Headache and Neurologic Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a rare and underdiagnosed syndrome that mimics recurrent stroke, migraine with aura, and encephalitis.
Describe the presentation, clinical characteristics, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in a patient with HaNDL and provide insight into the importance of the recognition of this syndrome.
The authors describe a unique case of (HaNDL) during which the patient underwent three lumbar punctures over 26 days.
The authors demonstrate the natural course of CSF characteristics of a patient with HaNDL, with rising and falling lymphocyte counts. Additionally, the authors provide an example of the clinical presentation of HaNDL, with episodic attacks over the course of 1 month of migraine headache, hemibody paresthesias, hemibody weakness, and encephalopathy.
HaNDL is a headache syndrome mimicking viral encephalitis, migraine with aura, and recurrent cerebral ischemic events. While HaNDL is a diagnosis of exclusion, the syndrome's association with characteristic clinical and laboratory findings are important to recognize. Furthermore, a monophasic pattern of CSF lymphocytosis in HaNDL may be observed.
Implications for Nursing
Increased recognition of this syndrome may help prevent unnecessary tests and treatments when patients present with recurrent episodes.