Across many countries, the use of dating applications and websites (DAWs) has become increasingly popular over recent years; however, research examining the relationship between DAWs use and experience of dating violence and/or other harms is limited. This study aims to explore the use, motivations, and experiences of harm associated with using DAWs and meeting people in person via DAWs. An online convenience sample pilot survey was completed by adults (n = 217) aged 18+ years, living in the UK or the Republic of Ireland, who had used a DAW in the past two years. Differences were found in usage, motivations, and experiences of using DAWs in age and gender. Nearly half, 46.5% of respondents reported having been a victim of at least one harm as a result of meeting someone in person via DAWs in their lifetime; 33.2% reported experiencing sexual violence, 27.2% verbal abuse, 8.3% sexual activity in exchange for goods and 6.5% physical assault. Further to this, 41.9% of respondents reported being “Catfished” in the past two years (i.e., the other person looking different in person compared to their DAWs profile). In multivariate analysis, experiencing at least one harm was significantly associated with female gender (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.0; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 3.1; p < .01; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 3.3; p < .001). In multivariate analysis, sexual violence was significantly associated with being female (AOR 6.9; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 2.9; p = .013; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 2.9; p = .001). The study reinforces the importance of understanding the use of DAWs, exposure to harms on and offline, and risks associated with “Catfishing.”
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- Go to article: Men’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Their Experiences With a Crisis Center in Denmark
Many countries are unable to offer men and their children a safe place to stay when exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Denmark is an exception by having implemented a coordinated effort in 2016 of meeting the needs of male victims of IPV and their children. This presents an opportunity for in-depth exploration of the experiences of male victims of IPV. In this study we present a review of men’s exposure to IPV in Denmark, the experiences of 58 men who stayed in six crisis centers for men, and present results from a follow-up pilot study working with these men. Men staying in the crisis centers reported having been exposed to psychological, physical, economical, material violence, and stalking perpetrated predominantly by a female partner or ex-partner. In the follow-up, several men reported still being exposed to different types of violence and threats. The men experienced a number of adverse outcomes associated with their experiences but described a positive impact by the combination of help offered at the shelters. This study points to the importance of safe accommodation for male victims of IPV and includes recommendations for practice.
- Go to article: Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
This explorative article aims to take a step in the direction of a realist-oriented scientific design that extends our knowledge of the requirements of a methodology that improves our ability to uncover the causal mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. Despite the great advances that have been made in individual research disciplines, our understanding of the complex causes is still insufficient and suffers from our inability to grasp the larger whole of the collaborative processes. As a first step towards the objective, an integration attempt is implemented that aims to highlight methodological issues that we have to overcome to explain men's violence against women. The integration of psychological, social-psychological, and sociological theories aims to exemplify how contributing, and counteracting factors interact with each other and form a complex mechanism that influences whether violence against women will take place or not. To leave room for the methodological dimension, the depth of each perspective has been reduced. The results of the integration attempt show both opportunities and difficulties in investigating the mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. However, there is still untapped knowledge potential in the explorative integration of theories and the use of realist-oriented pluralistic research methodologies.
- Go to article: Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Since the rates of violence are high in patriarchal societies, determining the attitudes of people in these societies towards violence and the factors affecting these attitudes are of great importance. The researchers in the present study aimed to determine people’s attitudes towards violence who live in a region where patriarchal values still reign in Turkey and to investigate factors urging people to tend to perpetrate violence. The data was collected from 628 people at five family health centers in a province in the east of Turkey, providing health services to people of different socioeconomic levels. The Participant Information Form and Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale were used to collect the study data. In the present study, the participants displayed positive attitudes toward violence. In the present study, the following factors were determined to affect attitudes towards violence: Income status, occupation, sex, family type, alcohol use, and perception that violence cannot be prevented. Male-dominated patriarchal society has very negative effects on people in terms of perpetrating violence. In addition, to reduce the negative effects of living in extended families, people should be enabled to live independently of their families after getting married.
Police respond to high volumes of domestic violence (DV) calls that can be time-consuming and often deal with repeat involved persons, regardless of whether or not charges are laid. This study extracts and examines three distinct cases of individuals/couples that involved almost 2% of 3,414 domestic violence calls to police that occurred over about a 3-year period for a small-sized urban community and its surrounding rural areas in Ontario, Canada. Most of the calls (86.2%) for these three cases did not result in any charges being laid. Each case represented a unique problem focus common in DV situations, and all three cases involved children. Key issues for one case included substance use and the cycle of violence; in another case, mental health problems and parenting challenges were prominent; and the third case pertained to child custody and access issues. Acceptance of offered support and services by the involved persons was minimal in all three cases. Implications for improved police responses involving collaboration with other service providers in smaller communities with limited resources are discussed.
