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- Go to article: About Ethnicity, Fitting In, and Acting Out: Applying the Person–Environment Fit Framework to School Misconduct
About Ethnicity, Fitting In, and Acting Out: Applying the Person–Environment Fit Framework to School Misconduct
Starting from a person–environment fit framework, this study investigates whether ethnic congruence—the percentage of co-ethnics in a school—relates to school misconduct and whether congruence effects differ between ethnic minority and majority students. Moreover, we investigate whether eventual associations are mediated by friendship attachment, perceived teacher support, and general school belonging. Multilevel analyses of data from 11,759 students across 83 Flemish secondary schools show that higher ethnic congruence is associated with lower levels of school misconduct but only for ethnic minority students. This effect was not mediated by friendship attachment, nor by teacher support, but it was mediated by general school belonging. We conclude that ethnic minority students in schools with a higher percentage of peers of co-ethnic descent are less likely to break the school rules because they feel more contented in the school context, which is congruent with the person–environment fit framework.
- Go to article: Abused and Rejected: The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Parental Alienation
Previous studies have demonstrated a connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and a child’s alienation from the abused parent, but little is known about the relationships between the type of IPV, aspects, and severity of a child’s alienation, and the target parent’s gender. This study assessed the presence of an IPV history (verbal and physical aspects) among parents who identify as targets of their children’s unreasonable rejection. Also investigated were associations between the form of IPV and manifestations of a child’s alienated behavior, parent’s gender and type of IPV, and parents’ gender and degree of the child’s alienation. Self-identified alienated parents (n = 842) completed an online survey that included an IPV screening measurement (Hurts, Insults, Screams, Threatens screening tool) and a measure of the parent’s perception of their child’s alienated behaviors (Rowlands Parental Alienation Scale). The majority identified as IPV victims and reported a higher level of verbal than physical abuse. More mothers than fathers identified themselves as IPV victims. As a group, IPV victims rated their child as more severely alienated than did non-IPV alienated parents. Mothers were more likely than fathers to report physical aggression by the other parent and more likely than fathers to assess their child’s alienated behaviors as more severe. Victims of physical violence reported their children were less likely to withhold positive affection from them. This knowledge may assist in earlier identification of the alienation process and greater recognition, legitimacy, funding, and opportunities for enhanced collaboration among stakeholders. This, in turn, may lead to improvements in prevention, intervention, and accountability, thus helping to interrupt alienation processes.
This study adds to the available literature on female-perpetrated intimate abuse by examining Dutton’s (2007) theory of the abusive personality (AP) in a sample of 914 women who had been involved in dating relationships. Consistent with the AP, recalled parental rejection, borderline personality organization (BPO), anger, and trauma symptoms all demonstrated moderate-to-strong relationships with women’s self-reported intimate psychological abuse perpetration. Fearful attachment style demonstrated a weak-to-moderate relationship with psychological abuse perpetration. A potential model for explaining the interrelationships between the elements of the AP was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consistent with the proposed model, recalled parental rejection demonstrated relationships with BPO, trauma symptoms, and fearful attachment. Similarly consistent with the model, trauma symptoms demonstrated a relationship with anger; and BPO demonstrated strong relationships with trauma symptoms, fearful attachment, and anger. Additionally, anger itself had a strong relationship with women’s self-reported perpetration of intimate psychological and physical abuse. Contrary to the proposed model, fearful attachment had a nonsignificant relationship with anger when this relationship was examined using SEM.
The study of men’s violence against their intimate partners is segregated from the study of other forms of violence. Comparing intimate partner violence (IPV) to other violence, however, allows one to examine whether the motivation and the legal response are similar. I examine whether men’s assaults on partners are particularly likely to have a control motive, whether women’s assaults on partners are particularly likely to be motivated by self-defense, and whether intimate partner violence is less likely to be reported to the police and legally sanctioned. The evidence casts doubt on the feminist approach, which has dominated the study of IPV. I suggest that a theory of instrumental violence provides a better understanding of IPV. Such an approach recognizes a variety of motives and emphasizes the role of conflict in intimate relationships, sex differences in strength and violence, and the importance of chivalry. Finally, I suggest that social scientists who study IPV should be more careful in their descriptive terminology.
