This article introduces the integration of a transpersonal psychological approach into the standard eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) protocol. The history and philosophy of transpersonal psychology is explained as an expanded context for healing. The applications of a transpersonal context to EMDR therapy are discussed as it applies to taking the client from trauma to healing beyond adaptive functioning leading to exceptional human functioning, as depicted in Native shamanism and Eastern spiritual tradition where consciousness is awakened. The influence of the consciousness of the therapist is explored, as the convergence of science, psychology, and spirituality address the interpersonal nature of a shared energy field. Elements of transpersonal psychotherapy are presented, and transpersonal therapeutic skills are described to enhance the range of tools of the therapist from egoic intervention to an expanded range of perception based in mindful awareness, attunement, and resonance. Comprehensive case examples take us through the standard EMDR protocol where these two approaches integrate and flow as healing unresolved early trauma becomes the doorway for spiritual awakening.
Your search for all content returned 28 results
- Go to article: EMDR as a Transpersonal Therapy: A Trauma-Focused Approach to Awakening Consciousness
- Go to article: Effects of a 12-Week Mindfulness, Compassion, and Loving Kindness Program on Chronic Depression: A Pilot Within-Subjects Wait-List Controlled Trial
Effects of a 12-Week Mindfulness, Compassion, and Loving Kindness Program on Chronic Depression: A Pilot Within-Subjects Wait-List Controlled Trial
In this pilot study, N = 11 patients suffering from chronic depression were treated in a 12-week group program consisting of basic mindfulness exercises from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and compassion exercises from Compassion Focused Therapy and Loving Kindness Meditation. In a 3-month waiting period prior to treatment, depression symptoms both in self-report and clinician rating did not change significantly. After treatment, depression severity was significantly reduced. After a 3-month follow-up, the symptoms further improved, with almost large effect sizes being observed in primary outcome measures.
Changes in emotion regulation styles reflected by a significant increase in acceptance and significant decrease in suppression of emotions were observed at follow-up. Rumination about oneself was also significantly reduced at follow-up. Compassionate love and mindfulness were increased at follow-up, no effects were found on the Self-Compassion Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Given further confirming studies for this approach, it might improve treatment options for patients suffering from chronic depression.
- Go to article: Mechanisms of Change in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Self-Compassion and Mindfulness as Mediators of Intervention Outcomes
Mechanisms of Change in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Self-Compassion and Mindfulness as Mediators of Intervention Outcomes
Research has demonstrated support for the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in alleviating psychological distress and symptoms. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms through which MBSR achieves its outcomes. This study examined mindfulness and self-compassion as potential mediators of MBSR’s effects on several processes and behaviors related to emotion regulation, using data from a randomized trial of MBSR versus waitlist (WL), in which MBSR participants demonstrated significantly greater improvements in worry, fear of emotion, difficulties in emotion regulation, suppression of anger, and aggressive anger expression. Mediation analysis using bootstrap resampling indicated that increases in self-compassion mediated MBSR’s effects on worry, controlling for change in mindfulness. Increases in mindfulness mediated the intervention’s effects on difficulties in emotion regulation, controlling for change in self-compassion. Both variables mediated MBSR’s effects on fear of emotion. These findings highlight the importance of mindfulness and self-compassion as key processes of change that underlie MBSR’s outcomes.
- Go to article: A Multisite Pre/Post Study of Mindfulness Training for Therapists: The Impact on Session Presence and Effectiveness
A Multisite Pre/Post Study of Mindfulness Training for Therapists: The Impact on Session Presence and Effectiveness
Background: To date, little research has tested whether the use of mindfulness by clinicians results in actual changes in psychotherapy sessions. The purpose of this multisite study was to test whether a brief 5-week mindfulness training program could lead to improved session presence and effectiveness for trainee clinicians (n = 31). Methods: At the end of 85 pretraining and 132 posttraining sessions, clients completed the client version of the Therapist Presence Inventory (TPI-C; Geller, Greenberg, & Watson, 2010) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS; Johnson, Miller, & Duncan, 2000). Results: Although the levels of client-rated presence did not differ between pretraining and posttraining sessions, sessions that occurred after the training were rated by clients as more effective compared to the pretraining sessions, t(170.91) = 2.63, p = .01, d = .30. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary session outcome evidence supporting mindfulness training for clinicians.
- Go to article: Metacognition and Mindfulness Integrated Therapy Reduces Severity of Hallucination in a Patient Not Taking Antipsychotic Medication
Metacognition and Mindfulness Integrated Therapy Reduces Severity of Hallucination in a Patient Not Taking Antipsychotic Medication
Psychological interventions have proven efficacy in treating psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. However, the efficacy of these interventions has primarily been evaluated in the context of their use as an adjunct to antipsychotics or on patients who do not respond to adequate trials of antipsychotics. There is paucity of research about the effectiveness of psychological interventions in patients who do not take antipsychotics either because they are not willing to take medications or are not able to tolerate antipsychotics due to the side effects. We report here the case of a patient who had distressing auditory hallucinations and was not able to take antipsychotic medications because of severe reactions. She responded to metacognition and mindfulness integrated therapy for auditory hallucination. A total of eight sessions of therapy with the major focus on enhancement of metacognitive insight into the mechanisms of genesis and maintenance of hallucinations followed by encouraging the patient to use mindfulness-based strategies and regular self-monitoring of hallucinatory experiences were conducted. The patient was assessed pre–post intervention on the auditory hallucination subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS). There was significant improvement as reflected by more than 50% reduction in the PSYRATS score. This case highlights that metacognition and mindfulness integrated therapy has the potential to help patients with hallucination who do not take antipsychotic medications. The insight building helps in developing a detached approach towards hallucinatory experiences which, in turn, reduces distress caused by the hallucinations.
