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The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale (RS). Participants were 142 adults between 19–85 years of age. Internal consistency reliability, stability over time, and construct validity were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha, principal components analysis with varimax rotation and correlations with scores on the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The mean score on the RS was 142 (SD = 15). The possible scores on the RS range from 25 to 175, and scores higher than 146 are considered high. The test-retest correlation was .78. Correlations with the SOC and the RSE were .41 (p < 0.01) and .37 (p < 0.01), respectively. Personal Assurance and Acceptance of Self and Life emerged as components from the principal components analysis. These findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the RS.
- Go to article: A Multimethod Approach to Evaluate Chemical Dot Thermometers for Oral Temperature Measurement
Limited research has explored the accuracy of chemical dot thermometers for oral temperature measurement in adults. This study was undertaken to assess the agreement between oral temperatures taken with an electronic thermometer and single-use chemical dot thermometers in healthy women undergoing surgical delivery. During operative delivery, oral temperatures taken every 15 minutes with both the reference electronic thermometer (ETT) and a Tempa. DOT (TDT) chemical dot thermometer were compared. Data were analyzed using paired t tests, the Bland and Altman plot, and the concordance correlation coefficient. The total number of paired observations for the 62 subjects was 212. The mean difference between the two measurements was 0.35 ± 0.32 °C (p < .0001, 95% CI 0.31, 0.40). Additional analysis indicated a serious undermeasurement by TDT of ETT temperatures. Data from multiple methods of analysis indicate that the Tempa. DOT chemical dot thermometer significantly undermeasures ETT and is not a reliable indicator of oral temperature.
The Taylor Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire were modified to measure energy expenditure in midlife women. A three-dimensional measure of female physical activity resulted which reflected leisure, occupational, and household activities. Total daily energy expenditure for the specific activities was calculated using established metabolic units and reported time spent performing the activities. Test-retest reliability was evaluated at two weeks for 15 % (n = 59) of the sample of 375 midlife women. There was high agreement on participation in the various activities, but low agreement on the time spent doing the activities. Cardiorespiratory fitness, established with a Monarch bicycle ergometer, was used to test the validity of the energy expenditure measure. Correlations were significant between cardiorespiratory fitness and both leisure activity and household activity, but not between cardiorespiratory fitness and occupational activity.
- Go to article: Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Mother–Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) Instrument for Sexual Risk Behavior
Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Mother–Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) Instrument for Sexual Risk Behavior
Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother–adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother–adolescent communication, the Mother–Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent–Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques.
Recently, manufacturers have devised thermometers for home use by patients, such as the TempTouch Infrared Thermometer (TTIR; Diabetica Solutions, San Antonio, TX), which is designed with a long handle that can be used for self-monitoring localized skin temperature of the feet and legs. This study assessed the level of agreement and repeatability of the TTIR compared to a thermistor-type thermometer (TT; PeriFlux, 5020 Temperature Unit, Perimed, Stockholm, Sweden), the reference standard. In 17 healthy subjects, localized skin temperature was measured 8 cm above the right medial malleolus at baseline (Time 1), after a 10-minute rest period (Time 2), and after 10 minutes of cold provocation (Time 3) with a cryotherapy gel wrap placed around the lower legs using the TTIR and TT for temperature measurement. Scatter plots and correlation coefficients showed strong positive relationships between the two measurement methods at all three time points (Time 1: r = 0.95; Time 2: r = 0.97; and, Time 3: r = 0.87). Results showed a reasonable level of agreement between the two methods at Times 1 and 2 but not after cold provocation. Agreement between the methods appears to be better than repeatability within each method. Results for repeatability from both the TT and TTIR were very similar suggesting that there was a systematic bias with increasing temperatures between Time 1 and Time 2.
- Go to article: Questionnaire Development to Predict Mammography Intention Among Women in Southeastern Louisiana
This article summarizes the development and psychometric analysis of the Thoughts About Mammography (TAM) questionnaire to predict mammography intention using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Key themes, obtained from elicitation interviews (N = 45), were categorized, ranked and extracted for item construction. Initial pilot testing supported test–retest reliability (alpha = .85 to .97), internal consistency (alpha = .67 to .91), and content validity (0.86–1.00). After pilot testing, the TAM was administered to 302 rural women in southeastern (SE) Louisiana. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.77 to 0.92), construct valid (alpha = .18 to .64), and predicted 24% of the variance of mammography intention. The TAM adequately demonstrated reliability and validity to measure mammography intention in rural southeastern Louisiana women.