This book is devoted to a discussion of the native American Indian health system and nursing. It is divided into three parts. Part I first provides a national and historical look at the peoples of what is now the United States. This is followed by a view of pre- and postcontact indigenous America and the effects on health resulting from policies by the new dominant culture. Next to be introduced is the idea that “nursing” has been occurring in indigenous America long before icons, such as Florence Nightingale, put a face to the profession. An introduction to nursing and the Indian Health Service (IHS) is then followed by health modalities outside of the IHS that is, indigenous knowledge and traditional healing. Part II shows how these experiences are/were played out in the various cultural regions of the United States: Northeastern Woodlands; Southeastern Woodlands; Southwest tribal regions; Great Basin; Indians-habitated California; Pacific Northwest; Alaska; and Northern Great Plains. Urban has been added to the regional groups found in the 48 contiguous states and Alaska. In Part III, the reader explores funding as a major component of increasing care options and access in Indian country. Two chapters discuss the issues of Indian health funding and American Indian nursing education.
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This book offers nursing and related fields a repository and living history of the evolution of nursing within a caring science paradigm over a 40-year span from foundational ideas and developments, to current work in education, research, and institutional/community practices of caring. It is organized into nine sections providing an in-depth analysis of the evolution of caring scholarship; systematic reviews of the concept of caring; theoretical perspectives, including conceptual orientations, middle-range theories, and grand theories; seminal research studies; research designs and methods; practice models for the integration of caring within contemporary hospital-based practice environments; caring in communities and for the environment; leadership and administrative issues with a focus on caring and economics; and the future of caring science. Each section features an introductory essay illuminating important concepts, followed by reflective questions appropriate for baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral levels. Also included are multiple-choice questions, a variety of case studies, a digital teacher and student resource with PowerPoints for key ideas, and more. The meta-story of caring scholarship in this book helps to carry forward the heritage, history, values, goals, theories, ethics, knowledge, and philosophical views of humanity that guide the future professional and profession.
The book is designed primarily for graduate students in nursing, especially those in advanced practice nursing programs at the master’s and doctoral (DNP) programs who are engaged in clarifying the process of advanced nursing practice, and those in PhD programs who are interested in addressing epistemic questions related to nursing practice as generic subject matter. The conceptualization of client from the nursing perspective is discussed, as the client is the central figure in nursing practice. Detailed descriptions and comprehensive expositions regarding the structures of perspective, knowledge, philosophy, dimension, and process of the model of nursing practice are presented in the book. The book identifies, describes, and examines the essential general tools of practice specific to nursing, which are required for and applied in nursing practice. These are behavioral and cognitive repertoires that are applicable to various sorts of nursing practice situations, and that have nursing-specific utility, meaning, and application. The book addresses the concept of collaborative practice in terms of intra-, inter-, and cross-agency collaboration in the context of person-centered practice. Knowledge application in practice is examined applying a model of knowledge application in nursing practice. The concept of knowledge-based practice is discussed vis-à-vis evidence-based practice, and critical reflective inquiry as a generative mode of development in practice is presented. The book also deals with excellence in practice and the meaning of good practice in relation to the concept of quality of practice.
This book reviews the body of knowledge and practice standards that define the specialty of correctional nursing. The text also describes the health care needs of the youth, men, and women who are incarcerated in jails, prisons, and detention centers. The book supports correctional nurses by providing guidance and resources about the best practices to deliver nursing care that reduces suffering and improves the quality of life for incarcerated individuals, their families, and the community at large. The book is divided into four parts. Part I presents an overview of correctional nursing with chapters covering the ethical principles and legal considerations involved, and safety aspects of the nurse and the patient. The nurse-patient relationship is imposed on both the inmate and the nurse by the governmental entity that is responsible for providing the medical service. The second part talks about the health concerns and diseases of the inmates. These include discussions on alcohol and drug withdrawal, chronic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, arthritis, dental conditions, end-of-life care, women’s and juveniles’ health care, infectious diseases, mental health and pain management. Part III deals with the nursing care process with presentations on health screening, sick call and emergency care. The last part of the book discusses the professional roles and responsibilities on the nurses in correction centers. One of the chapters in this section discusses research participation and evidence-based practice.
This book provides a framework to assist nurses in achieving this ethical competence. James Rest’s four-component model (FCM) integrates the cognitive and affective processes that form an understanding of ethical nursing practice: sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and action. Beginning with a brief overview of ethical theories and principles and building on the experiences of readers who are practicing nurses, each chapter includes one or more evolving case scenarios. Questions posed with each case scenario encourage ethical sensitivity, awareness of personal values, and use of a decision-making model that integrates elements of virtue and care ethics. Recognizing the challenges that arise when attempting to implement a justifiable decision, strategies to maintain ethical motivation, or moral courage, are also presented. Skills to enhance the nurse’s actions in everyday ethical practice with patients, family members, and peers, such as protecting autonomy, promoting safety, and speaking out against lateral violence, are discussed. The two main forms of clinical ethics in a hospital are: ethics committees and ethics consultation services. As the nurse is obligated to maintain and improve the moral environment, several chapters discuss the competencies needed to recognize and address organizational and societal issues. The three ethical issues arising for clinical nurses in the provision of person-and family-centered care (PFCC) are: ensuring that the patient’s voice has primacy over that of the nurse; honoring the choices of the patient even when they conflict with those of the nurse; and engaging with family as the patient directs.