- Go to article: Rumination and Mindlessness Processes: Trajectories of Change in a 42-Day Mindfulness-Based Intervention
Rumination and Mindlessness Processes: Trajectories of Change in a 42-Day Mindfulness-Based Intervention
This preliminary study aimed to understand the effects of an autonomous mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on mindlessness propensities: rumination, automatic pilot functioning, and attentional distractibility. The ecological momentary assessment was completed by community participants assigned to two nonrandomized groups: an experimental group (n = 45) that practiced 20-minute daily mindfulness meditation for 42 days and a control group (n = 44) that was on the waiting list for the MBI. All participants completed a self-assessment on rumination and mindlessness propensities twice a day. The MBI led to a favorable gradual decrease in automatic pilot functioning and attentional distractibility. Rumination evolved in three stages: a rapid decrease during the first week, a stabilization phase between the 10th and 30th days, and an additional decrease after 30 days of practice. This innovative study provides a promising perspective regarding rumination, automatic pilot functioning, and attentional distractibility dynamic trajectories over the course of an MBI.
- Go to article: Toward Determinants and Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Training in Pre-Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Event-Related Potentials
Toward Determinants and Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Training in Pre-Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Event-Related Potentials
The present study presents the first attempt at investigating long-term mindfulness training in pre-adolescence, adopting an integrative neurodevelopmental approach. Pupils with an established mindfulness practice (n = 33) were compared with mindfulness-inexperienced pupils (n = 20) on dispositional mindfulness, executive functioning (EF), emotion regulation, and well-being. We also investigated whether increased well-being in mindfulness-experienced pre-adolescents would be mediated by EF and emotion regulation. Moderating influences of the amount and enjoyment of mindfulness training were considered as well. Self-report questionnaires measured dispositional mindfulness and well-being. Parents assessed their child's emotion-regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). Performance in a Continuous Performance Task and simultaneously recorded event-related potentials (ERPs)—Cue-P3, CNV, Nogo-N2, Nogo-P3—indexed EF. Interestingly, the two groups of pupils did not differ in their dispositional mindfulness. ERP findings revealed that the mindfulness-experienced group demonstrated superior EF in terms of response inhibition, but inferior EF in terms of cue processing. Although the ERC negativity/lability subscale revealed an advantage for the mindfulness-experienced group, no group differences were observed for the ERC emotion regulation subscale or well-being. Mediation analysis results did not support the assumption that mindfulness training leads to increased well-being via improvements in EF and emotion regulation. While outcomes were not moderated by amount of mindfulness practice, enjoying mindfulness was negatively associated with indicators of well-being and EF.
- Go to article: Changes in Mind-Wandering and Cognitive Fusion Through Mindfulness Group Therapy for Depression and Anxiety
Changes in Mind-Wandering and Cognitive Fusion Through Mindfulness Group Therapy for Depression and Anxiety
The mechanisms of efficacy in mindfulness-based interventions for depression and anxiety are not fully understood. To clarify these mechanisms, we tested the hypotheses that mind-wandering, daydreaming, cognitive fusion, and experiential avoidance will decrease through mindfulness group therapy, and this decrease will correlate with improvements in depression and anxiety. Participants self-reported depression and/or anxiety (N = 28) took part in an 8-week mindfulness group therapy program. They were assessed using self-report scales at pre- and post-intervention, and at 2-month follow-up. Results indicated that depression and trait-anxiety decreased between pre- and post-intervention with moderate effect sizes, which were maintained at follow-up. Mind-wandering and cognitive fusion also decreased between pre- and post-intervention with small to moderate effect sizes, and maintained at follow-up. The decreases in mind-wandering and cognitive fusion moderately correlated with improvements in depression and anxiety, suggesting that decreases in mind-wandering and cognitive fusion might underlie efficacious mechanisms of mindfulness group therapy.
- Go to article: Treating Taboo or Forbidden Thoughts: Integrating Mindfulness, Acceptance, and Emotion Regulation Into an Exposure-Based Intervention
Treating Taboo or Forbidden Thoughts: Integrating Mindfulness, Acceptance, and Emotion Regulation Into an Exposure-Based Intervention
Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who struggle with taboo or unacceptable obsessions (i.e., aggressive, sexual, or religious intrusions) tend to rely upon mental rituals to regulate their distress and possess difficulties labeling and regulating their affective state. Moreover, these individuals respond poorly to exposure with response prevention when the treatment is grounded in emotional processing theory. To improve patients' therapeutic outcomes, clinicians can consider integrating mindfulness- and acceptance-based skills into an exposure-based treatment to: facilitate the identification and acceptance of covert ritualistic urges, improve the accuracy of emotion labeling, and increase the efficiency of emotion regulation efforts. Additionally, in line with inhibitory learning theory, clinicians can design exposures to violate expectancies to promote the maintenance of long-term gains. Through a case vignette, the current article will demonstrate how to integrate these strategies into a standard exposure with response prevention intervention to meet the needs of a patient with taboo thoughts.
- Go to article: Social Anxiety and Misinterpretation of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Describe Subscale
The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is a widely used measure assessing 5 aspects of mindfulness. The Describe subscale is intended to assess the ability to put one’s inner experience into words for one’s own understanding, but subscale items contain language that may be ambiguous in that regard. The current study investigated whether social anxiety is associated with a tendency to misinterpret Describe items as referring to describing one’s experiences to others rather than oneself. Participants were randomized to receive one of 3 versions of the Describe subscale: the original version or one of two variants orienting participants to describe inner experience for self-communication or interpersonal communication. Social anxiety was negatively associated with Describe scores for the Standard Describe subscale and the interpersonal communication variant, but not for the self-communication variant. Results suggest that high levels of social anxiety are associated with misinterpretation of statements on the Describe subscale as probing for interpersonal communication.