The couple typology described by Johnson and Ferraro (2000) provided the framework for this analysis of narrative accounts of couples in violent heterosexual relationships. Participants were 15 bidirectionally violent couples who were interviewed separately for about 1 hour each. Modified analytic induction guided the analyses. We categorized the violence in the relationships of these 15 couples in the following ways: 11 were categorized as “common couple” violence; two as “violent resistance”; one as “mutual violent control”; and one couple was categorized as what we named “pseudo-intimate terrorism.” We present rich descriptions of each category and motivations for and impacts of aggressive behavior as well as our rationale for classifying couples the way we did. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
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- Go to article: Adult Health and Relationship Outcomes Among Women With Abuse Experiences During Childhood
Associations between child abuse and/or witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) during childhood and women’s health, adult IPV exposure, and health care use were examined. Randomly sampled insured women ages 18–64 (N = 3,568) completed a phone interview assessing childhood exposure to abuse and witnessing IPV, current health, and adult IPV exposure. Women’s health care use was collected from automated health plan databases. Poor health status, higher prevalence of depression and IPV, and greater use of health care and mental health services were observed in women who had exposure to child abuse and witnessing IPV during childhood or child abuse alone, compared with women with no exposures. Women who had witnessed IPV without child abuse also had worse health and greater use of health services. Findings reveal adverse long-term and incremental effects of differing child abuse experiences on women’s health and relationships.
- Go to article: Prevalence and Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Kazeroon, Islamic Republic of Iran
Prevalence and Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Kazeroon, Islamic Republic of Iran
The aim of this study was to screen for and estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in Kazeroon, Iran. In November 2007, multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 702 women to participate in the study. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse against women was 43.7%, 82.6%, and 30.9%, respectively, and there was a significant relationship between IPV and family income, education level, and level of religious commitment in both women and husbands. The study suggests that major strategies for prevention of IPV are empowering women and improving their status in the society by promoting of sexual equality in all rights, especially in employment and education.
- Go to article: Men’s and Women’s Use of Intimate Partner Violence in Clinical Samples: Toward a Gender-Sensitive Analysis
Men’s and Women’s Use of Intimate Partner Violence in Clinical Samples: Toward a Gender-Sensitive Analysis
Early research with nationally representative samples suggested that women reported initiating violence as often as men. Such research has been criticized as focusing only on participation rates, and not assessing gender differences in impact, context, and motivation for using partner violence. Furthermore, research with nationally representative samples has been largely a-theoretical and may lack relevance to those working with clinical samples. Research with clinical populations has begun to address gender similarity and differences in the commission and experience of partner violence. The present article reviews research on men’s and women’s partner violence using a model for examining such gender differences that incorporates key elements of partner violence, including initiation of the overall pattern of partner violence, proportional initiation rates of violent episodes, physical and mental health impacts of partner violence, behavioral and emotional responses to partner-initiated violence, motivations for using partner violence, and fearfulness of partner-initiated violence. The review concludes that, within and across clinical samples, women are disproportionately victimized by partner violence compared to men. Implications for research, clinical programs, and policy development are discussed.
- Go to article: Examining Intergenerational Violence: Violent Role Modeling or Weak Parental Controls?
Family violence research has uncovered a positive relationship between parental violence and children’s later involvement in intimate violence. In a similar vein, criminology’s social control theory suggests that weak or absent parental controls are associated with a variety of delinquent acts. Little research, however, investigates the link between parental violence, parental controls, and dating violence. This article asks two research questions: How is interparental violence associated with parent-child attachments, monitoring, adolescent dating, attitudes toward violence, and dating violence? And second, are there independent and interactive effects of inter-parental violence, and parental controls on dating violence offending and attitudes towards violence? Dating violence offending is significantly associated with witnessed inter-parental violence, high dating frequency, and low parental monitoring. Attitudes towards violence are associated with witnessed inter-parental violence, lower parental attachment, and the interaction of witnessed inter-parental violence and parental attachment. The implications for role modeling and social control theory are discussed.
This study examined differences in offenders’ background characteristics, personal and interpersonal problems, and family climate between three types of child abuse offenders (neglecters, physical abusers, and psychological abusers) and two forms of spouse abuse offenders (physical abusers and psychological abusers) in two large samples (child abuse n = 2,910; spouse abuse; n = 7,035) of cases officially identified over a 8-year period (1988-1995) by the U.S. Air Force Family Advocacy Program. Comparisons addressed demographic factors, personal and interpersonal problems, and aspects of family climate. Among child abusers, results supported the conclusion that types of child abuse varied with offender demographics and family climate factors. For spouse abusers, however, types of abuse were not as distinctly different in terms of the comparison variables. In general, therefore, for child abuse—but not for spouse abuse—findings challenge the view of abuse as a unitary phenomenon.
The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and methods of couple-based interventions designed to treat and prevent intimate partner violence. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral individual and couple risk factors for violence are reviewed, as are therapeutic concerns regarding the use of conjoint treatment. Current conjoint treatments that are intended to reduce the incidence of abusive behavior among couples in which one or both partners have engaged in forms of psychological and/or mild to moderate physical aggression, do not engage in battering or severe violence, and desire to improve their relationships and stay together are described. We focus on our Couples Abuse Prevention Program (CAPP) that compares the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy procedures and treatment as usual at a university-based couple and family therapy clinic. Outcomes from the CAPP project and evaluations of the other programs demonstrate the potential of judiciously applied conjoint interventions for aggressive behavior in couple relationships.
- Go to article: Behavioral Couples Therapy for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse: Where We’ve Been, Where We Are, and Where We’re Going
Behavioral Couples Therapy for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse: Where We’ve Been, Where We Are, and Where We’re Going
Among the various types of couple and family therapies used to treat substance abuse, Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) has the strongest empirical support for its effectiveness. During the last 3 decades, multiple studies have consistently found participation in BCT by married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients results in significant reductions in substance use, decreased problems related to substance use (e.g., job loss, hospitalization), and improved relationship satisfaction. Recently, investigations exploring other outcomes have found that, compared to traditional individual-based treatments, participation in BCT results in significantly (a) higher reductions in partner violence, (b) greater improvements in psychosocial functioning of children who live with parents who receive the intervention, and (c) better cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness. In addition to providing an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of BCT, methods used with this intervention, and the literature supporting its use, this article also examines the future directions of BCT research for substance abuse.
- Go to article: The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Relationship Satisfaction Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples: The Moderating Role of Observed Negative and Positive Affect
The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Relationship Satisfaction Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples: The Moderating Role of Observed Negative and Positive Affect
In the current study, the moderating effects of observed negative and positive affects on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV, physical aggression) and relationship satisfaction were examined over a 5-year period. Multiwave data were obtained from a sample of young adult men at risk for delinquency and their women partners (n = 121 couples; ages 21–26 years). The trajectory of each partner’s relationship satisfaction and the effects of dyadic IPV and affect were tested using HLM analyses and a two-level (within-couple and between-couple) dyadic growth model. Average levels of dyadic positive affect were associated with relationship satisfaction for both men and women. For men, increases in couples’ positive affect over time were linked to increases in relationship satisfaction, and increases in couples’ externalizing negative affect were linked to decreases in satisfaction. For women, higher levels of couples’ IPV predicted lower levels of satisfaction. Couples’ internalizing negative affect amplified the effects of IPV on satisfaction over time. Increases in IPV were associated with declines in satisfaction for couples with high levels of internalizing negative affect. Conversely, average levels of externalizing negative affect did not amplify the association between IPV and relationship satisfaction. In fact, the adverse influence of IPV on relationship satisfaction was greater for couples who displayed low levels of externalizing negative affect. Because of the inverse association between externalizing negative affect and relationship satisfaction, these findings were interpreted to suggest that the salience of IPV was greater in couples whose relationship satisfaction was not already impaired by high levels of negative affect.Source: