The rationale is synthesized for the urgency of empirical studies demonstrating the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of PTSD, or other trauma-related symptoms. This literature review examined 15 studies (including nine randomized clinical trials) that tested the efficacy of EMDR therapy for the treatment of children and adolescents with these symptoms. All studies found that EMDR therapy produced significant reductions in PTSD symptoms at posttreatment and also in other trauma-related symptoms, when measured. A methodological analysis identified limitations in most studies, reducing the value of these findings. Despite these shortcomings, the methodological strength of the identified studies has increased over time. The review also summarized three meta-analyses. The need for additional rigorous research is apparent, and in order to profit from experiences of the past, the article provides some guidelines for clinicians seeking to conduct future research in their agencies.
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Persuasive design, the use of behavioral psychology in digital devices and applications to alter human behavior, is employed in entertainment and educational technologies that occupy a great proportion of the lives of children and adolescents. A primary purpose of persuasive design is to increase the time spent using social media, video game, and other entertainment technologies in order to increase business revenue. This adds to children's and adolescents' health risks, as excessive recreational screen time has been associated with both physical (sleep, weight) and mental health (depression, anxiety, compulsive use, and inattention) issues for children and adolescents. Given the potential for negative health outcomes, it is necessary for the field of psychology to acknowledge, educate, and take action against the use of persuasive design in platforms typically used by children and adolescents.
- Go to article: The Burden of Treatment: Listening to Stories of Adolescents With ADHD About Stimulant Medication Use
The Burden of Treatment: Listening to Stories of Adolescents With ADHD About Stimulant Medication Use
Objective: Stimulant medications are considered an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their prescription is consistently on the rise. However, research showed a limited adherence to ADHD medication regimens. This study explores the experiences of using stimulant medication from the understudied perspective of adolescents. Method: Fourteen semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD, and the data was analyzed according to the principles of qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Participants were passive actors in the diagnostic process. Following the medical treatment, half of the interviewees described improvement in their concentration while studying and during exams. However, most of the interviewees discussed the difficulties of taking medication especially in terms of emotional side effects, identity loss, and interpersonal relationships. Those who reached high school stopped, fully or selectively, taking the medication on their own initiative. Conclusion: The results of this study points to the importance of considering the burden of treatment for children and adolescents who take stimulant medications.
Parental responses to youth negative affect have been associated with social and emotional outcomes in youth. However, the association between such parenting behaviors and essential components of youth emotion regulation is not well studied, especially in youth with anxiety and depressive disorders. This investigation examined the influence of parents’ emotion regulation strategies and their responses to youth negative affect on adolescent-reported emotional awareness and emotional expression in a clinical sample of youth with anxiety disorders. In addition, this study examined the relationship between parent-reported use of emotion regulation strategies and parental reactions to youth negative affect. Questionnaires were completed by 67 adolescents (ages 12–18 years) and by one of their parents during an intake assessment at a university-based clinic. Adolescents had a primary anxiety or depressive disorder diagnosis. Results indicated a positive relationship between parent-reported use of suppression and youth report of poor emotional understanding in adolescents with a primary anxiety or depressive disorder. A positive relationship between parent-reported use of reappraisal and emotion-coaching responses to youth negative affect was also found. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of parental socialization of youth emotion regulation and in terms of prevention and intervention efforts.
- Go to article: A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
There is growing support for the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a treatment for adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but no research has been published on the use of ACT for adolescent OCD. This preliminary study investigated ACT for youth with OCD using a multiple baseline across participants design. Three adolescents, ages 12 or 13 years, were treated with 8–10 sessions of ACT (without in-session exposure exercises). The primary dependent variable was daily self-monitoring of compulsions. Results showed a 40% mean reduction in self-reported compulsions from pretreatment to posttreatment, with results maintained at 3-month follow-up, for a reduction of 43.8%. Pretreatment to posttreament reductions in Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) ratings of OCD severity were 50.0%, 12.5%, and 22.0%; pretreatment to follow-up reductions were 54.0%, 12.5%, and 61.0%. Treatment procedures were rated by participants and parents as highly acceptable. Implications and future directions are discussed.
