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- Go to article: Effectiveness of Metacognitive Instruction on Reading Comprehension Among Intermediate Phase Learners: Its Link to the Pass Theory
The authors define peer tutoring and describe the types of peer tutoring reported in the literature. An organizational typography of peer tutoring in school classrooms is presented, and the variables that influence patterns, nature and effectiveness of peer interaction are explored. Cognitive models of peer tutoring approaches that follow either Piagetian theories of cognitive conflict or Vygotskian theories of co-construction are compared and the similarities and differences of each model interrogated. The influences each model may have on cognitive and affective development, as well as metacognition, are illustrated. The authors discuss knowledge transfer issues to facilitate the development of effective models of peer tutoring in the classroom practice of teachers in schools. Finally, areas for future research and development are highlighted.
- Go to article: Generic Versus Context-Specific Prompts for Supporting Self-Regulation in Mathematical Problem Solving Among Students With Low or High Prior Knowledge
Generic Versus Context-Specific Prompts for Supporting Self-Regulation in Mathematical Problem Solving Among Students With Low or High Prior Knowledge
We compared how 61 seventh graders, with low or high prior knowledge in mathematics, capitalized on two self-regulated learning approaches—generic versus context specific—to (a) enhance self-regulated learning, (b) foster procedural knowledge of routine algebraic tasks, and (c) transfer knowledge to novel mathematical problem solving. The generic approach was based on “IMPROVE” question prompts for comprehension, connection, strategy, and reflection modeled in a free context. The context-specific approach was based on what, when, why, and how (WWWH) question prompts directed explicitly to specific examples in a particular mathematical content area. Findings indicated no difference between the two approaches regarding short-term effects on algebraic procedural tasks; however, differential effects emerged between the two approaches on the self-regulation measure and on long-term transfer to novel tasks (near and far) among students with low or high prior knowledge. The practical and scientific significance of this study are discussed.
- Go to article: Profiles of Relationships Between Subjective and Objective Cognition in Schizophrenia: Associations With Quality of Life, Stigmatization, and Mood Factors
Profiles of Relationships Between Subjective and Objective Cognition in Schizophrenia: Associations With Quality of Life, Stigmatization, and Mood Factors
Justification: Recent studies showed that neurocognitive insight difficulties occur in subjects with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the different profiles of neurocognitive insight, their relations with neurocognitive functioning, and their specific links with mood factors and outcomes. Aim: The study explored profiles of relationships between objective and subjective cognition in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and associations with quality of life (QoL), stigmatization, and mood factors. Method: Participants were 69 outpatients with an SSD. Cluster analysis (Ward method) was performed to explore profiles of interactions between subjective complaints and objective cognitive performances. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were then conducted to compare groups on anxiety and depression levels, stigmatization, and QoL. Results: Cluster analysis produced 3 groups: high cognitive impairment/moderate cognitive complaints (N = 26), good cognitive functioning/moderate cognitive complaints (N = 22), and moderate cognitive impairment/high cognitive complaints (N = 21). The second group has higher objective QoL, and the third group has higher levels of anxiety, depression, and stigmatization. Our results show that (a) not all patients with SSD have neurocognitive insight difficulties, (b) relation between objective and subjective cognition is not linear, and (c) differences between profiles may have theoretical and clinical implications.
Sociocultural theories of development posit that higher cognitive functions emerge through socially mediated processes, in particular through language. However, theories of human communication posit that language itself is based on higher social cognitive skills and cooperative motivations. Prelinguistic communication is a test case to this puzzle. In the current review, I first present recent and new findings of a research program on prelinguistic infants’ communication skills. This research provides empirical evidence for a rich social cognitive and motivational basis of human communication before language. Next, I discuss the emergence of these foundational skills. By considering all three lines of development, and by drawing on new findings from phylogenetic and cross-cultural comparisons, this article discusses the possibility that the cognitive foundations of prelinguistic communication are, in turn, mediated by social interactional input and shared experiences.
- Go to article: Dynamic Assessment of Learning Potential: Inter-Rater Reliability of Deficient Cognitive Functions, Types of Mediation, and Non-Intellective Factors
Dynamic Assessment of Learning Potential: Inter-Rater Reliability of Deficient Cognitive Functions, Types of Mediation, and Non-Intellective Factors
The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of three major domains of individual dynamic assessment (DA): (a) deficient cognitive functions (DCF), (b) types of mediation given during DA, and (c) non-intellective factors. A sample of 35 young adolescents was administered eight tests from the Learning Potential Assessment Device (LPAD) (Feuerstein, Rand, & Hoffman, 1979). The sample was composed of children diagnosed with learning disabilities and educable mental handicaps, and normally achieving children. The DA procedure for each case was videotaped for 8 to 15 hours and later rated for the three main domains. Results in general showed moderate reliability scores for DCF and mediational strategies and lower reliability scores for the non-intellective factors (NIF). Separate analyses were carried out for ratings which include a 0 category (examiners could not observe a behavior) and ratings without a 0 category. The results showed a general tendency for higher agreement among raters when the 0 category was removed. In type of mediation, ratings were similar with or without the 0 rating only in the training phase, when agreement was higher in approximately 10% of categories when 0 ratings were included than when not. These results were explained by referring to the interaction of type of task and phase of testing (situation) interaction.
- Go to article: Effects of Cognitive Education in Kindergarten On Learning to Read in the Primary Grades
Although kindergarten curricula typically center on the teaching of “basic skills,” cognitive education programs that pursue the same goal have not been entirely successful at fostering reading, writing, and numbers skills. Previous research in our laboratory reinforced our confidence in the ability of cognitive early education to promote educability, especially in children of low socio-economic status. As a preventive measure, we gave the “Bright Start” program of cognitive early education to a group of children from a very low SES group during the kindergarten year, and assessed its effects on acquisition of reading competence through the first three grades, in comparison to a control group from the same social milieu and a control group of much more socially advantaged children. The results affirm once again the influence of the socio-economic environment on learning, and provide evidence that cognitive early education can promote reading acquisition and can compensate in very large measure for socio-economic differences.
- Go to article: Introduction to Vygotsky’s “The Dynamics of the Schoolchild’s Mental Development in Relation to Teaching and Learning”
Introduction to Vygotsky’s “The Dynamics of the Schoolchild’s Mental Development in Relation to Teaching and Learning”
Here, we present to Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology readers the first in a series of “Classical Articles.” The purpose of this series is to reprint some of the articles that have played pivotal role in the development of the field of dynamic assessment and cognitive education. Some of these articles never appeared in English, and others were published in already defunct journals or proceedings. It seems important to make the current generation of researchers familiar with these texts so that our theoretical discussions can be carried out with full awareness of what has been done before us and how the classics of our field articulated their ideas.