- Go to article: Academic Literacy and Cognitive Processing: Effects on the Examination Outcomes of Speech-Language Pathology Students at a South African University
Academic Literacy and Cognitive Processing: Effects on the Examination Outcomes of Speech-Language Pathology Students at a South African University
This study was conducted in the South African context, where education is in a state of transition. One of the central issues in higher education is the development of academic literacy. However, as a result of an inadequate focus on educational linguistics and a lack of explicit instruction in academic literacy, many students do not achieve their full potential. This study focuses on aspects of academic literacy in the examination responses of a group of students studying in the discipline of speech-language pathology. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between the students’ academic literacy skills and their ability to answer examination questions. By means of an exploratory retrospective longitudinal record review, the examination scripts of 20 students were rated for evidence of various academic literacy skills. The ratings were highly correlated to the actual examination marks in both years of study, suggesting that there is a need to incorporate explicit instruction in academic literacy to develop students’ metacognitive processes while reading and writing for academic purposes.
Partner aggression is a major public health concern. Batterers’ intervention programs (BIPs) are commonly used as an alternative to incarceration for offenders who have been arrested for domestic assault. Historically, BIPs have shown little effectiveness in reducing partner aggression. This article presents a new BIP based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999). ACT is a third-wave therapy that builds on the cognitive-behavioral tradition, focusing on increasing psychological flexibility by promoting acceptance and mindfulness processes. Several lines of evidence support the use of ACT in the treatment of partner aggression. Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior (ACTV; Lawrence, Langer Zarling, & Orengo-Aguayo, 2014) was developed based on ACT principles with a specific focus on feasibility and transferability to the community correctional setting and court-adjudicated treatment. ACTV incorporates experiential skills training and uses innovative methods to engage participants and teach the ACT processes. This article details the components of ACTV, including a case study to illustrate one participant’s journey through the program. We also present preliminary pilot data, which look promising with respect to reductions in domestic assault and violent recidivism.
- Go to article: Achievement Goals in Students With Learning Disabilities, Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, and Low IQ Without Special Educational Needs
Achievement Goals in Students With Learning Disabilities, Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, and Low IQ Without Special Educational Needs
This study focuses on the goal orientations of students with and without special educational needs (SEN). The sample (mean age 13 years, 10 months) was composed of 37 students with low IQ, but without SEN; 37 students who were diagnosed as having learning disability (LD); and 37 students having emotional or behavioral disorders (ED). The groups were matched by IQ and gender. The results showed that students without SEN scored significantly higher in mastery goal orientation, significantly lower in performance-avoidance orientation, and had a lower work-avoidance orientation than students with LD or ED. Students with ED showed a significantly lower performance-approach orientation than students without SEN and students with LD. Results from correlational and regression analyses showed that SEN is always an explaining variable for goal orientation and that group differences cannot be explained by IQ, gender, actual achievement, self-estimation of achievement, and school anxiety.
Interventions for men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) have historically been relatively ineffective at reducing or stopping subsequent IPV. However, there are several strong theoretical reasons that suggest Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an intervention that emphasizes the use of mindfulness and aims to foster psychological flexibility, may be particularly well-suited to interrupting the factors that maintain IPV. The goal of the present article is to review the evidence for the application of ACT to target IPV. In addition, empirical studies that have, to date, shown promising initial support for a targeted intervention (Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior; ACTV) are reviewed. The implications for using ACT-based skills with perpetrators of IPV are discussed, along with potential future directions and further applications of ACT to hard-to-treat populations.
This chapter identifies the most robust conclusions and ideas about adolescent development and psychological functioning that have emerged since Petersen’s 1988 review. We begin with a discussion of topics that have dominated recent research, including adolescent problem behavior, parent-adolescent relations, puberty, the development of the self, and peer relations. We then identify and examine what seem to us to be the most important new directions that have come to the fore in the last decade, including research on diverse populations, contextual influences on development, behavioral genetics, and siblings. We conclude with a series of recommendations for future research on adolescence.
- Go to article: Adolescents’ Development of New Skills for Prospective Cognition: Learning to Anticipate, Plan, and Think Strategically
Adolescents’ Development of New Skills for Prospective Cognition: Learning to Anticipate, Plan, and Think Strategically
Adolescence is an important age period for the development of prospective cognition. Teenagers become able to reason about the future, including anticipating events and formulating plans to reach goals. This article focuses on adolescents’ development of skills for strategic thinking: for anticipating possible scenarios in a plan and formulating flexible plans that take these into account. We have studied teens’ work on projects within youth programs (such as arts, leadership programs) because they provide real-world-like contexts for understanding development of these skills. Two case studies demonstrate the complexity of strategic skills and how they are learned. Effective strategic thinking requires learning to anticipate the particularities of the contexts and people involved in reaching a goal, for example, how to communicate effectively with a specific audience through a specific medium. It also requires learning general “meta” concepts and strategies that apply across situations, such as formulating plans that take uncertainties into account.
- Go to article: “Adolescent” South Africa (18 Years Since Democratization): Challenges for Universities to Optimize Wellness as a Prerequisite for Cognitive Development and Learning in a Diverse Society
“Adolescent” South Africa (18 Years Since Democratization): Challenges for Universities to Optimize Wellness as a Prerequisite for Cognitive Development and Learning in a Diverse Society
South Africa’s development since 1994 has been of interest to many people across the world as the diverse nature of our society, including the growing diversity of student populations at our universities, demands very special interventions and initiatives to help create a healthier society. Research at Stellenbosch University demonstrates a positive relationship between wellness (which includes its intellectual, social, emotional, physical, spiritual and occupational dimensions) and student success. The main focus of this article is on how a university can develop systemic-holistic strategies to enhance wellness. High levels of wellness in students contribute toward the formation of harmonious and healthy communities on campus, where diversity is regarded as an asset. Furthermore, these “well” students will one day enter the world of work as well-rounded professionals and global citizens who do not hesitate to continue contributing toward the creation of a better society. Academic (or cognitive) success is of vital importance; however, student success in our very diverse context requires a much wider spectrum of characteristics or graduate outcomes for them to flourish and contribute optimally.
The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There were 3 hypotheses. First, behavioral norms in both contexts affect individual behavior. Second, classroom norms have stronger effects on individual behavior than school norms. Third, classroom and school norms interact and exacerbate each other’s influence. Results indicated that classroom norms had stronger effects than school norms on individual tobacco and alcohol use. Furthermore, school norms had equal or stronger effects than classroom norms on the 2 indicators of aggressive behaviors. There was no evidence for an interaction between classroom and school norms for any dependent variable. This study demonstrates that the complexity of multiple (nested) peer contexts should be considered to fully understand peer influence processes.
Trauma-related biased perception of threat, typically defined in terms of physical danger or harm, is associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration. Yet, it is unclear if such threat (a) functionally motivates aggression and (b) includes diverse forms of threat. Theory and limited research suggest that threats of rejection/abandonment and social dominance may be two distinct functional precipitants of aggression among trauma-exposed individuals. Sixty-four heterosexual couples (N = 128 individuals) selected for elevated symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in either partner were observed during conflict discussions. Small correlations between men's and women's engagement in threats of rejection/abandonment and social dominance suggest that they reflect distinct types of threat. Partners' rejection/abandonment threats and social dominance threats were more strongly associated with engagement in aggression among men with a relatively high frequency of trauma exposure, compared to men with a low frequency of trauma exposure and all women. Women with a high, relative to low, frequency of trauma exposure behaved more aggressively in the context of their partners' social dominance threats; women's aggression was not associated with the severity of their partners' rejection/abandonment threats. Results align with research suggesting that highly traumatized men's misperceptions of threat may motivate their aggression, and indicate that aggression may also be used in the context of accurately detected threat. Integration of methods to alter contextual and individual factors influencing aggression perpetration may improve intervention outcomes. Compared to individually-based interventions, conjoint couple interventions may be better poised to address maladaptive contextual processes that contribute to relationship aggression perpetration.
