The newer antidepressants frequently cause suicide, violence, and manic-like symptoms of activation or overstimulation, presenting serious hazards to active-duty soldiers who carry weapons under stressful conditions. These antidepressant-induced symptoms of activation can mimic posttraumatic stress disorder and are likely to worsen this common disorder in soldiers, increasing the hazard when they are prescribed to military personnel. Antidepressants should not be prescribed to soldiers during or after deployment.
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Five patients with hepatitis C (HCV), three of whom were treated with peginterferon alfa-2 (IFN) and two who were not treated with IFN, developed homicidal ideation (HI) during a 4-year period. Following accepted rules for determining causation, there appeared to be a causal relatedness between IFN use and the development of homicidal ideation for those patients taking IFN. None of these patients attempted a homicidal act while on treatment with IFN, nor in the follow-up period after treatment. The incidence of HI while treated with IFN in our patient population is estimated to be less than 1%. The ability of prescription medication to cause homicidal ideation is reviewed, and legal implications are discussed.
- Go to article: The Relationship of Maladaptive Beliefs to Personality and Behavioral Adjustment Among Incarcerated Women
The Relationship of Maladaptive Beliefs to Personality and Behavioral Adjustment Among Incarcerated Women
This study examined the relationship between schema domains (Young, 1999) and adjustment in a sample of female prison inmates (N = 116). Participants completed the Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire—Revised, the SCID-II Screen, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Prison Violence Inventory. Institutional records provided information concerning documented behavioral infractions. The Impaired Limits domain score, representing entitlement and poor self-control themes, was associated with screening scores for paranoid, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders, as well as hostility symptoms, institutional misconduct, and self-reported violence perpetration and victimization. The Disconnection/ Rejection domain score was associated with a wide array of self-reported mental illness symptoms. A significant relationship between the Impaired Autonomy domain scale and dependent personality disorder (SCID-II Screen) was also observed. Results indicate that domains of belief are plausibly related to specific dysfunction in personality and behavioral adjustment. Results also suggest the potential benefit of using cognitive therapy with incarcerated women.
Two data sets (21 studies of college students; N = 6,820; 274 studies of stalking, N = 331,121) are meta-analyzed to identify the extent to which (a) stalking is experienced differently by women and men and (b) stalking and unwanted pursuit vary by sample type (clinical/forensic, general population, college). Women are significantly more likely to experience persistent unwanted pursuit, more likely to view such pursuit as threatening, and are two to three times as likely as men to be victims of stalking, but men report longer durations of unwanted pursuit. Most of these gender differences were small in effect size. Stalking labeling and perceived severity of unwanted pursuit and stalking depended in part on the type of sample from which the data were drawn and the locus of perception, whether victim or perpetrator. The type of sample revealed a number of differences, including in the relationship between threats and violence, which caution against generalizing results from one set of studies to another. Implications for progress in stalking theory and research are discussed.
- Go to article: Gender Symmetry or Asymmetry in Intimate Partner Victimization? Not an Either/Or Answer
Gender differences in physical victimization, sexual victimization, injury, fear, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative community sample of 453 young couples. The prevalence of any physical victimization experienced by women and men did not differ (29% vs. 30%), but men reported more severe physical victimization than women. No difference in prevalence of overall injury was observed, but more women reported severe injury than men. Almost twice as many women as men reported being sexually victimized (28% vs. 15%). Physically victimized females reported more fear of their partners than physically victimized men and than nonvictimized women. Physically victimized men and women, sexually victimized men and women, and physically injured men and women all had more depressive symptoms than those men and women who were not victimized or injured. Severely victimized women were 3 times more likely than severely victimized men to have depression scores in the clinical range (27% vs. 9%). In sum, whether one finds gender symmetry regarding aggression and its correlates depends on more than simple prevalence of aggression by men and women.
- Go to article: Stop Abuse for Everyone: Interviews With Founders of a Pioneering Anti–Domestic Violence Nonprofit
History and overview of Stop Abuse for Everyone (SAFE), a nonprofit developed in the 1990s initially to help males and other underserved victims of domestic violence. The article describes the original founder’s experience as a nonabusive male in a marriage with a violent female spouse and his recognition that his marriage did not fit ideological feminist theories or the Duluth model treatment approach to domestic violence, both of which emphasize male culpability for violence in intimate relationships. The article discusses the creation of a Web site and then the formation of the nonprofit. Four founders of SAFE are interviewed, and SAFE’s brochure program, speakers bureau, and state chapters are discussed. SAFE’s contribution to the national debate about the role of gender in domestic violence, involvement in the revision of the Violence Against Women Act, and efforts to develop a more nuanced, dynamic model of domestic violence in the context of various gender/sexual orientation configurations are reviewed.
The current study assessed if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be meaningfully classified into classes, based on the assumption that abuse by a close family member differs in important ways from other abuse, and whether abuse classes were differentially associated with couple relationship problems. The childhood experiences and adult relationships of 1,335 Australian women (18–41 years) were assessed. Latent class analysis identified three classes of CSA: that perpetrated by a family member, friend, or stranger, which differed markedly on most aspects of the abuse. Family abuse was associated with the highest risk for adult relationship problems, with other classes of CSA having a significant but weaker association with adult relationship problems. CSA is heterogeneous with respect the long-term consequences for adult relationship functioning.
- Go to article: Violence and Hostility Among Families of Vietnam Veterans With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Violence and Hostility Among Families of Vietnam Veterans With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
The current study provides a portrait of emotional-behavioral functioning within a small sample of Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their partners, and older adolescent and adult children. Veterans, their partners and children reported moderate-low to moderate-high levels of violent behavior. In addition, partner and veteran hostility scores were elevated relative to gender and age matched norms. Partners also reported heightened levels of psychological maltreatment by veterans. Veterans’ combat exposure was positively correlated with hostility and violent behavior among children but unrelated to partner variables. Veterans’ reports of PTSD symptoms were positively associated with reports of hostility and violence among children, and hostility and general psychological distress among partners. Veterans’ violent behavior was also positively correlated with children’s violent behavior, but did not yield significant correlations with other child or partner variables. Findings are discussed in relation to prior work and directions for future research are addressed.
Getting tougher on men who use violence is a rallying cry for people on both sides of the political spectrum. This article challenges the notion that a punitive framework increases safety and promotes nonviolence. The dominant worldview in today’s culture and science is based on a fragmentary perspective that reinforces disconnections that facilitate rather than prevent further violence and abuse. In contrast, the nonfragmentary perspective is also scientifically valid but has very different implications for how we treat each other. This nonfragmentary perspective makes visible compassionate responses to violence that can be more effective in ending abuse and building peace in our lives and relationships. Research to support this conclusion is provided.
The investigation explored whether subtypes of relapse to violence exist for different levels of intimate partner violence and drinking behavior among men who relapse to both alcohol and violence after alcoholism treatment. Male clients entering an alcoholism treatment program who reported at least one incident of intimate partner violence and their female partners (N = 294) were recruited for participation. Data were analyzed using a latent class analysis of mixture model. Findings revealed that two classes of violence best described the sample of men that relapsed to violence. Class 1 contained males who had perpetrated more days of violence, relapsed to violence faster, more frequently relapsed to alcohol, and had a higher percentage of males identified as meeting diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder compared to those in class 2.