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- Go to article: Effectiveness of Metacognitive Instruction on Reading Comprehension Among Intermediate Phase Learners: Its Link to the Pass Theory
The authors define peer tutoring and describe the types of peer tutoring reported in the literature. An organizational typography of peer tutoring in school classrooms is presented, and the variables that influence patterns, nature and effectiveness of peer interaction are explored. Cognitive models of peer tutoring approaches that follow either Piagetian theories of cognitive conflict or Vygotskian theories of co-construction are compared and the similarities and differences of each model interrogated. The influences each model may have on cognitive and affective development, as well as metacognition, are illustrated. The authors discuss knowledge transfer issues to facilitate the development of effective models of peer tutoring in the classroom practice of teachers in schools. Finally, areas for future research and development are highlighted.
- Go to article: Emotional Blackmail: When the People in Your Life Use Fear, Obligation, and Guilt to Manipulate You
- Go to article: Generic Versus Context-Specific Prompts for Supporting Self-Regulation in Mathematical Problem Solving Among Students With Low or High Prior Knowledge
Generic Versus Context-Specific Prompts for Supporting Self-Regulation in Mathematical Problem Solving Among Students With Low or High Prior Knowledge
We compared how 61 seventh graders, with low or high prior knowledge in mathematics, capitalized on two self-regulated learning approaches—generic versus context specific—to (a) enhance self-regulated learning, (b) foster procedural knowledge of routine algebraic tasks, and (c) transfer knowledge to novel mathematical problem solving. The generic approach was based on “IMPROVE” question prompts for comprehension, connection, strategy, and reflection modeled in a free context. The context-specific approach was based on what, when, why, and how (WWWH) question prompts directed explicitly to specific examples in a particular mathematical content area. Findings indicated no difference between the two approaches regarding short-term effects on algebraic procedural tasks; however, differential effects emerged between the two approaches on the self-regulation measure and on long-term transfer to novel tasks (near and far) among students with low or high prior knowledge. The practical and scientific significance of this study are discussed.
- Go to article: Profiles of Relationships Between Subjective and Objective Cognition in Schizophrenia: Associations With Quality of Life, Stigmatization, and Mood Factors
Profiles of Relationships Between Subjective and Objective Cognition in Schizophrenia: Associations With Quality of Life, Stigmatization, and Mood Factors
Justification: Recent studies showed that neurocognitive insight difficulties occur in subjects with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the different profiles of neurocognitive insight, their relations with neurocognitive functioning, and their specific links with mood factors and outcomes. Aim: The study explored profiles of relationships between objective and subjective cognition in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and associations with quality of life (QoL), stigmatization, and mood factors. Method: Participants were 69 outpatients with an SSD. Cluster analysis (Ward method) was performed to explore profiles of interactions between subjective complaints and objective cognitive performances. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were then conducted to compare groups on anxiety and depression levels, stigmatization, and QoL. Results: Cluster analysis produced 3 groups: high cognitive impairment/moderate cognitive complaints (N = 26), good cognitive functioning/moderate cognitive complaints (N = 22), and moderate cognitive impairment/high cognitive complaints (N = 21). The second group has higher objective QoL, and the third group has higher levels of anxiety, depression, and stigmatization. Our results show that (a) not all patients with SSD have neurocognitive insight difficulties, (b) relation between objective and subjective cognition is not linear, and (c) differences between profiles may have theoretical and clinical implications.