Background: Gentrification is impacting urban communities across the globe. Some urban communities have undergone major displacement of longtime residents thus placing older persons at particular risk of social isolation and the loss of social networks. Objective: The objective of the article is to bring attention to the impact of gentrification on communities and specifically addresses the impact on older persons, especially as it relates to displacement, social isolation, and social networks. Additionally the article aims to address implications for social work practice. Method: A review of the literature was used to gather information on this important topic. Additionally, newspaper articles were reviewed that discussed gentrification in urban neighborhoods. Content analysis was used to gather themes that would inform practice recommendations. Additionally the author used community mapping through personal observation. Findings: Gentrification is perceived as both positive and negative, depending on the stakeholder. It also has been associated with negative health effects as well as social isolation and the loss of social networks. Older persons of color are particularly at risk of displacement. Emotional and financial hardships. Conclusions: Practice implications include an examination of quality of life factors, introduction of financial counseling and advocacy for policies that respect the quality of life of older persons faced with gentrification.Source:
- Go to article: Alcohol and Condomless Insertive Anal Intercourse Among Black/Latino Sexual-Minority Male Non-PrEP Users
Alcohol and Condomless Insertive Anal Intercourse Among Black/Latino Sexual-Minority Male Non-PrEP Users
This study examined factors associated with alcohol use and condomlessinsertive anal sex among a sample of BLMSM (N = 188), self-identified as HIV- negative, ages 18–40. The influence of alcohol use on sexual positioning during condomless anal intercourse among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (BLMSM) warrants research attention because of the pervasive misinformation regarding the risk of HIV transmission and the disproportionate impact of the HIV epidemic for this population.
Self-report survey questionnaires were administered in real time at bars/clubs; public organized events; local colleges/universities; social media advertisements; private men's groups; and organized events in Los Angeles County.
Logistic regression predicted those reporting risky sex when using alcohol were seven times more likely to report condomless insertive anal sex.
Clear messaging about alcohol moderation, dispelling the myths about strategic positioning, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among HIV negative BLMSM could potentially reduce HIV acquisition/transmission.Source:
- Go to article: Alienation Among College Students and Attitudes Toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Implications for Student Learning
Alienation Among College Students and Attitudes Toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Implications for Student Learning
This study examined the relationship between 3 aspects of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, and social estrangement, and attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling among college students. Participants included 180 undergraduate students at a Midwestern university. Correlations indicated a significant relationship between discomfort with face-to-face counseling and powerlessness (r = .20, p = .008) and meaninglessness (r = .22, p = .003). There were no significant relationships between attitudes toward online counseling and any aspect of alienation. Significant gender differences in value toward face-to-face counseling were found. Higher education should examine the use of online counseling among college students.
Women who experience domestic violence are more likely to use or become dependent on substances. Their health and safety are at greater risk when Violence Against Women (VAW) shelters have policies prohibiting admission if noticeably impaired. Harm reduction strategies can help reduce harms caused by substance use. Minimal research was found about impacts of integrating harm reduction in VAW shelters. We examined women's experiences with a harm reduction service delivery model at a Canadian rural VAW shelter. Interviews were conducted with 25 former residents to explore their experiences. Most women preferred to have harm reduction implemented, although most women also wanted changes made to harm reduction practices. These recommended changes would enhance positive experiences and feelings of safety for all women, thereby achieving the goal of all women welcome. Overall, our findings support the integration of harm reduction in VAW shelters that balances harm reduction philosophy and practices with the individualized needs of traumatized women and safety of children.
- Go to article: The Analogical Reasoning Learning Test: Theoretical and Empirical Foundation of a Diagnostic Tool for Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation
The Analogical Reasoning Learning Test: Theoretical and Empirical Foundation of a Diagnostic Tool for Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation
Research as well as practice has demonstrated that classical testing procedures are inappropriate for individuals with moderate to severe mental retardation (MSMR). Several characteristics of the population, such as lack of understanding of the task instructions and demands, short attention span, weak communication skills, and slow information processing, lead to a general floor effect on traditional intelligence tests. Thus, the results are neither reliable nor valid. In addition to the problem of not being able to evaluate their cognitive competencies in a reliable way, there is a deep-rooted belief that these individuals cannot go beyond a concrete level of reasoning and that it is extremely difficult to improve their intellectual functioning. Consequently, individuals with IQs lower than 50-55 are often treated as one large homogeneous group and tend to be taken care of in special institutions, without differentiation between those who are able to develop their cognitive competencies and those for whom educational goals may be limited to the development of social and lifeskill competencies.
The Analogical Reasoning Learning Test (ARLT; Hessels-Schlatter, in press; Schlatter, 1999; Schlatter & Büchel, 2000) has been especially constructed for the assessment of individuals whose IQ, as measured with a traditional test, would be below 50-55. The aim of the ARLT is to provide a reliable and valid estimate of the learning capacities of individuals with MSMR, i.e., to distinguish persons who can profit from cognitive training programs and more demanding schooling from those for whom such an approach would have little value.
The ARLT is a dynamic procedure. It consists of 2x2 analogical matrices and is divided into three phases. The first one is a pre-training phase intended to familiarize students with the task demands and to teach them some cognitive prerequisites. The second one is a learning phase, whose aim is to teach students to solve analogical matrices, with the help of specific, standardized, and hierarchically ordered hints. The third phase takes place one week after learning. This phase is designed to evaluate maintenance and transfer capacity of the learned rules and is applied in a more static way. Learning capacity is categorized at three levels: gainer, non-gainer, or undetermined. The reliability and validity of the test were analyzed.
The study involved a total of 58 participants, 38 male and 20 female, all educated in special schools for MSMR students. The mean chronological age was 13-11 (min=6-6, max=19-10). The experimental plan followed a pretest - retest - training - posttest design. The complete ARLT was administered as a pretest to all participants. After a delay of four weeks, the third testing phase was repeated in order to assess test-retest reliability. To evaluate the predictive validity of the ARLT, the participants were matched on the basis of their ARLT performance and were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (EG) with training in inductive reasoning or a control group (CG) without training. The training for the EG consisted of 8 to 12 lessons of about one-half hour each over a period of four weeks. The lessons included different kinds of tasks: Standard analogies (involving similar kinds of relations as in the ARLT), analogies requiring the induction and application of other kinds of relations, such as “lives in,” “one as opposed to many,” “is part of,” and classifications. A post-test including items corresponding to the training tasks was designed to evaluate the training effects. To estimate the discriminant validity, we also administered the Raven Kurzzeit-Lerntest (RKL) of Frohriep and Guthke (1992; Frohriep, 1978). The RKL is a learning test based on the Coloured Progressive Matrices, originally developed to detect developmentally delayed kindergarten children.
The research showed that the ARLT provides a highly reliable and valid estimate of learning capacity for this population. The participants classified as non-gainers on the ARLT showed no improvement after a one-month training, in contrast to participants defined as gainers. A familiarization effect could, however, be found on the classification tasks. It should be stressed that the training in this study was relatively short. Further research is needed to find out whether the reasoning abilities of the non-gainers can be enhanced with longer training and perhaps other kinds of intervention. Comparison between the ARLT and the RKL showed that it is indeed analogical reasoning that is assessed and not simpler perceptive abilities.
We have shown that the ARLT, by differentiating gainers from nongainers in a population classified as moderately to severely mentally retarded, leads to useful and beneficial information for educational purposes. It allows one to establish differentiated educational programs and to stimulate the students who prove to be able to benefit from a cognitive training (gainers) to attain higher levels of cognitive functioning. The test can also help to counter the general low expectations of teachers, educators, and psychologists with regard to individuals whose IQ’s range is below 55.
- Go to article: Anna's Story: How a Ukrainian Orphan's Acquisition of English as a Second Language Transformed Her Life
Anna's Story: How a Ukrainian Orphan's Acquisition of English as a Second Language Transformed Her Life
This article presents a case study of an adult Ukrainian orphan, Anna, who acquired English as a second and accessed U.S. higher education despite the fact that adopted children or aged out orphans face a unique constellation of educational and psychological challenges in language learning. This article presents Anna's story in her own voice and advocates for the specialized needs of the underserved, often voiceless thousands of older orphans in war-stricken Ukraine. This article suggests that access to institutional agents and social capital played a key role in Anna's success. Of interest to researchers, the article postulates common, current language learning theory perhaps may not fully explain the distinct processes of language acquisition by institutionalized, language-delayed children. The article also offers tangible lessons for educators of victims of trauma, and would thus be of interest to practitioners as well as researchers in the areas of language acquisition and educational psychology.
