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- Go to article: Irrational Beliefs, Cognitive Distortions, and Depressive Symptomatology in a College-Age Sample: A Mediational Analysis
Irrational Beliefs, Cognitive Distortions, and Depressive Symptomatology in a College-Age Sample: A Mediational Analysis
Dysfunctional cognitions such as irrational beliefs (IBs) of Ellis' rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model and cognitive distortions (CDs) or cognitive errors from Beck's cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) model are known to correlate with depressive symptomatology. However, most studies focus on one cognitive theoretical model in predicting psychopathology. The current study examined the relationship between both IBs and CDs in predicting depression. A college-age sample of 507 participants completed the Attitudes and Beliefs Scale-2, the Cognitive Distortions Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Half of the sample showed minimal depression, while the remaining sample exhibited mild-moderate (37.4%) to severe (11.1%) depression symptomatology. Through regression analyses, the study aimed to examine whether IBs accounted for more of the variance in depression symptomatology after the effects of CDs were considered. Moreover, it tested whether CDs served as a moderator or mediator between IBs and depression. Each of Ellis' IBs (demandingness, awfulizing, self-downing, and low frustration tolerance) accounted for significantly more variance in depression after the variance of CDs was entered with the IB of self-downing explaining the most variance in depression severity. Moreover, while no moderation effect was found, CDs partially mediated the effect of IBs on depression. Both IBs and CDs contributed unique variance in predicting depression. Findings support the clinical notion that IBs and CDs are associated as well as highlight the clinical utility of both conceptualizations of dysfunctional cognitions in explaining depressive symptomatology. Clinicians might consider that each dysfunctional cognition might not be subject to change if not directly targeted. Rather than choosing to focus exclusively on IBs or CDs underlying negative automatic thoughts, psychotherapeutic efforts might benefit from identifying and challenging both types of dysfunctional cognitions.
Research exploring inferential, especially attributional, thinking supports the theory that paranoia is a defense against low self-esteem. The present study extends this research by examining the place of evaluative beliefs in paranoia and depression. In particular, the study begins to explore the possibility that the defensive function of paranoia is to prevent perceived negative other-self evaluation becoming self-self, as happens in depression, by discrediting others through negative self-other evaluations. A paranoid group (n = 23) a depressive group (n = 22) and a normal control group of (n = 22) are compared on their responses to the Beck Depression Inventory and the Evaluative Beliefs Scale, an 18-item measure of other-self, self-self and self-other negative person evaluations. Results supported and refined this theory. As expected, subjects in both clinical groups perceive significantly more negative other-self evaluation (i.e., threat) than controls, with scores significantly higher for the depressed group. Negative self-self evaluation was highest in the depressives; the paranoid group scores were significantly higher than controls, perhaps implying that the paranoid defense is only partial. Lastly, negative self-other evaluations were significantly higher in the paranoid group; the depressives and controls did not differ.
This review focuses on two aspects of anxiety in the dental setting. The first concerns the processes involved in the maintenance of anxiety. Although patients usually experience much less discomfort than they expect, their anxiety can remain high. The processes discussed here include negative ideation, the probabilistic nature of experience, loss of control over intrusive thoughts, and memory. The second aspect concerns the therapeutic interventions designed to alleviate dental anxiety. A distinction is made between therapies that aim to alter the content of ideation and those that are designed to enhance control over symptoms of anxiety.
A growing proportion of urban youth are at high risk for exposure to extreme acts of crime or violence. This article reviews the literature on the relationship between exposure to crime and violence and the development of post-traumatic stress reactions, as well as current assessment methods which have been used to evaluate children’s and adolescents’ exposure to crime and violence. The need for treatment strategies to deal with this growing problem is discussed as well. Based on research findings an intervention model is presented which uses exposure-based exercises as well as cognitive and behavioral procedures that can be readily implemented by a school counselor in a group format.
This article outlines the rationale and use of cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of the gastrointestinal symptoms and illness behavior associated with Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP), often described as the childhood variant of IBS. It begins with a conceptualization of the social learning perspective of RAP, and then covers the relationship between childhood social learning and adult and childhood illness behavior. Studies that have utilized a cognitive behavior therapy approach for treating adult pain are summarized. Finally, specific cognitive behavior therapy trials for treating RAP, as well as moderators of treatment effectiveness, are discussed.
- Go to article: The Development of Novel Interoceptive Exposure Methods for Inducing Derealization and Depersonalization Symptoms
The Development of Novel Interoceptive Exposure Methods for Inducing Derealization and Depersonalization Symptoms
Derealization and depersonalization and are commonly experienced by individuals with panic disorder. Although interoceptive exposure (IE) is a key therapeutic component in the treatment of panic disorder, there currently are few recognized ways to elicit reactions that successfully mimic dissociative symptoms commonly experienced during panic. We examined the ability of several novel methods that elicit anomalous and confusing perceptual experiences to induce at least moderately intense dissociative reactions in a college student sample (N = 34). Two of the novel procedures (i.e., stripes and hand) and a task previously identified as effectively eliciting dissociative symptoms, strobe light plus three-dimensional (3D) glasses reliably induced derealization/depersonalization reactions. The implications of these findings for further research and the clinical practice of IE in treatment of panic attacks are discussed.