This book provides a multidisciplinary compendium of research pertaining to aging among diverse racial and ethnic populations in the United States. It focuses on paramount public health, social, behavioral, and biological concerns as they relate to the needs of older minorities. The book is divided into four parts covering psychology, public health/biology, social work, and sociology of minority gang. The book focuses on the needs of four major race and ethnic groups: Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic/Latino, black/African American, and Native American. It also includes both inter- and intra-race and ethnic group research for insights regarding minority aging. The chapters focus on an array of subject areas that are recognized as being critical to understanding the well-being of minority elders. These include psychology (cognition, stress, mental health, personality, sexuality, religion, neuroscience, discrimination); medicine/nursing/public health (mortality and morbidity, disability, health disparities, long-term care, genetics, nutritional status, health interventions, physical functioning); social work (aging, caregiving, housing, social services, end-of-life care); and sociology (Medicare, socioeconomic status (SES), work and retirement, social networks, context/neighborhood, ethnography, gender, demographics).
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The book summarizes what is meant by theory, and why theory is so important to advancing aging-related research, policy, practice, and intervention, and can keep researchers and practitioners in gerontology abreast of the newest theories and models of aging. It addresses theories and concepts built on cumulative knowledge in four disciplinary areas, biology, psychology, social sciences, and policy and practice, as well as landmark advances in trans-disciplinary science. Since longevity is indirectly governed by the genome it is sexually determined, and because aging is a stochastic process, it is not. Chapters cover major paradigm shifts that have occurred in geropsychology, theories in the sociology of aging, evolutionary theories pertaining to human diseases, theories of stem cell aging, evidence that loss of proteostasis is a central driver of aging and age-related diseases, theories of emotional well-being and aging, theories of social support in health and aging, and other theories such as environmental gerontological theories and biodemographic theories. Many chapters also address connections between theories and policy or practice. The book also contains a new section, "Standing on the Shoulders of Giants", which includes personal essays by senior gerontologists who share their perspectives on the history of ideas in their fields, and on their experiences with the process and prospects of developing good theory.
The book examines various theories of aging including a contrast between the strengths-based person-in-environment theory and the pathologically based medical model of psychological problems. It advocates truly engaging with the older client during the assessment phase, and discusses a variety of intervention modalities. The book integrates an advanced clinical social work practice with in-depth knowledge of evidence-based practice as well as geriatric medicine, psychiatry and gerontology. The social worker must evaluate the status of the client’s housing, transportation, food, clothing, recreation opportunities, social supports, access to medical care, kinship and other factors considered important by the social worker or the client. Constructivist theory is a conceptual framework that is foundational to existential therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and narrative therapy, which are effective for older adults. Stigma associated with race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation produce psychosocial stressors that converge on older clients. The book discusses several medical conditions affecting older adults such as Alzheimer’s disease, arthritic pain, diabetes and various types of cancers. Older adults may also suffer from substance abuse-related problems, hypersexuality, and various types of abuse such as neglect. The book also highlights the problems faced by the older adult LGBT community and those suffering from HIV disease. It ends with discussions on care and residential settings for the older adults, and palliative care and euthanasia.
The importance of the field of geropsychology (psychology of aging) is seen in the ever-increasing demographics of older adults. A psychologist needs to understand the various life stages that define different cohorts of older adults. Older adults are affected by the forces of stigma and ageism, which are of four types: personal, institutional, intentional, and unintentional. A majority of older adults experience age discrimination and stigmatization after the age of 65. The use of medical model of psychopathology causes contradictions and distortions, one of which is the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Assessment of deficits in olfactory functioning are potentially useful for a psychologist who is attempting to differentiate between cognitive disturbances of normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Sexual interest remains high throughout old adult developmental stages, but sexual activity declines in most men as they age. While older adults are more likely to avoid illicit substances, many older adults having chronic pain from cancer or arthritis need opioid medications. Older adult abuse is a multifactorial phenomenon as the abuse may be emotional, financial, physical, sexual, or self-induced. Environmental geropsychology is based on Lewin’s field theory model Lawton and Nahemow’s ecological model, and an environmental geropsychologist focuses on the environmental component to develop interventions to change older adults’ interpersonal and intrapersonal experiences. Heightened awareness of coming of death results in an existential crisis for many older adults causing a loss of their sense of purpose for their lives.
This book outlines the many changes that have taken place in both the policy arena and the demographics of aging. It is divided into four sections. The first section, Older Americans and the Aging Networks, shows how older Americans are increasingly diverse in a variety of ways, including racial and ethnic backgrounds, religion, spirituality, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation. It presents the latest demographic data on the older population in the United States, as an important background to the planning and development of programs and services. It also addresses the current status of older Americans and the social, political, and economic consequences of the demographic shifts we are currently undergoing and must be prepared for to face tomorrow. The section two addresses Older Americans Act legislation and an expanding consumer base and the evolution from what we knew as a network to what we see now and will continue to witness in terms of an expanding set of networks attempting to work together to improve the lives of older adults. The section three brings us to a new era of community-based services that also includes issues related to the rights and well-being of older Americans. It introduces community-based services provided by the aging networks and addresses the community supports provided by the aging networks to assist older adults to age in place. Aging in place, as we define it, is anywhere an older adult is living, whether it is independent living, assisted living, skilled nursing, memory care, or in a family or group setting. The final section weaves together the landscape of survival, sustainability, and success. It discusses in detail the workforce issues of the aging network, the aging world and the challenge of change, and the persistent and emerging issues for the aging networks.
This book provides innovative ways to incorporate aging content into courses, trainings, and workshops for students or professionals. It presents activities which offer hands-on approaches to engage students of all backgrounds–from social workers to family caregivers, medical students to demographers, nurses to community planners, personal care attendants to students in introduction to gerontology courses. These faculty-tested, peer-reviewed educational activities cover topics ranging from physical aging, media, and demographic portrayals of older adults to disaster planning, public policy, and diversity among older adults. The book includes 32 unique and interesting activities. Each activity comes with detailed instructions, basic back-ground information, a materials list, and an explanation of how the specific content aligns with one or more of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education (AGHE) competencies for undergraduate and graduate education in gerontology. The book is divide into eleven chapters. The first chapter explores teaching courses on aging, and the potential of experiential learning activities to engage students. The second chapter discusses ageism and aging in the media. The next four chapters talk about dementia, demography, health care, and housing for older adults. The seventh chapter describes physical aging. Chapter 8 analyzes public policy and aging. Chapter 9 describes positive interactions with older adults. Chapter 10 explains research projects and papers, and the final chapter discusses spirituality.
The concept of justice is deeply entrenched in America’s psyche. This book assumes that advocates for older people can increase their effectiveness by achieving a clearer understanding of Americans’ not-so- self-evident nor inalienable rights. It explores how social justice and human rights principles have applied to older adults in the past and are viewed today. It examines how the interests of older adults compare to and are intertwined with those of other groups. In essence, the book frames elder justice as the intersection between aging policy and policy that promotes human rights and justice. Chapters two through five describes historical antecedents and precedents for elder justice and suggests how human rights and social justice principles have been embedded in what has traditionally been referred to as “aging policy”. These chapters look at other policies that significantly affect older people but do not fall under that rubric. They further explore ageism and its role in policy. Taken together, they offer two models or approaches that can guide the development of elder justice: the public health model and proposals for an international convention on the rights of older people. Chapters six through ten considers how elder justice principles can be applied. As examples, they focus on how individual rights and social justice apply to elder abuse prevention, to the justice system, in the consumer context, at the end of life, and with respect to people with diminished mental capacity. They also look at equity across generations and among older people. Chapter eleven calls for a new paradigm of elder justice and offers a rationale for why one is needed. Chapter twelve builds on other chapters to demonstrate how elder justice might translate into practice, training, policy, public awareness and engagement, and research.
