Personality psychology concerns the nature of human nature and tells us how a person will act in different situations and why. This book tells the story about the differences and similarities between people, and the causes and consequences of these differences. It commences with a note on the salient psychological theories of personality. During the mid-20th century, behaviorism emerged as a dominant paradigm for understanding human behavior, including personality. Although the social cognitive theory of personality has its origins in the radical behaviorist tradition, it emerged in clear opposition to it. Causal theories of personality deal with the question of why people differ in various ways. Behavioral genetics, an area of psychology concerned with the assessment of the relative contribution of genetic and nongenetic influences on various individual variables of difference, including personality, intelligence, and psychological disorders, is also outlined. Psychologists believe people can measure personality using reliable scientific tools. There has been an increased interest in alternative methods for objectively assessing personality. One compelling example is the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The book also shows how personality influences what is traditionally seen as social and cultural phenomena, such as political attitudes and religious beliefs, and prosocial and antisocial behavior. According to research, the most important personality correlates of prosocial behavior are extraversion and agreeableness. The book concludes with a note on the implications of using personality inventories in the context of identifying bad or problematic traits, such as narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, and online personality profiling in the context of consumer behavior.
Your search for all content returned 44 results
The purpose of this book is to dispel many of the myths about the gifted, define the term in a nonelitist manner, explore how it manifests in individuals, describe why it is important, consider its origins, examine its psychological implications, and provide guidelines for its recognition, assessment, and development. It provides a cohesive conception of the psychology and development of a group with special needs. This perspective was shaped through 50 years of concentrated study and is informed by the author’s experience as a teacher of gifted elementary students, a counselor of gifted adolescents, a teacher educator of graduate students in gifted education, a psychologist specializing in the assessment of giftedness, a clinician with gifted clients, the creator of a refereed psychological journal on adult giftedness, and a researcher. In humanistic psychology, optimal development has been conceptualized differently. Self-realization can be understood in terms of Maslow’s self-actualization, Dabrowski’s secondary integration, Jung’s individuation, or other theoretical perspectives of human development. Families, educators, and psychologists can support inner development or they can act as agents of socialization, exhorting the gifted to "work harder" to attain external trappings of success.
This book intentionally approaches positive psychology from two perspectives: One is the application of specific positive psychology constructs, such as strengths or the broaden-and-build model, to supervision and training. The second perspective, which is probably more pervasive throughout the book and provides the underlying conceptual framework, is to operate from the definition of positive psychology as simply “the study and science of what works”. The book provides a broad overview of some of the most influential supervision theories and perspectives and introduces the key research findings and constructs from positive psychology. The rest of the book focuses on the factors and practical applications that will have the most impact on providing supervision from a positive psychology framework, ranging from ways supervisors can help ensure that the supervisory relationship begins well to identifying and developing our supervisees’ strengths and fostering the development of expertise and lifelong learning. The book also presents several models for approaching the problems that can occur during supervision and offers practical suggestions to help your challenging situations lead to supervisee growth and a stronger supervisee-supervisory relationship. Problems are inevitable, but unlike customer service at a bank, there is not an outside department charged with solving them; however, successfully resolving problems can lead to more growth and development than a smooth journey ever could. The book finally examines ways to facilitate ethical “resiliency” to help us and our supervisees more effectively address the human tendencies that can land even the most well-intended supervisee or clinician into ethical quicksand.
The book covers both theories and data, and provides a comprehensive grounding in the psychology of love. The basic thesis of the book is that scientific research can help us all in our loving relationships. Consequently, the book talks not only about theory and data, but also about how to apply them to our close relationships. One chapter provides questions and answers about loving relationships, based on scientific research. Another chapter discusses online dating and the issue of just what we can expect when we meet people online. The complete “Triangular Love Scale” is presented in the book and will enable you to analyze in some detail the levels of intimacy, passion, and commitment in your relationships. The scale, based on psychological theory and validated using large numbers of participants, will show you how psychologists not only construct theories, but also translate these theories into measures that can assess scientifically the phenomena they study. The book considers most of the standard topics in the psychology of love, covering research primarily about heterosexual but also about gay couples. It describes different kinds of love, including the kinds that are more likely to lead to relationship success and also the kinds associated with relationship failure. It specifically discusses factors that lead to greater or lesser success, as well as personality variables and their associations with different kinds of love. While the book focuses mainly on romantic love, it also covers other aspects of love, such as parental love and friendship.
Contemporary research has found that memory is much more than the process for recalling information that has been learned and retained. Memory is central to all human endeavors. Memory is the sine qua non of human psychology. How humans process, store, retrieve, and use memory is intrinsically interesting. This book is about human memory: how it works, how it sometimes does not work, why it is important, and why it is interesting. It describes the major structural and functional theories that guide our understanding of memory. The modal model has three memory buffers: sensory information store, short-term memory and long-term memory. The book focuses on everyday functions of memory, including memorizing things, remembering to do things (prospective memory), and recalling how to do things, such as skills, procedures, and navigation. Disorders of memory including Alzheimer’s and amnesia are examined along with exceptional memory skills, such as the phenomenon of individuals with highly superior autobiographical memory. The book also addresses the intriguing and controversial topics of repressed and recovered memories, the validity of memory in courtroom testimony, and the effects of remembering traumatic events.
