Most research to date has focused on perpetrators of mass murder incidents. Hence, there is little information on victims. We examined 973 mass murders that occurred in the United States between 1900 and 2019 resulting in 5,273 total fatalities and 4,498 nonfatal injuries for a total of 9,771 victims (on average 10 victims per incident). Approximately 64% of victims of mass murder were White individuals, 13% were Black individuals, 6% were Asian individuals, and 14% were Latinx individuals. Given the higher number of nonfatal injuries per nonfirearm mass murder event (11.0 vs. 2.8, p < .001), the total number of victims was only 50% higher for mass shootings (5,855 victims) vs. nonfirearm mass murder events (3,916 victims). Among the 421 incidents of mass murder in the United States since 2000, Black, Asian, and Native American individuals were overrepresented among victims of mass shootings compared with their representation in the general U.S. population, and White individuals were underrepresented (all p < .002). Findings of racial/ethnic differences were similar among victims of mass murder committed with means other than firearms for Black, Asian, and White individuals. These findings highlight different areas of victimology within the context of these incidents.
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- Go to article: Substance Use and Violence Victimization Among Women: A Review of Relevant Literature
A review of the recent scientific literature on the relationship between substance use and violence victimization among women in the United States is presented. Systematic review methodology adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses guidelines. In total, 15 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. There is substantial evidence suggesting substance use (e.g., severity of use, types of substances used) is associated with women’s violent victimization histories. Evidence suggests that women are uniquely situated in illicit drug markets and other illicit economies in a manner that increases their risk for violent victimization. The strengths and shortcomings of current theoretical explanations of substance use and violence victimization are discussed, as well as considerations for future research and interventions.
- Go to article: Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
A prevalence study was conducted using the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire for men (m-NorAQ) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported experience of life-course abuse and to identify the perpetrators of the abuse. This among men seeking general psychiatric and addiction care in a Swedish context. In total, 210 men completed the questionnaire, and were included in the study. The total prevalence of life-course abuse (i.e., any emotional, physical or sexual abuse during the life course) was 75% (n = 157). The results of this study indicate the importance of identifying experiences of life-course abuse among men in general psychiatric and addiction care settings.
- Go to article: A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
Substantial gaps remain in our understanding of the risks and barriers that exist for men affected by rape and sexual abuse. The present research utilized semi-structured interviews with 12 service providers from specialist organizations in the United Kingdom. An interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three superordinate themes: (a) survivors’ needs for agency, safety, and control as functions of their masculinity; (b) the impact of rape myths and their challenge to therapeutic intervention; and (c) survivors’ expectations around reporting and the police. The role of masculinity and social stigma permeated participants’ accounts, with negative stereotypes and male rape myths influencing reporting, access to services, and survivors’ coping mechanisms. Results are discussed in relation to current service provision within the United Kingdom, and avenues for improvement are suggested.
- Go to article: Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
This study examined whether sexual objectification (i.e., reducing someone to a sex object via a disproportionate focus on appearance and sexual characteristics) was associated with decreased confidence in future bystander intervention to reduce the risk for sexual violence (i.e., bystander efficacy) through several barriers to intervention: failing to noticethe event, failing to identify the situation as risky, and failing to take responsibility. Participants were 1,021 undergraduates (n = 309 men; n = 712 women) who completed self-report measures. Because men frequently perpetrate objectification, whereas women often experience objectification, complementary models were tested with objectification perpetration in men and objectification experiences in women. As expected, for men, each barrier mediated negative associations between objectification perpetration and bystander efficacy. Unexpectedly, for women, each barrier mediated positive associations between objectification experiences and bystander efficacy. Findings underscore important gender differences in associations between sexual objectification and bystander efficacy, as well as potential benefits of helping bystanders recognize the risk for sexual violence and assume responsibility for intervening.
- Go to article: International and Domestic College Students: A Comparison of Campus Sexual Assault Victimization
Campus sexual assault (CSA) research predominately focuses on the victimization experiences of domestic college students. Therefore, there is little knowledge on, and understanding of, international student’s CSA victimization experiences. The present study analyzed results from a campus climate survey conducted in 2018 at a midsized Midwestern university. Twenty-three percent of international women and 18% of international men reported being a CSA victim. A series of analyses then compared CSA victimizations in relation to international victims vs. international nonvictims and international victims vs. domestic victims. Results showed international victims vs. international nonvictims were more likely to be a sexual minority and be a member of a sorority or fraternity. Compared with domestic women, international women were more likely to report being non-victims. Compared with domestic men, international men were more likely to report being CSA victims. Results are discussed in relation to research on CSA and propose future directions of study.
The firearm mortality rate in West Virginia (WV) increased over the past four years and is currently 50% higher than the national rate. These alarming statistics, combined with the urban-to-rural shift in firearm injuries, prompted this 10-year epidemiologic overview. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current study stands alone as the only report of its kind on firearm injuries in the rural setting of southern WV. Firearm injuries were common in White males within the age range of 20–49 years. Assault, which is typically identified as an urban problem, was found to be the most common injury in the study population. In our data series, injury severity score was the strongest predictor of mortality, followed by self-inflicted cause of injury and trauma to the neck/head region.
- Go to article: “Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S.
“Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S.
Chinese immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the United States have been overlooked and underserved. The purpose of this study was to explore their perceptions of resources for assistance as well as their priority needs. We conducted phone interviews with 20 Chinese immigrant women who had experienced IPV in the past year. The women expressed their needs for emotional support, culturally specific services, a variety of online resources to meet different demands, being empowered, raising the Chinese community’s awareness about IPV, and batterer intervention programs. These women’s testimonies shows that greater effort should be directed toward addressing those needs in order to reduce IPV and its impacts on health in this vulnerable group of women.
- Go to article: Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
This study investigated whether interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence combining parallel groups for children and mothers contribute to positive outcomes for partaking mothers. The study included 39 mothers in a long-term within-subject design without a control group in a Swedish naturalistic setting. Maternal psychological health was assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Mothers reported medium- to large-sized decrease in psychological symptoms, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress, postintervention (p = < .001 d = 0.45–0.96). During the follow-up period, sustained and further decrease of symptoms was reported (p = < .001 d = 0.58–1.60). Mothers also reported decreased exposure to violence. Results indicate that these child-focused programs have major and sustainable positive effects on mothers’ psychological health.
- Go to article: The Effectiveness of EMDR With Individuals Experiencing Substance Use Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
The current meta-analysis aims to synthesize existing studies on the effectiveness of both trauma-focused and addiction-focused eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for people with substance use disorder (SUD). Search and selection procedures involved screening 1,733 references, yielding 10 studies published between 2008 and 2021 from 8 countries with 561 participants. After the removal of one outlier study, the results showed EMDR to be effective on a variety of outcomes for people with SUD (n = 9, d = .654, 95% CI [.332, .985], p < .001). Regarding the effects on SUD outcomes, meta-analysis also showed EMDR to be effective (n = 7, d = .580, 95% CI [.209, .951], p = .002). Specifically, EMDR was effective with SUD treatment engagement and severity, but not necessarily the reduction of cravings, and also effective for reducing comorbid posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis is limited by the number of studies and participants, heterogeneity in methods of included studies, the quality of studies, and other factors.