Nursing theory and practice intertwine in a mutually supportive bootstrapping process as the nursing graduate develops skill. A theory must be a new whole in which decontextualized elements are related to each other by rules or laws. It seems that it is more plausible to believe that sufficient experience, accompanied by no theoretical knowledge, could produce skilled coping behavior. The study of the skill-acquisition phenomenon has shown that a person usually passes through at least five stages of qualitatively different perceptions of their task as skill improves. Performance improves to a marginally acceptable level only after the novice has considerable experience coping with real situations. While this encourages the advanced beginner to consider more objective facts and use more sophisticated rules, it also teaches the learner an enlarged conception of what is relevant to the skill. A more subtle and refined discrimination ability is what distinguishes the expert from the proficient performer. It is our hope that we have put into words once again what nurses and all clinicians know in their practice and that the marginalized caring practices presented here compel the reader to consider the societal worth and knowledge inherent in the caring, diagnostic, and therapeutic work that nurses do. As well, it is our hope that practitioners from other fields will join us in this conversation so that together we can design better institutions of public caring—in our schools, families, social work, courtrooms, and in all places where protection of vulnerability, sponsorship of growth, and the promotion of better citizenship occurs. The synthesis of the work on the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition is drawn from Benner (2005).
The purpose of this book is to offer nurses, physicians, and other staff a primer on family-centered care of the newborn. It addresses the theme of family-centered care of the newborn and how to establish partnerships with the family prenatally and postnatally, as well as delineates best practices to improve both the quality of newborn care and family support. The book is based on four guiding principles that include treating people with dignity and respect, providing information in ways that are useful and affirming, welcoming family participation in care and decision-making at a level chosen by the family, and collaborating with families at the bedside and beyond. To participate effectively in shared information and decision-making with parents, people must improve their ability to communicate. Communication skills in these situations are as important as technical skills and clinical competence. The book offers strategies to promote implementation of a family-centered environment in the delivery room or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), practical approaches to communicating with families before and after delivery, and tips on policy review to facilitate a culture of family-centered care. It also discusses how to welcome families during interdisciplinary rounds and nurse hand-offs, and ways to support families during procedures and resuscitation.
Fast Facts About Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Nursing:Building Competencies for an Antiracism Practice
This nursing handbook introduces and defines key terms about race and racism for nurses, nursing students, and nurse educators. It addresses how race and racism act as structural and core social determinants of health and propel health inequities. It moves beyond a focus on multicultural approaches for understanding inequity toward a recognition of the broader impact that both systemic and structural racism have had on inequality in health and life opportunities. Through a social justice lens, the book underscores how nurses, as frontline health professionals, need to understand racism as a factor behind these inequities and its significance to their working environment and nursing practice.
In concise chapters with brief paragraphs and bulleted information, this practical handbook offers strategies for how to productively engage in a dialogue about race and racism. It considers the history of racism in the United States and then breaks down how it operates at structural, institutional, and individual levels. Case studies illustrate such concepts as microaggressions, implicit bias, power, privilege, and intersectionality in order to foster understanding and provide opportunities for both self-reflection and collective conversation.
Fast Facts for Patient Safety in Nursing:How to Decrease Medical Errors and Improve Patient Outcomes
This book highlights the alarming statistics regarding medical errors and the most common causes. A thorough review of the literature identified the most significant errors and their causes. The significance of critical thinking, logic, and clinical judgment has been well established, and the book includes strategies for developing and improving these skills. It addresses case studies, exemplars, tips from the field, discussion questions, and special topics that support the integration and application of the important concepts. The book is structured and organized around two major units. Unit I addresses the severity of the issue and common causes. It provides an overview of the issue and the agencies that focus on patient safety. Despite numerous policy changes and strategies, patient errors have continued to increase after a previous improvement that stemmed from the initiatives after the landmark report To Err Is Human. Common medical errors include medication errors, patient falls, pressure ulcers, infections, and surgical errors. Unit I also describes the primary causes with poor communication being one of the most common causes. Unit II focuses on improving patient safety and decreasing adverse events. It focuses on ways to become a safe practitioner through education and competency development. It also highlights several theories that can be used to promote quality of care and decrease adverse outcomes. It then focuses on the significance of critical thinking in promoting patient outcomes and ways to develop and improve critical thinking and reasoning. The book focuses on prioritization and delegation and ways to develop these skills in addition to the scope of practice, intuition, and ethics. It focuses on leadership and emotional intelligence and finally focuses on the issue from a holistic approach and includes cultural humility and artificial intelligence.
This book is written for faith community nurses (FCNs) and provides information and resources necessary to be successful in the practice of faith community nursing. This specialty nursing practice combines the caring aspect of nursing with the spiritual and the sacred. The book is divided into three parts. Part I provides an overview of faith community nursing practices its roots, practice models, roles, and legal and ethical parameters. Faith community nursing is the specialized practice of professional nursing that focuses on the intentional care of the spirit as part of the process of promoting holistic health and preventing or minimizing illness in a faith community. Parish nursing is a recognized specialty practice that combines professional nursing and health ministry. Health care practitioners who make several small changes in how patients’ religious commitments are broached in clinical practice may enhance health outcomes. There are four models through which faith community nursing practice is delivered: the institutional model, the congregational paid model, the congregational volunteer model, and the paid consortium model. Part II includes chapters that inform the FCN about initiating a faith community nursing ministry, assessing the health needs of the faith community, health education, teaching, and program planning and evaluation. Part III presents information on meeting the special needs of the faith community and includes content on acute and chronic care needs, palliative care, and grief and loss. Additional chapters focus on connecting with community resources and vulnerable populations.