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Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal discomfort/pain, and heartburn are ubiquitous and as such are often the focus of nursing interventions. The etiologies of these symptoms include GI pathology (e.g., cancer, inflammation), dietary factors (e.g., lactose intolerance), infection, stress, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, medications, as well as a host of diseases outside the GI tract. This review focuses on a common condition (irritable bowel syndrome [IBS]) that is linked with both bowel pattern and abdominal discomfort/pain symptoms. Family and twin studies give evidence for a role of genetic factors in IBS. Whether genes are directly associated with IBS or influence disease risk indirectly by modulating the response to environmental factors remains unknown at this time. Given the multifactorial nature of IBS, it is unlikely that a single genetic factor is responsible for IBS. In addition, gene–gene (epistatic) interactions are also likely to play a role. Four genes coding for proteins involved in neurotransmission (i.e., the serotonin reuptake transporter [SERT], tryptophan hydroxylase [TPH], alpha
Climate change has been labeled the greatest threat to public health and to global health in the 21st century. Addressing climate change has also been reframed as the greatest opportunity for global health in the 21st century, providing a more proactive lens through which to plan and implement actions. Significant climate change impacts to human health are numerous and mounting, including the direct effects of heatwaves, thermal stress and changed frequency or intensity of other extreme weather events. Climate change has been termed a complex public health issue affecting all areas of nursing practice dealing with individuals, families, communities, and the national health arena, and is therefore deserving of inclusion into nursing curricula throughout the entirety of prelicensure coursework. Nursing education programs that include this content will better prepare future nurses to face projected environmental challenges to human health.
Significant maternal, fetal, and newborn morbidity and mortality can be attributed to complications of pregnancy. There are direct links between perinatal complications and poor fetal/newborn development and impaired cognitive function, as well as fetal, newborn, and maternal death. Many perinatal complications have pathophysiologic mechanisms with a genetic basis. The objective of this chapter is to focus on perinatal genomics and the occurrence of two specific complications: preterm birth and dysfunctional placental phenotype. This chapter includes discussions of genetic variation, mutation and inheritance, gene expression, and genetic biomarkers in relation to preterm birth, in addition to the impact of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on placental phenotype. The concept of epigenetics is also addressed, specifically the regulation of gene expression in the placenta and fetal origins of adult health and disease. There is great potential for nurse-researchers to make valuable contributions to perinatal genomics investigations, but this requires perseverance, increased genetics-based understanding and skills, as well as multidisciplinary mentorship.
Simulation pedagogy and the operations of simulation-based experiences have become an integral part of healthcare education. Academic and healthcare institutions constructed simulation centers or dedicated simulation spaces to provide simulation-based experiences for multiple health professions. Architectural designs resemble acute care settings that have the flexibility to change or include virtual reality and enhanced technology. Professional organizations have standards of best practice, credentialing requirements, and accreditation standards that support the need for high-quality, high-fidelity simulation experiences. Within healthcare education, simulation operation has become a specialty in itself that requires knowledge and experience of healthcare, education, and simulation pedagogy (INACSL Standards Committee, 2017). Simulation center administration needs an understanding of personnel management, including standardized patients (SPs), staff, faculty, and learners, as well as knowledge of budgeting, revenue streams, and technology. Personnel with unique skills and knowledge in engineering, healthcare, or information technology are required to support the simulation activities. Resources that manage inventory, supplies, equipment assets, and audiovisual requirements will increase efficiency and enhance fiscal responsibility. Technology assets such as high-fidelity human patient simulators can be used to enhance high-quality simulation, while audiovisual and data capturing software can be used for assessment, evaluation, and quality improvement. Simulation operations provides the infrastructure that supports the daily activities of simulation-based education.
- Go to article: The Impact of the Political and Policy Cultures of Washington, DC, on the Affordable Care Act
- Go to article: Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury: Is There an Optimal Model That Parallels Human Brain Injury?
Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury: Is There an Optimal Model That Parallels Human Brain Injury?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the younger population worldwide. Survivors of TBI often experience long-term disability in the form of cognitive, sensorimotor, and affective impairments. Despite the high prevalence in, and cost of TBI to, both individuals and society, some of its underlying pathophysiology is not completely understood. Animal models have been developed over the past few decades to closely replicate the different facets of TBI in humans to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and behavioral impairments and assess potential therapies that can promote neuroprotection. However, no effective treatment for TBI has been established to date in the clinical setting, despite promising results generated in preclinical studies in the use of neuroprotective strategies. The failure to translate results from preclinical studies to the clinical setting underscores a compelling need to revisit the current state of knowledge in the use of animal models in TBI.
Animal models are a critical component of biomedical and biobehavioral research and have contributed to the exponential expansion of our understanding of human disease. Now, as we move onward into the era of genetics and genomics research, the importance of animal models to the research process will become even more acute as we explore the significance of genetic differences that are found in the presence and absence of disease. The decision to use an animal model is not one that can be taken lightly; but, rather, requires careful thought and consideration. In this review, we will address (a) why we should consider using animal models, (b) several caveats that are associated with using animals for research, and (c) some of the common genetic tools that are used in animal research.
Newborn Dried Blood Spot Screening (NBS) is a core public health service and is the largest application of genetic testing in the United States. NBS is conducted by state public health departments to identify infants with certain genetic, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Screening is performed in the first few days of life through blood testing. Several drops of blood are taken from the baby's heel and placed on a filter paper card. The dried blood, on the filter cards, is sent from the newborn nursery to the state health department laboratory, or a commercial partner, where the blood is analyzed. Scientific and technological advances have lead to a significant expansion in the number of tests—from an average of 6 to more than 50—and there is a national trend to further expand the NBS program. This rapid expansion has created significant ethical, legal, and social challenges for the health care system and opportunity for scholarly inquiry to address these issues. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the NBS programs and to provide an in-depth examination of two significant concerns raised from expanded newborn screening, specifically false-positives and lack of information for parents. Implications for nursing research in managing these ethical dilemmas are discussed.
The purpose of this chapter is to present an analysis of selected published nursing workforce studies published between the years of 2005 and 2010. Thirteen nursing workforce studies were reviewed and analyzed using a modification of the method suggested by Ganong (1987). Nursing workforce studies were selected based on the following criteria: (1) the date of publication was between the years of 2005 and 2010; (2) the primary focus was on nurses working in practice; or, as students or faculty in nursing educational programs. When reviewed, the 13 studies (1) lacked uniform measures among databases; (2) lacked longitudinal studies that followed the respondent over time from the beginning of their career to retirement; (3) had response rates that contributed to small sample sizes or sampling frame that did not take into consideration all characteristics of interest; (4) lacked attention to an interdisciplinary mix of providers; and (5) implied the need for future study on intergenerational characteristics due to shifting demographics in the profession and nursing workforce.