This book brings together the work of experts from a variety of fields such as adult development, adult education, family science, family therapy and counseling, gerontology, psychology, social work, and sociology. It is organized into four sections, each of which contains chapters reflecting a given theme as it pertains to grandparenting. Section one explores the breadth of the grandparent role from multiple theoretical perspectives, explores both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the study of grandparenting. It examines cohort effects and emphasizes the multigenerational developmental contexts in which grandparents and grandchildren are situated. In addition, it presents variations on grandparenting: grandfathers, great-grandparenting, and step-grandparents. Section two focuses on the diversity among grandparents, examining such issues as variations in sexual orientation in such persons, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, and changing gender roles among grandparents. Section three examines the difficulties and challenges that grandparents face in enacting their roles as well as the resources and strengths they bring to bear. It discusses the impact of having to cope with both acute and chronic illness on intergenerational relationships, the design and implementation of interventions to positively affect emotional functioning. It discusses the clinical case study approaches to helping grandparents, resilience and resourcefulness in the face of stress. Section four emphasizes the societal and cultural aspects of grandparenting, exploring issues of race and ethnicity, grandparent education, global grandparenting, and many dimensions of social policy as they relate to grandparents. The last chapter pulls the material together in presenting a multidimensional, multileveled, and dynamic picture of grandparenting stressing the influence of evolving historical and interpersonal contexts on such persons and their grandchildren. It also offers suggestions for future research over the next two decades.
This book aims to continue inquiry into the evolving nature and all too frequent fragility of late life relationships and the grand challenge of social isolation. It do by documenting author’s current understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of the interrelated issues of social relationships and health in late life, and the promising health and human service practices that have emerged to lessen the negative impacts of weakened relational ties for older adult health and well-being. The book explores from multiple disciplinary perspectives the characteristics and significance of a wide range of social relationships that, when taken together, can determine the extent to which older adults will be at risk of being socially isolated, disengaged, lonely, and otherwise at risk in late life. It considers the influence on older adult social health of trends in multigenerational family relations, friendships, grand parenting, love, intimate and sexual relationships, divorce and widowhood, and interactions with community and healthcare providers and other public entities. It highlights innovative and alternative forms of community and later life relationships that can serve to forestall or prevent altogether social isolation and loneliness. Given the significance placed on the quality of our social lives in preparing us for a satisfying old age, it explores as well a variety of strategies for bolstering older adult social health and community engagement. While one’s physical health status in late life may not be able to be dramatically altered for the better, it argues that one’s social health and the relationships that comprise one’s social life can. Whether you are an older adult yourself or a professional or family caregiver of an older adult, you have the capacity to shore up potential gaps in the integrity of your own or another person’s social world.
Assisted Living Administration and Management Review:Practice Questions for
An aging population is one where the number and proportion of older people increases over time. This is referred to as demographic aging or population aging. Demographic changes since the second half of the last century have led to a global aging population resulting in important economic and social concerns worldwide. The main causes of aging populations are declining fertility rates and increasing life expectancy. This review book compares and contrasts the five domains of practice to the four domains identified in the National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards (
NAB) criteria effective 2022. Except for NAB'srealignment from five to four domains of practice, the content information, knowledge base and tasks are equivalent. Each of the five parts of this Review Book focuses sequentially on the five domains of practice resulting from this comparative analysis. It is evident that this Review Book has retained the initial knowledge areas or domains of practice; the Review Book also reflects the Second Edition of Assisted Living Administration and Management: Effective Practices and Model Programs in Elder Care upon which it is based. Part One covers Domain of Practice 1, organizational management; Part Two explores Domain of Practice 2, human resources management; Part Three focuses on Domain of Practice 3, business and financial management; Part Four includes Domain of Practice 4, Environmental management; and Part Five involves Domain of practice 5, Resident care management. Aspiring residential care/assisted living administrators must identify a particular path to fulfill their professional goal and obtain a career in long-term care administration. While there are different options for students and practitioners, the review book explores possible steps to becoming a residential care/assisted living administrator.