This article represents a collaborative integration of ethnographic techniques and cognitive neuroscience for examining the dynamics of the movement pedagogy that takes place within Japanese traditional dance. The goal is to examine the extent to which the notion of multiscale entrainment, a hallmark assumption of prospective cognition, can enhance our understanding of the movement pedagogy dynamics that emerge during a given pedagogical session and the larger timescale events that come to be learned over sessions (e.g., the student–teacher relationship, the multiple sessions needed to learn an entire dance, and the annual events associated with Japanese dance pedagogy). The analysis will examine the extent to which Japanese dance pedagogy entails embodied anticipation (i.e., movement learning that gives rise to later movement anticipation) and multiscale embodied anticipation (i.e., multiscale events that come to be recursively associated with movement planning and, as a result, appear in one’s later movement planning). In addition, we analyze the extent to which the Japanese dance studio can be conceptualized as an external scaffold that affords (a) a space for student–teacher interactions, (b) the long-term maintenance of a historical–cultural tradition, and (c) the pedagogically driven emergence of a rich phenomenal sense of belonging to something larger than the timescale of one’s immediate movement planning.
- Go to article: Application of a School-Wide Metacognitive Training Model: Effects on Academic and Planning Performance
Application of a School-Wide Metacognitive Training Model: Effects on Academic and Planning Performance
Proponents of recent educational approaches to cognitive strategy training have emphasized the importance of ensuring that strategy training is incorporated within the teaching program of the classroom rather than being taught in academic and locational isolation. Designers of the Process-Based Instruction (PBI) model stress such an approach. Staff members in a primary school were trained to use PBI and provided consultancy support while they implemented the approach within their regular classroom academic programs. Students in the experimental school demonstrated significant gains in academic tasks, perceptions of ability, and some planning tasks when compared with the performance of participants in the contrast condition school. Limitations in the approach as well as future research issues are discussed.
- Go to article: Application of IE-Basic Program to Promote Cognitive and Affective Development in Preschoolers: A Chilean Study
Application of IE-Basic Program to Promote Cognitive and Affective Development in Preschoolers: A Chilean Study
This study explores the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Basic program (IE-B) in enhancing cognitive and affective functions of young children. The IE-B is a cognitive intervention program based on Feuerstein’s theories of structural cognitive modifiability (SCM) and mediated learning experience (MLE). Thirty 3- to 4-year-old children were assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the IE-B program for seven months (for a total of 48 hours) and was compared to the control group before and after intervention on tests of knowledge acquisition and vocabulary. Cognitive change was evaluated using a Chilean assessment battery that measured children’s language, cognition, and knowledge. The findings indicate that children in the experimental group improved their performance more than children in the control group. Results indicate that IE-B can be used with socially disadvantaged children as young as 3–4 and that it leads to improvement in their performance.
Results of outcome evaluations of the domestic violence (DV) programs are not encouraging. Overall, the most optimistic conclusion is that these programs have only a modest impact on reducing repeat partner violence. Recently, there are calls for DV programs to “grow up,” adapt a paradigm shift, shed ideology, and determine how the maximum impact can be realized from work to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). The following review examines why program results are so unconvincing and proposes a comprehensive framework to advance the field. Specifically, it recommends that applying the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) principles of effective corrections could substantially improve treatment results. Using this framework, the article identifies selected risk assessment tools to screen offenders into appropriate levels of service (the risk principle) and provides an extensive review of the literature on appropriate targets for change (the need principle). Problems with substance use (particularly alcohol abuse), emotion management, self-regulation, and attitudes supportive of partner abuse have substantial empirical support as factors related to IPV. There is weaker but promising support for targeting the impact of association with peers who are supportive of abuse of women, poor communication skills, and motivation to change abusive behavior patterns. Responsivity could be enhanced through incorporation of motivational interviewing techniques, the processes of change identified in the Transtheoretical Model, solution-focused and strength-based approaches, and attention to identity change and cultural issues. In addition, the review describes strategies to insure ongoing program integrity, a key factor in implementing effective interventions.
