3.3; p < .001). In multivariate analysis, sexual violence was significantly associated with being female (AOR 6.9; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 2.9; p = .013; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 2.9; p = .001). The study reinforces the importance of understanding the use of DAWs, exposure to harms on and offline, and risks associated with “Catfishing.”
- Go to article: Men’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Their Experiences With a Crisis Center in Denmark
Many countries are unable to offer men and their children a safe place to stay when exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Denmark is an exception by having implemented a coordinated effort in 2016 of meeting the needs of male victims of IPV and their children. This presents an opportunity for in-depth exploration of the experiences of male victims of IPV. In this study we present a review of men’s exposure to IPV in Denmark, the experiences of 58 men who stayed in six crisis centers for men, and present results from a follow-up pilot study working with these men. Men staying in the crisis centers reported having been exposed to psychological, physical, economical, material violence, and stalking perpetrated predominantly by a female partner or ex-partner. In the follow-up, several men reported still being exposed to different types of violence and threats. The men experienced a number of adverse outcomes associated with their experiences but described a positive impact by the combination of help offered at the shelters. This study points to the importance of safe accommodation for male victims of IPV and includes recommendations for practice.
- Go to article: Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
This explorative article aims to take a step in the direction of a realist-oriented scientific design that extends our knowledge of the requirements of a methodology that improves our ability to uncover the causal mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. Despite the great advances that have been made in individual research disciplines, our understanding of the complex causes is still insufficient and suffers from our inability to grasp the larger whole of the collaborative processes. As a first step towards the objective, an integration attempt is implemented that aims to highlight methodological issues that we have to overcome to explain men's violence against women. The integration of psychological, social-psychological, and sociological theories aims to exemplify how contributing, and counteracting factors interact with each other and form a complex mechanism that influences whether violence against women will take place or not. To leave room for the methodological dimension, the depth of each perspective has been reduced. The results of the integration attempt show both opportunities and difficulties in investigating the mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. However, there is still untapped knowledge potential in the explorative integration of theories and the use of realist-oriented pluralistic research methodologies.
- Go to article: Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Since the rates of violence are high in patriarchal societies, determining the attitudes of people in these societies towards violence and the factors affecting these attitudes are of great importance. The researchers in the present study aimed to determine people’s attitudes towards violence who live in a region where patriarchal values still reign in Turkey and to investigate factors urging people to tend to perpetrate violence. The data was collected from 628 people at five family health centers in a province in the east of Turkey, providing health services to people of different socioeconomic levels. The Participant Information Form and Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale were used to collect the study data. In the present study, the participants displayed positive attitudes toward violence. In the present study, the following factors were determined to affect attitudes towards violence: Income status, occupation, sex, family type, alcohol use, and perception that violence cannot be prevented. Male-dominated patriarchal society has very negative effects on people in terms of perpetrating violence. In addition, to reduce the negative effects of living in extended families, people should be enabled to live independently of their families after getting married.
Police respond to high volumes of domestic violence (DV) calls that can be time-consuming and often deal with repeat involved persons, regardless of whether or not charges are laid. This study extracts and examines three distinct cases of individuals/couples that involved almost 2% of 3,414 domestic violence calls to police that occurred over about a 3-year period for a small-sized urban community and its surrounding rural areas in Ontario, Canada. Most of the calls (86.2%) for these three cases did not result in any charges being laid. Each case represented a unique problem focus common in DV situations, and all three cases involved children. Key issues for one case included substance use and the cycle of violence; in another case, mental health problems and parenting challenges were prominent; and the third case pertained to child custody and access issues. Acceptance of offered support and services by the involved persons was minimal in all three cases. Implications for improved police responses involving collaboration with other service providers in smaller communities with limited resources are discussed.