- Go to article: Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
The present study represents the third part of an exploration into the demographic characteristics, context, and outcomes of abuse and outcomes of service engagement for users of specialist Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) services in the United Kingdom (UK; parts I and II respectively). It delivers on a commitment made in those parts to provide an examination of LGBT clients (including in comparison to the cisgender, heterosexual, or “cishet” clients examined in parts I & II, hereby known as “non-LGBT”). The current study utilized a large-scale quantitative data set of 35,882 clients presenting to specialist DVA services within the UK between 2007 and 2017, including 34,815 non-LGBT and 1,067 LGBT clients. Several areas of similarity between the two subsamples were identified, including some of the types of abuse reported, referral routes, and outcomes upon exit from services. Significant differences was also found. For example, the LGBT subsample was found to be significantly more likely to present to services with substance use and mental health issues (including self-harm) and was also more likely to have their case progressed by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The findings are discussed along with recommendations for future research and practice, centered around the provision of gender and sexuality-inclusive provision, which acknowledges differential risks of LGBT clients, and how these reflect their experiences as a “minority” population (i.e., so-called “minority stress”).
- Go to article: Abused and Rejected: The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Parental Alienation
Previous studies have demonstrated a connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and a child’s alienation from the abused parent, but little is known about the relationships between the type of IPV, aspects, and severity of a child’s alienation, and the target parent’s gender. This study assessed the presence of an IPV history (verbal and physical aspects) among parents who identify as targets of their children’s unreasonable rejection. Also investigated were associations between the form of IPV and manifestations of a child’s alienated behavior, parent’s gender and type of IPV, and parents’ gender and degree of the child’s alienation. Self-identified alienated parents (n = 842) completed an online survey that included an IPV screening measurement (Hurts, Insults, Screams, Threatens screening tool) and a measure of the parent’s perception of their child’s alienated behaviors (Rowlands Parental Alienation Scale). The majority identified as IPV victims and reported a higher level of verbal than physical abuse. More mothers than fathers identified themselves as IPV victims. As a group, IPV victims rated their child as more severely alienated than did non-IPV alienated parents. Mothers were more likely than fathers to report physical aggression by the other parent and more likely than fathers to assess their child’s alienated behaviors as more severe. Victims of physical violence reported their children were less likely to withhold positive affection from them. This knowledge may assist in earlier identification of the alienation process and greater recognition, legitimacy, funding, and opportunities for enhanced collaboration among stakeholders. This, in turn, may lead to improvements in prevention, intervention, and accountability, thus helping to interrupt alienation processes.
- Go to article: A Comprehensive Study of Public, Family, and Felony Mass Shootings in the United States, 2006–2020
This study provides a comprehensive examination of mass shootings in America (2006–2020). Specifically, this work identifies offender, victim, and incident characteristics, incidence rates, and differences between public, family, and felony mass shootings. Findings indicate consistent characteristics across all mass shootings include male offenders and the use of handguns. Family mass shootings had the highest incidence rate. Family and the felony mass shootings largely involved close offender-victim relationships, no victim injuries, and private locations. Oft-considered public mass shootings involving stranger victims, higher victim counts, and public locations do not reflect the overall phenomenon. Implications offer insight for understanding and addressing the mass shooting problem.
- Go to article: Bystander Opportunity, Actions, and Inaction in Suspected Intimate Partner Violence: Differences Between Graduate and Undergraduate Students
Bystander Opportunity, Actions, and Inaction in Suspected Intimate Partner Violence: Differences Between Graduate and Undergraduate Students
Limited research examines graduate student experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) or bystander intervention. In this exploratory study, we compare the extent of opportunity to intervene in suspected IPV, how students tried to help, and barriers to intervention for undergraduate (n = 698) and graduate students (n = 967) at one university using data from stratified random samples of students. Graduate students indicated significantly less opportunity to intervene than undergraduate students (16.2% vs. 35.5%). Among students with the opportunity, however, similar proportions of undergraduate and graduate students tried to help, with most confronting the situation directly. Among those who did not try to help, graduate students commonly endorsed “not knowing what to do,” suggesting an opportunity to enhance prosocial intervention skills among this population through targeted bystander-based training initiatives.
- Go to article: Assessing Knowledge and Acceptability of a Trauma-Informed Training Model to Strengthen Response to Conflict and Gender-Based Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Assessing Knowledge and Acceptability of a Trauma-Informed Training Model to Strengthen Response to Conflict and Gender-Based Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence is common in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, but there are few evaluations of multisectoral training interventions in conflict settings. We conducted high-quality, trauma-informed medicolegal trainings amongst multisectoral professionals and sought to describe changes in knowledge after training and perceived training acceptability. Participants were health, law enforcement, and legal professionals who completed training at one of four sites from January 2012 to December 2018. Twelve trainings were randomly selected for evaluation. We conducted pre- and post-training assessments and semi-structured interviews of participants within 12 months of index training. Forty-six trainings of 1,060 individuals were conducted during the study period. Of the randomly selected trainings, 368 questionnaires were included in the analysis (36% health, 31% legal, 12% law enforcement, 21% other). The mean knowledge scores (standard deviation) significantly improved after training: 77.9 (22.9) vs. 70.4 (20.8) (p <0.001). Four key benefits were identified: 1) improved cross-sector coordination; 2) enhanced survivor-centered care; 3) increased standardization of forensic practices; and 4) higher quality evidence collection. Participants completing the training had improved knowledge scores and perceived several key benefits, suggesting the multisectoral training was acceptable in this under-resourced, conflict region.