- Go to article: The Appropriateness of the Duluth Model for Intimate Partner Violence and Child-to-Parent Violence: A Conceptual Review
The Appropriateness of the Duluth Model for Intimate Partner Violence and Child-to-Parent Violence: A Conceptual Review
Research demonstrates that child-to-parent violence (CPV), an under researched form of family violence, is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). The aim of this article is to critically explore the influence of the Duluth model of IPV on the overarching conceptual frameworks used to explain CPV. Although gender socialization could indeed be a factor implicated in CPV, the prefixed assumptions of the Duluth model about gender as the ultimate etiological factor, have shaped and dominated the discourses of CPV resulting in devaluation of a range of other factors pertinent for understanding this type of violence. It has been established that violence, and more specifically family violence, is a highly complex phenomenon that has history and continuity; as such contextual, multi-modal explanations are favored (Asen & Fonagy, 2017). This article discusses the tenets of the theory and consequently, its influence on discourses around etiology and maintenance of this narrative. Future recommendations include ecological, lifespan approaches based upon tailored, evidence-based interventions.
If children fail to understand test instructions, measurements of their competence may be unfair and invalid. This is especially relevant for students with special educational needs (SEN) because they face greater challenges in comprehending instructions. Two interventions were designed to facilitate the comprehension of test requirements by presenting intensified instructions and to enhance students’ attention by engaging them in physical activity before receiving the test instructions. Three-hundred forty-eight students with SEN aged 8–12 years were randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a control group. Even after controlling for relevant variables (reading speed, basic cognitive skills), students participating in the interventions performed better in a reading test than controls. As hypothesized, the intensified test instructions reduced the number of responses that were not compliant with instructions. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of adapting test instructions for students with SEN, and it proposes interventions that can be implemented in other assessments.
Beginning with grass root movements in the early 1970s, batterer intervention programs (BIP) have evolved into the most prominent and visible form of intervention for individuals who commit acts of violence against their intimate partner. Evidence indicates, however, that these programs do not demonstrate high levels of effectiveness at stopping abuse/violence. To this end, this conceptual article presents an analytic discussion that first outlines traditional BIP approaches highlighting the literature finding ineffectiveness. Next, six ideas with the potential to change the field are presented followed by a brief description of how integrating strengths into work with batterers can improve intervention.
Teachers’ behavior in the classroom can be assessed from different perspectives using teacher ratings, student ratings, or classroom observations. This article presents an observation instrument to assess teachers’ promotion of self-regulated learning (SRL), capturing teachers’ instruction of self-regulation strategies as well as characteristics of the learning environment that should foster students’ self-regulation. Thirty-four classroom videotapes were systematically coded regarding teachers’ promotion of SRL. Moreover, student and teacher ratings were collected to compare different perspectives. For the prediction of students’ SRL, the value of observation data and of teacher and student ratings was analyzed. The results suggested that teacher and observer ratings did not agree, and that teacher and student ratings agreed to some extent. Regression analysis showed that the instruction of metacognitive strategies assessed through observations as well as through student ratings significantly predicted students’ SRL, whereas the ratings of the observed learning environment predicted student SRL and achievement negatively. In addition, teachers’ perceptions of fostering situated learning also predicted SRL of their students.
- Go to article: Assessing Special Educational Needs in Austria: Description of Labeling Practices and Their Evolution From 1996 to 2013
Assessing Special Educational Needs in Austria: Description of Labeling Practices and Their Evolution From 1996 to 2013
Even if the label special educational needs (SEN) is similarly used in various countries for indicating students with disabilities, the practices and diagnostic criteria leading to this label vary widely. This study aims to clarify the diagnostic process in Austria that leads to labeling. A sample of 169 special needs teachers who regularly write SEN reports participated in the online survey. The survey questions were based on those of a study by Ansperger (1998), who questioned special education teachers writing such reports in 1995–1996. Results show that, although more and more standardized instruments are used, still quite several unstandardized assessments are reported. Little time is available for the assessments, and only few reports include information on future pedagogical/educational intervention. It is concluded that in inclusive education, assessment should be more oriented toward educational intervention to address the diversity in learning needs among students than at diagnosing disabilities.
- Go to article: Assessing the Discrimination and Calibration of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment in Switzerland
Assessing the Discrimination and Calibration of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment in Switzerland
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health issue; worldwide, almost 1 in 3 women is affected. Police involvement in IPV cases has substantially increased because of “proarrest” and “procharging” policies and the enforcement of laws protecting victims of domestic violence. In the course of these changes, several front-line instruments have been developed to structure police risk assessment and decision-making strategies in such cases. One of those is the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA). To investigate its validity in a Swiss police setting, a total cohort of male IPV offenders was retrospectively assessed for a fixed time at risk of 5 years. The recidivism base rate was 32% when recidivism was defined as subsequent police-registered IPV. Although ODARA scores were significantly correlated with IPV recidivism, they showed poor discrimination and calibration. Despite comparable base rates of recidivism, the Zurich sample scored significantly higher on the ODARA than the development sample. This mismatch of the expected and observed recidivism rates resulted in an overestimating of risk, especially in the two highest risk bins. Several reasons for those deviations, such as level of intervention, victim’s reporting behavior, and the dynamic nature of IPV, are discussed.
The author of this study aimed to develop a method of assessment of real-life decision-making and self-advocacy skills and then to develop and evaluate a method for training those skills. A final sample of 24 young adults with mild learning difficulties and some emotional difficulties was studied using both group control design and a single subject evaluation. The dynamic assessment adopted yielded valuable material on individual training needs. The full training program yielded associated gains in both planning behavior and successful solutions. L’auteur de cette recherche cherchait à développer une méthode d’évaluation des capacités de prise de décision et de défense de ses intérêts dans la vie réelle puis de proposer et d’évaluer une méthode pour les entraîner. Un échantillon final de 24 jeunes adultes présentant des difficultés d’apprentissage légères et quelques problèmes émotionnels a été étudié en utilisant un groupe contrôle ainsi qu’une évaluation individuelle. L’évaluation dynamique adoptée a permis d’obtenir des informations utiles sur les besoins individuels d’entraînement. L’application du programme dans sa totalité révèle des progrès dans les domaines de la planification des actions et la découverte de solutions efficaces. Ziel der Autorin dieser Studie war es, eine Methode zur Erfassung von Entscheidungsverhalten im Alltag und von Fertigkeiten der Selbstbehauptung sowie eine Methode zum Training dieser Fertigkeiten zu entwickeln und zu evaluieren. Eine Stichprobe von 24 jungen Erwachsenen mit leichten Lernschwierigkeiten und emotionalen Problemen wurde mit Hilfe eines Kontrollgruppendesigns und einer Einzelfallevaluation untersucht. Die eingesetzte dynamische Erfassungsmethode ergab wichtige Hinweise auf individuelle Trainingsbedürfnisse. Das vollständige Trainingsprogramm ergab Gewinne sowohl im Planungsverhalten als auch bezüglich erfolgreicher Problemlösungen. El autor de este estudio se propuso desarrollar un método de evaluación de las habilidades para la toma de decisiones en la vida real y de autoapoyo, como igualmente para evaluar un método de entrenamiento de dichas habilidades. La muestra estuvo integrada por 24 jóvenes adultos con dificultades de aprendizaje de tipo medio y con algunas dificultades emocionales. El diseño disponía de un grupo de control y una simple evaluación temática. La evaluación dinámica adoptada produjo un material para la evaluación de las necesidades individuales del entrenamiento. El programa completo dio lugar a ganancias en conductas de planificación y en soluciones exitosas. L’autore di questo studio mirava a sviluppare un metodo di valutazione delle abilità decisionali e di self-advocacy nella vita reale per poi mettere a punto e valutare un metodo volto all’insegnamento di tali abilità. Il campione conclusivo dello studio comprendeva 24 giovani adulti con difficoltà di apprendimento lievi e qualche difficoltà nella sfera emotiva, con un designo di ricerca che prevedeva sia la presenza del gruppo di controllo sia una valutazione individuale dei soggetti. La valutazione dinamica impiegata ha fornito materiale prezioso in relazione ai bisogni individuali di training. Il programma di training completo ha prodotto vantaggi associati sia nel comportamento di pianificazione che nell’individuazione di soluzioni efficaci.