- Go to article: Information-Processing Biases in Children and Adolescents:An Introduction to the Special Issue
This special issue focuses on new developments in research on information-processing biases in children and adolescents. Prior research suggests that attention and interpretation biases in response to emotional stimuli may be associated with the etiology and maintenance of anxiety and depression in youth. Although our understanding of youth biases has burgeoned over the past decade, questions remain regarding mixed findings across studies, heterogeneity of biases across individuals, specific factors that contribute to and maintain biases, and how best to maximize the efficacy of interventions designed to modify biases. Through the use of innovative methods and technology, the articles in this special issue illustrate progress being made toward filling these gaps in our knowledge and showcase some of the exciting new developments in this area of research.
- Go to article: Controlling Behaviors as a Predictor of Partner Violence Among Heterosexual Female and Male Adolescents
Controlling Behaviors as a Predictor of Partner Violence Among Heterosexual Female and Male Adolescents
This study investigates the prevalence of adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, IPV victimization, and controlling behaviors among 486 heterosexual high school students. Participants completed surveys that measured three types of IPV victimization (sexual, physical, and psychological) and two types of controlling behaviors (intimidation and threats). Results reveal high prevalence of dating violence in youth: 46% emotional violence, 34% physical violence, and 16% sexual violence. Participants had a mean age of 15.7 years, 51% of the sample was male, and all participants were in a current relationship. Structural equation modeling explored the relationship between “violent attitudes” and “controlling behaviors” predicting IPV perpetration. The study found no gender differences between IPV perpetration and IPV victimization. However, gender differences were found regarding females’ IPV victimization being reduced when controlling behaviors are not present. Interestingly, IPV victimization is reduced by not having controlling behaviors and only having violent attitudes. The study posits that gender socialization may attribute to females reducing their IPV victimization when controlling behaviors are not present.Source:
- Go to article: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Problem, Research, and Practice
The purpose of this article is to outline the rationale and use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of pediatric chronic pain. The article begins by demonstrating the scope and impact of the problem of pediatric chronic pain. It then provides an overview of the framework of CBT for pediatric chronic pain and standard treatment components are outlined. A summary of the current state of research and its efficacy is provided. The article concludes by presenting outcome data from a specific example of a CBT group for pediatric recurrent abdominal pain. Future directions for research in this area are discussed.
- Go to article: Child-to-Parent Violence: An Exploratory Study of the Roles of Family Violence and Parental Discipline Through the Stories Told by Spanish Children and Their Parents
Child-to-Parent Violence: An Exploratory Study of the Roles of Family Violence and Parental Discipline Through the Stories Told by Spanish Children and Their Parents
The aim of this study was to identify the role of exposure to family violence and parental discipline in the development of child-to-parent violence (CPV). A qualitative in-depth interview design was used. Fifteen adolescents (10 boys) who have perpetrated CPV (Mage = 16 years; SDage = 1.33 years) and their parents or foster parents took part in the study. Individually, they answered questions about exposure to violence and parenting practices. Results suggest that adolescents were frequently direct victims and also witnesses of violence. Furthermore, emotional neglect in the parent–child relationship was frequent and families were characterized by rules that are not consistently implemented. Different forms of violence seem to coexist in these families, and CPV should also be a target in the interventions.Source:
- Go to article: The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Age, Sexual Orientation, and Gender
The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Age, Sexual Orientation, and Gender
Grassroots movements during the 1970s established several types of emergency services for battered women seeking to find refuge from or leave an abusive relationship. As time went by, the range of services offered by these agencies grew to include counseling, legal services, outreach, and other services, and battered women can now access over 2,000 domestic violence (DV) agencies throughout the United States for assistance. At the same time, these services have come under increasing scrutiny for their inability or unwillingness to provide their existing services to some populations of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. In this article, we focus on DV agencies’ ability to provide their services to various populations that have documented evidence of being underserved due to their age, gender, and/or sexual orientation. We present information on the percentage of agencies that report being able to provide victim-related services to each of these groups. We also consider various regional, state, and agency characteristics that may predict the availability of services to these underserved groups. Overall, agencies report that adolescents and men are the least likely groups to which they are able to provide their victim services. Results are discussed utilizing a human rights perspective that stresses that all IPV victims, regardless of age, sexual orientation, or gender, should have access to services provided by DV agencies.Source: