The present research uses hierarchical modeling to examine the relative contributions of factors about the person, factors about the context, and, most important the interaction of factors about the person and factors about the context in models of both repeat victimization (more than one of the same type of crime) and multiple victimization (two or more different types of crime). Using telephone survey data from a multistage sample of Seattle residents, we estimate separate hierarchical models for repeat property, repeat violent and multiple victimization. Results indicate that repeat victimization of both types varies substantially by neighborhood, whereas multiple victimization seems more determined by individual-level factors. Implications for social disorganization theory, routine activity/lifestyle exposure theory, and future work on repeat victimization are discussed.
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- Go to article: Structural Antecedents of Aggravated Assault: Exploratory Assessment of Female and Male Victimization
Structural Antecedents of Aggravated Assault: Exploratory Assessment of Female and Male Victimization
This article examines whether the social structural factors predicting violence against women are different from those predicting violence against men. Using sex-specific, aggravated assault rates from Florida counties (n = 60), this regression analysis tests three principal explanations of violent victimization: routine activities, social disorganization, and gender inequality. Although initially some difference in the predictive factors for male and female aggravated assault rates emerged, a test of the equality of regression coefficients revealed no “real” significant differences. Despite this finding, it remains important to assess the influence of societal factors on rates of violent victimization. The national trend indicates that male violent victimization is declining and female violent victimization is relatively stable. It is important to understand why this is the case.
Most research on predictors of teen dating violence (TDV) has used cross-sectional data, which weakens predictive modeling and hypothesis testing analyses. This study uses prospective and retrospective longitudinal data on a community sample to examine previously identified predictors of TDV victimization and pathways from childhood risk and protection to TDV victimization. Data are from 941 participants in the Raising Healthy Children project. For girls, a multivariate path model indicated that higher levels of bonding to parents and social skills protected against TDV victimizations, partly by reducing early adolescent alcohol use. For boys, there was an indirect path from childhood bonding to parents to TDV victimization through early adolescent externalizing behavior.
- Go to article: Effects of Social Desirability on Students’ Self-Reporting of Partner Abuse Perpetration and Victimization
Effects of Social Desirability on Students’ Self-Reporting of Partner Abuse Perpetration and Victimization
Little is still known about the degree to which social desirability affects reports of partner abuse. The current study builds on existing research exploring the relationship between social desirability and partner abuse reports by analyzing 49 male and 155 female students’ responses to the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). Sex differences were not associated with partner abuse rates, regardless of type, severity, and violence role. Women had significantly higher social desirability scores than men, and women’s MCSDS scores were negatively correlated with partner abuse perpetration and victimization rates. Social desirability was a significant predictor of psychological abuse perpetration, whereas gender was a significant predictor of sexual coercion perpetration. In all partner abuse cases, however, social desirability and gender accounted for less than 10% of the variance in partner abuse reports.
Previous literature has not specified the contextual differences that adequately explain Asian Americans’ underinvolvement in homicide. This study examines the social contexts within which homicide takes place. Homicide data from 1991 to 1999 in California are analyzed, and the results show that, compared to other groups, Asian homicide victims are more likely to be killed by family members, to be female, and to be married. Results of a negative binomial regression analysis also show that an acculturation factor that weakens the institution of family tends to affect general homicide more for Asian Americans than non-Asians but does not affect Asian family homicide. Social disadvantage factors affect non-Asian homicide more than Asian homicide.
- Go to article: Victimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Runaway and Homeless Adolescents
This article presents lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates and comorbidity for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a sample of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents. Data are from baseline interviews of a longitudinal diagnostic study of 428 (187 males; 241 females) homeless and runaway adolescents aged 16–19 years (mean age = 17.4 years, SD = 1.05). The data were collected by full-time street interviewers on the streets and in shelters in eight Midwestern cities of various populations. About one-third (35.5%) of the runaways met lifetime criteria for PTSD and 16.1% met 12-month criteria for the disorder. More than 90% of the adolescents who met criteria for PTSD met criteria for at least one of the other four diagnoses. Multivariate analyses indicated that correlates of PTSD were age of adolescent, being female, having experienced serious physical abuse and/or sexual abuse from an adult caretaker, and having been assaulted or injured by weapon when on the street. The multiplicative interaction between sexual abuse by caretaker and sexual assault when the adolescents were on their own was statistically significant, indicating that rape victims were highly likely to meet criteria for PTSD regardless of early sexual abuse. At very high levels of early sexual abuse, the probability of meeting criteria for PTSD converges with that for sexual assault victims.
- Go to article: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Early Abuse on Later Victimization Among High-Risk Adolescents
A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Early Abuse on Later Victimization Among High-Risk Adolescents
Although previous research on adolescents finds a link between early abuse and later victimization, the majority of this research is cross-sectional and based on samples of currently homeless adolescents. Therefore, factors that predict the likelihood of victimization have not been systematically examined. As such, the current study longitudinally examines the effects of early abuse and poor parenting on victimization via running away, delinquency, and early sexual onset among a sample of over 700 currently housed high-risk adolescents. Results revealed that having experienced sexual and physical abuse, as well as lower levels of parental monitoring and closeness, significantly predicted running away at wave 1. Adolescents who had run at wave 1 were significantly more likely to run again, more likely to engage in delinquency, and more likely to have had an early sexual onset at wave 3, all of which significantly predicted victimization at wave 4.
Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.
- Go to article: Fear of Acquaintance Versus Stranger Rape as a “Master Status”: Towards Refinement of the “Shadow of Sexual Assault”
Fear of Acquaintance Versus Stranger Rape as a “Master Status”: Towards Refinement of the “Shadow of Sexual Assault”
Using a sample of 1,010 women from a southeastern state university, we explore whether associations between fear of sexual assault and other crime-specific fears vary based on presumed victim-offender relationship. More specifically, we assess the extent to which fear of stranger- and acquaintance-perpetrated sexual assaults differ in the extent to which they are correlated with fear of other crime victimizations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both fear of stranger-perpetrated sexual assault and fear of acquaintance-perpetrated sexual assault were positively associated with nearly all other crime-specific fears under examination. However, associations were particularly strong between fear of sexual assault by a stranger and fear of other stranger-perpetrated crimes. Findings have significant implications for how academic institutions should comprehensively address direct and indirect negative influences of violence against college women.
- Go to article: Demographic and Situational Factors Affecting Injury, Resistance, Completion, and Charges Brought in Sexual Assault Cases: What Is Best for Arrest?
Demographic and Situational Factors Affecting Injury, Resistance, Completion, and Charges Brought in Sexual Assault Cases: What Is Best for Arrest?
This study examines demographic and situational factors in an effort to predict whether or not a complainant was injured, used resistance, experienced a completed assault, and whether charges were brought against the offender. If the accused had consumed alcohol or drugs, he was almost seven times more likely to be arrested. The complainant was six times more likely to report rape completion if she had consumed alcohol or drugs and if the complainant fell unconscious at any time during the attack she was significantly less likely to use a resistance strategy. The complainant’s use of a compliance strategy at any time during the assault positively predicted not using a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. The reporting of injury positively predicted use a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. If the assault was completed, it was less likely that charges were pressed. Implications of these findings are discussed, and directions for future research are offered.