Both companies, the original Springer-Verlag and the present Springer Publishing Company in New York, are related by name, family history, and one-eighth common human ancestry. The first two chapters discuss the origins of the parent company in Germany between 1842-1906 and the growth during the period 1906-1966. The third chapter focuses Bernhard Springer’s early life in Berlin and emigration to America. Bernhard Springer was assigned administrative functions, especially with the beginning of the United States occupation in Germany. The founding and the years of the Springer Publishing Company during the period 1950-1970 are discussed in the fourth chapter. The first 20 books, produced by the end of 1956, were all in medicine or medicine-related fields. The events that followed belong to the history of the nursing profession, since they show the beginning of self-assured professional nursing. During the second decade of the company, a clear shift is noticeable: only 5 books on medical topics, 4 on veterinary topics, and 13 in psychology came out, but 20 new nursing books were published. Bernhard’s marriage with Ursula is described in Chapter 7. After Bernhard’s illness and death, Ursula Springer assumed leadership of the company. In the mid-1970s, aging became a popular, and many colleges introduced courses in gerontology, or courses on aging-related aspects within the fields of psychology, sociology, psychiatry, public health, and nursing. The book also talks about the company’s publications on psychology and counseling, public health and social work, and the journals such as the Scholarly Inquiry in Nursing Practice.
The therapeutic community (TC) for addictions descends from historical prototypes found in all forms of communal healing. A hybrid, spawned from the union of self-help and public support, the TC is an experiment in progress, reconfiguring the vital healing and teaching ingredients of self-help communities into a systematic methodology for transforming lives. Part I of this book outlines the current issues in the evolution of the TC that compel the need for a comprehensive formulation of its perspective and approach. It traces the essential elements of the TC and organizes these into the social and psychological framework, detailed throughout the volume as theory, model, and method. Part II discusses the TC treatment approach, which is grounded in an explicit perspective that consists of four interrelated views: the drug use disorder, the person, recovery, and right living. The view of right living emphasizes explicit beliefs and values essential to recovery. Part III details how the physical, social organizational, and work components foster a culture of therapeutic change. It also outlines how the program stages convey the process of change in terms of individual movement within the organizational structure and planned activities of the model. Part IV talks about community enhancement activities, therapeutic-educational activities, privileges and sanctions, and surveillance. The groups that are TC-oriented, such as encounters, probes, and marathons, retain distinctive self-help elements of the TC approach. Part V depicts how individuals change through their interaction with the community, provides an integrative social and psychological framework of the TC treatment process, and outlines how the basic theory, method, and model can be adapted to retain the unique identity of contemporary TCs.
This book provides a guided curriculum that introduces school psychology graduate students to a range of professional issues that may be faced within the context of supervised field-based experiences. Topics addressed in the book span entry-level practica through advanced clinical applications, the culminating internship year, and transitioning to professional practice. The book focuses on providing recommendations on developing curriculum vitae (CV), interviewing, writing personal statements, considerations for certification and licensure, and applying to jobs tasks often beyond the scope of what a program may offer through formal course work or seminars. It also addresses other core competencies essential to developing professionals in the context of field supervision. The book offers faculty a ready resource and text for use across a range of practicum and internship seminars. Graduate preparation programs in school psychology offer such seminars and formal university-based supervision to provide guidance to students as they traverse these experiences. Practica and internships remain among the most ubiquitous components of every school psychology program in the United States. To assist programs working to further develop their own processes, the book includes various tools and templates that represent actual forms utilized by National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)-approved and American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited programs across the country. The book serves as a guide to both faculty and students to support growth during field-based experiences and reviews the basic components of psychological evaluation and intervention report writing.
This book provides a highly accessible introduction to the many facets of human intelligence, with careful presentation of the wide range of theories and perspectives. Written by a team of renowned scholars, it discusses the long history of the study of intelligence, which in many ways parallels the founding and growth of psychology itself. Structure of Intellect (SOI) model represents a very different approach to theories of intelligence. Recent technological advances have encouraged explorations into the relationship between brain function and specific types of cognitive functioning. The book differentiates intelligence and related constructs such as creativity and intellectual giftedness, which helps people to better understand each construct. Sternberg proposed a way to classify the various approaches to studying the intelligence-creativity relationship. The exponentially increasing development of technology will continue to influence both research and interventions involving intelligence. Neurological studies of intelligence that were in the realm of science fiction only a generation ago have become commonplace. Brain imaging studies are also becoming more relevant to intelligence research. Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology, which uses superconducting magnets and radio waves to create 3-D images of the brain, will help future researchers look at the morphology of distinct brain regions and systems, and possibly come to firm conclusions about the relationship between the size or function of distinct brain regions and differences in intelligent human behavior.
Understanding a student’s ethnic identity process coupled with the student’s sexual identity and psychosocial identity can provide a much more useful and informative portrait of his or her circumstances than merely knowing the student as a “19-year-old sophomore”. This book was developed with both the student affairs professional and the student affairs graduate student in mind. After a brief introduction, it discusses various human development theories such as Schlossberg’s transition theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Perry’s theory of moral development, and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as well as personality types based on the Myers–Briggs type indicator. In the subsequent section of the book, the focus is on identity development in college students, with chapters covering Chickering’s Theory and the seven vectors of development, Black and biracial identity development theories, White identity development, and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity development as well as disability and identity development. and career development theories. The final section of the book describes the factors that impact the selection of careers with chapters discussing the Holland’s theory of career development and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, among other issues. Theory-based chapters open with a vignette in which the reader is presented with specific details of a case study for consideration. At the end of the chapter, the case is revisited and considered using a theoretical framework. Each case vignette provides the reader with immersion into a diverse perspective, and the chapter authors provide a clear discussion of their conceptualization of the student.