Qualitative research has gained wide acceptance in nursing research. This book examines ethnography as a research design of particular relevance to nursing and provides specific information to guide graduate students or experienced nurses who are novices in the designs in conducting studies from the point of view of patients and their families. It reviews the philosophical basis for choosing ethnography as a research tool and describes in depth its key features and development level. The book provides directives on how to solve practical problems related to ethnography research, nursing examples, and discussion of the current state of the art. This includes a comprehensive plan for conducting studies and a discussion of appropriate measures, ethical considerations, and potential problems. It describes the meaning of health and well-being from the emic viewpoint of rural Nicaraguan men and talks about a study which explored health care providers’ perspectives regarding guideline compliance for rapid malaria testing in peripheral health facilities in Ghana. The book reviews the culture of the indigenous Zapotec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico, and the application of Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory and describes a study, which examined childbirth in Fiji, compared the culturally specific methods used during childbirth to control pain and to reduce the risk of injury to the mother and the infant. It also deals with the needle exchange program to reduce the incidence rate of hepatitis and presents an ethnographic study done with a small group of poor and working-class Black American women who are sustained by their storefront church. The book also discusses other issues such as recovery of women from alcohol abuse, and personal privacy and interactional patterns in a nursing home.
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Transitioning to a leadership role in evidence-based practice (EBP) means acquiring the necessary research appraisal knowledge and skills. This book includes a broad range of research examples from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms in different practice settings to gain that appraisal expertise. Practice evidence needs to be evaluated and critiqued to make the evidence actionable. The book provides exemplar critiques that are accessible to those students and nurses who are enhancing their research skill set, engaging in scholarly inquiry, and developing as professionals and leaders in health care reform. This book is organized into two parts containing 16 chapters. Each chapter includes a research study, published in a nursing or health care journal, and a research critique conducted by an experienced nurse researcher. The first part provides critiques of 11 quantitative research studies utilizing various methodologies, such as a randomized controlled trial, and correlational and cross-sectional descriptive studies. The second part includes three qualitative studies. Quantitative research seems to be especially challenging for students to critique while at the same time easier to understand implications for practice. The research problems and phenomena of interest addressed in the studies reflect concerns of nurses in contemporary practice, such as compassion fatigue, use of opioids for pain management, and geriatric nursing home falls. In addition, two of the studies address global health issues childhood immunization in the Philippines and betel nut chewing among Palauans. Nursing students as well as their faculty will find this book a useful adjunct to course content. Students are provided with 14 exemplars of critical analysis of research literature, reinforcing critique as an essential skill for acquiring knowledge for evidence-based practice.
The social work role in nursing facilities is a valuable resource in the lives of residents, families, and staff. Whether the nursing facility is called a nursing home, a long-term care center, or a subacute or a rehabilitation center, the social worker is an essential, vital member of the healthcare team. As in other settings, social workers in nursing home settings use professional casework skills to help people in particular times of crisis and stress. As a contributing member of the interdisciplinary team, the social worker provides an opportunity for residents and families to examine problems, mobilize existing resources and/or refer to resources that are more appropriate, and develop positive resolutions. This third revised edition of A Guide for Nursing Home Social Workers provides the knowledge and information that social workers, regardless of their education and experience, need in the performance of their role in nursing home settings. The book is divided into six parts to help categorize the content: Social Work in Nursing Facilities; The Interdisciplinary Team; Nursing Facilities and Governing Oversights; Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care Issues; Ethics; and Community Liaisons. The first part presents key informational topics that social workers may utilize in their day-to-day work, such as assessments, care planning, and documentation. The second part contains information about team meetings, room changes, staff training and in-services, and social work consultation. The third part addresses a range of topics including Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (
OBRA) and the Minimum Data Set 3.0, as well as state surveys and facility policies. The fourth part provides current information about care topics such as neurocognitive disorders, mood disorders, medication, and pain in older adults, as well as groups, families, and diversity within the nursing facility. The fifth part contains chapters on social work ethics, legal representation, abuse, neglect, mistreatment, and confidentiality. The final part includes chapters on resident finances, transfer and discharge, community resources, funeral arrangements, pandemics and disaster planning, and trauma-informed care and adverse childhood experiences. The goal of this guide is to provide some of the necessary supports and assistance needed by social workers in this field as they pursue their profession of helping residents, families, and others involved in long-term care.
This book provides a tool kit for helping professions responding to vulnerable populations and preparing populations prior to a disaster. Some populations are more vulnerable to the effects of a disaster than others, making it more difficult for them to prepare, evacuate, shelter, respond, and recover in the event of a disaster or emergency. Considering the needs of these groups requires special knowledge essential to preparedness, response, and recovery planning. In circumstances where there is mass evacuation, such as during Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, there is always frequent media coverage of large-scale evacuations, including evacuation of medical facilities and nursing homes. Those with chronic medical conditions and older adults are two of the many categories worthy of consideration. Vulnerable populations also include pregnant women, prisoners, the homeless, those with functional mental health issues or addiction issues, those with transportation issues, persons in poverty, minorities, persons who are obese, and those who have special supervision needs. Socioeconomic status (SES) has recently been recognized as a significant vulnerability factor. Evacuation can also be an issue for those of a lower SES due to limited financial resources. Dealing with persons with substance abuse and dependency is one of the most neglected areas in the literature involving empirical evidence and guidelines for appropriate response in a disaster. Developing appropriate guidelines and interventions presents a thorny set of problems for both addicted individuals and emergency responders. A final consideration is the role of pets in disaster recovery. Those who engage in disaster preparedness and response with vulnerable populations should be aware of the characteristics that make those populations vulnerable and make special considerations during planning, response, and recovery. The book highlights some of those characteristics, providing responders with necessary guidelines to assess and intervene with those who are especially vulnerable.