College counseling has entered an era that promises to be radically different than any time in its previous 100-year history. College students in this 21st century are more technologically advanced than previous generations and more likely to take virtual classes than previous generations of college students. Traditional services provided by the college counseling center are: individual and group counseling, psychoeducational groups, evaluation and assessment, career counseling, consultation to faculty and staff, medication management and resident advisor (RA) training. Nontraditional services are defined as virtual counseling, advising, and related services offered via distance technology. College counseling centers have long offered types of self-instructional services. They will need to address social media in ways that are both ethically sound and also able to effectively engage college students in seeking counseling services. The counselor can administer the Dimensions of a Healthy Lifestyle Scale (DHLS) to the client and then discuss the findings.
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The Wedging or Strengthening Technique has been modified in Germany and is called the Absorption Technique to create resources to deal with what the client is concerned about in the future, or having stress about working with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the future, a present trigger or even an intrusive memory. Having clients imagine a strength or skill that would help them during the problem often helps them to reduce their anxiety. Focusing on a specific strength or coping skill may create a wedge of safety or control that will assist clients with the difficult situation in the future. During the Future Phase of the Inverted Protocol for Unstable complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) use the Absorption or Wedging Technique to develop as many different resources for the different issues about which the client might be concerned.
The Absorption Technique for Children is a protocol that was derived from the work of Arne Hofmann who based his work on an adaptation of “The Wedging Technique”. The absorption technique for children is a resource technique that supports children in creating resources for present issues and future challenges such as dealing with a difficult teacher or handling a disagreement with a classmate and so forth. This chapter uses resource installation for stressful situations. It includes summary sheets to facilitate gathering information, client documentation, and quick retrieval of salient information while formulating a treatment plan. The absorption technique, and the constant installation of present orientation and safety (CIPOS) technique, are excellent ways to encourage children to work with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) step-by-step even if they are not prepared to work with the worst issue in the beginning.
This chapter describes maneuvers to access the internal system of the patient as well as means to accelerate or decelerate the work in that process of accessing the self-system. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), ego state therapy, and somatic therapy fit together like hand and glove. An extended preparation phase is often necessary before trauma processing in complex traumatic stress presentations and attachment-related syndromes, particularly when dealing with the sequelae of chronic early trauma. Clinical practice suggests that the adjunctive use of body therapy and ego state interventions can be useful, during stabilization and later on in increasing the treatment response to EMDR. Traditional treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders has usually included hypnoanalytic interventions, during which abreaction is considered an important part of treatment.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a behavioral intervention designed to increase and improve psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility, from the ACT perspective, is defined as contacting the present moment fully, as a conscious human being, experiencing what is there to be experienced and working to change behavior such that it is in the service of chosen values. The therapeutic work explored in ACT counters the problem solving approach. Clients are taught to be aware of their thoughts and emotional experiences. An important feature of the therapy is that the therapist approaches these issues with humility and compassion for the client’s experience. Many clients who have experienced military sexual trauma (
MST) have limited their lives in a number of ways in an effort to control or prevent fear or fear-related experiences such as anxiety or difficult memories.Source:
- Go to chapter: ACT-AS-IF and ARCHITECTS Approaches to EMDR Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
This chapter describes key steps, with scripts, for the phases of therapy with a dissociative identity disorder (DID) client, and for an eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) session with a DID client. In brief, the method employs the artful use of EMDR and ego state therapy for association and acceleration, and of hypnosis, imagery, and ego state therapy for distancing and deceleration within the context of a trusting therapeutic relationship. It is also endeavoring to stay close to the treatment guidelines as promulgated by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. The acronym ACT-AS-IF describes the phases of therapy; the acronym ARCHITECTS describes the steps in an EMDR intervention. Dual attention awareness is key in part because it keeps the ventral vagal nervous system engaged sufficiently to empower the client to sustain the painful processing of dorsal vagal states and sympathetic arousal states.
This chapter explains the process of solution focused narrative therapy (SFNT) and offers suggestions for the therapist’s use of conversational questioning. SFNT therapy comprises six steps: best hopes, mapping the effects of the problem, constructing the preferred story, exception gathering, preparing the presentation of the preferred future and moving up the scale, and summarizing and inviting clients to watch for success. The most important step is beginning therapy. The therapist begins the session by introducing himself, learning the names of those attending, and asking the same question of all present. The chapter also presents an exercise, which may help to identify traits, values, and actions that help readers present their best self to their clients, particularly clients that are challenging.
This chapter introduces readers to the Active Client Engagement (ACE) model, which includes acquiring information, creating a context for collaboration, and evocation of clients’ strengths and resources. As with the strengths-based principles, each facet of ACE works in concert with and is dependent on the others. Together the three components assist with creating a focus in therapy and strengthening the therapeutic alliance. Additionally, the three aspects of ACE are interventive. The chapter introduces methods for gathering client information and using routine outcome monitoring (ROM). An additional part of this chapter involves ways to match clients’ communication styles. The chapter examines two different processes for gathering information: (a) routine outcome monitoring (ROM) in practice (including feedback-informed treatment [FIT]) and (b) interviewing for strengths. The processes are meant to make early contacts and what follows treatment-wise seamless.
Serving in the military presents many challenges, opportunities, and risks. Recently, the suicide rates among military service members and veterans have trended upward and reached unprecedented levels. Research has found that the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is a desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, similar to motives reported by those in nonmilitary samples. This chapter highlights the individuals who are currently serving or have served in the military as they are specific populations due to their importance and distinct vulnerability. It explores the statistics, epidemiology, and trends in active military personnel and veteran suicide. In addition, the chapter draws specific risk factors (psychiatric, sociodemographic, interpersonal, and other associated factors) for military personnel and veterans from evidence-based research. The chapter also presents protective factors identified in literature for military service members and veterans. Finally, it explores treatment considerations and interventions for active military personnel and veterans.
This chapter discusses that brief therapy usually calls for an active, directive therapeutic stance. One of the biggest myths pervading a good deal of the literature on psychological treatment is that therapists should not give advice. In direct contrast to Karasu’s position, London a true visionary, pointed out that “action therapy” often calls for arguments, exhortations, and suggestions from therapists who are willing to assume responsibility for treatment outcomes. Karasu, like many theorists, overlooks the fact that a good deal of emotional suffering does not stem solely from conflicts but is the result of deficits and missing information. When hiatuses and lacunae result in maladaptive psychological patterns, no amount of insight will remedy the situation it demands a system of training whereby the therapist serves as a coach, model, and teacher. The major issue is to decide when certain methods are likely to be helpful or harmful.
This chapter reviews the adaptive information processing (AIP) model, which is the theoretical foundation of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (
EMDR) approach to psychotherapy. It examines how the concept of memory networks has evolved from its roots to the way it is used in EMDR therapy. The concept of dual attention can be viewed as a state in which consciousness is in balance and where attention can fluidly shift between current sensory perceptions and relevant memory networks. The chapter also reviews research on the specific effects of trauma and early developmental deficits on information processing. The chapter considers what theory and outcome data suggest regarding the effects of different modes of bilateral sensory stimulation during EMDR reprocessing. For clinicians and patients with significant training and experience in models of verbal psychotherapy, initial experiences of optimal responses to EMDR therapy can seem dramatically rapid and comprehensive.
This chapter describes about the methods designed to expand the use of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) adaptive information processing (AIP) model to clients with strong psychological defenses. It uses the term psychological defense to describe any mental action, or behavior that has the function and purpose of blocking the full emergence into consciousness of posttraumatic disturbance. The chapter describes the methods, for targeting and resolving psychological defense, facilitate therapy moving more easily, more quickly, and more effectively for many people with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). It also addresses the types of incongruity through specific targeting with bilateral stimulation (BLS). Separate types of personality parts respond differently to focused sets of BLS; therefore, it is useful to think of three categories of dissociated parts: Oriented, adaptive, and effective “normal-appearing” parts, “Trauma-reliving” parts and Parts that prevent “trauma-reliving” parts.
Hypnosis has been found effective in altering cognitive and affective states. Since negative affective states lead to relapse, using hypnosis as a treatment modality to reduce and control anxiety, anger, and other negative affects may be helpful in reducing potential triggers to relapse. Given a counterconditioning model, if individuals can learn to not only reduce negative affect but also substitute positive affective states when in high-stress situations, they may develop the skills necessary to prevent the vicious cycle back to drug and alcohol abuse. Failing “to address patient’s needs for alternative methods of achieving altered states of consciousness” may be part of the reason for relapse. Staying abstinent or, conversely, relapsing is a function of intrapersonal determinants and interpersonal determinants. Using hypnosis to modify any of these determinants may be helpful with augmenting abstinence and preventing relapse.
Alcohol and other drugs (AOD)/substance use on college campuses has been an ongoing challenge for campus administrations, health services and health promotion, housing, and counseling centers. The misuse of substances by college students has a significant physiological, emotional, economic, and academic cost. Students are frequently unaware of the impact marijuana use may have on academic performance and motivation. Brief intervention (BI) and treatment have been shown to be effective treatment modalities at reducing high-risk substance abuse behaviors. Counseling centers may consider allowing for at least one session of motivational interviewing to increase the likelihood of clients following through on referrals to comprehensive substance use assessment, self-help groups, or treatment. Counseling center staff, even those with limited AOD treatment experience, can feel empowered to use the screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) model. Group therapy is one of the most widely used treatment modalities for substance use.
This chapter explains a set of guidelines to help mental health professionals and clients move away from the gender stereotypes that perpetuate inequality and illness. Identifying dominance requires conscious awareness and understanding of how gender mediates between mental health and relationship issues. An understanding of what limits equality is significantly increased when we examine how gendered power plays out in a particular relationship and consider how it intersects with other social positions such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. To contextualize emotion, the therapist draws on knowledge of societal and cultural patterns, such as gendered power structures and ideals for masculinity and femininity that touch all people’s lives in a particular society. Therapists who seek to support women and men equally take an active position that allows the non-neutral aspects of gendered lives to become visible.
This chapter presents several models for approaching the problems that can occur during supervision and offers practical suggestions to help supervisor’s and clinician’s challenging situations lead to supervisee growth and a stronger supervisee-supervisory relationship. Problems are inevitable, but unlike customer service at a bank, there is not an outside department charged with solving them; however, successfully resolving problems can lead to more growth and development than a smooth journey ever could. The chapter offers different approaches for ‘thinking outside the box’ and moving things forward when problems and challenges occur in supervision. Narrative therapy helps clients to reauthor or “re-story” their lives to be more in line with their values and hopes instead of constrained by their problems. Narrative supervision is grounded in social constructionism, which emphasizes the postmodern tenets of collaboration, nondirectiveness, and multiple perspectives.
This chapter opens with a brief discussion of interventions that students who have sustained concussions may receive outside of school in a rehabilitation setting and at home. Students who have sustained concussions typically require short-term adjustments while they are still symptomatic. The chapter discusses appropriate school-based educational plans in relation to symptom clusters. The chapter addresses extracurricular involvement of students and special grading considerations during recovery. It includes guidance to help school teams determine if a child with persistent postconcussion symptoms requires a 504 plan or further evaluation for an individualized education program (IEP). Students who are eligible for IEPs under the traumatic brain injury (TBI) category may require significant modifications to the curriculum in order to be successful academically. Finally, the chapter concludes with a note on dealing with students who may malinger or continue to report symptoms when they have actually resolved.
The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler provides a rich theoretical foundation for what has developed into Adlerian psychotherapy. This chapter defines the basic tenets of Adler’s theory of personality and therapy. Adler’s theory is grounded on the idea that childhood experiences are crucial to the psychological development, and that children, who are by nature in an inferior position to parents and other adults, strive to achieve some sense of superiority. Adler ’s work represents a psychological theory that acknowledges the influence of social factors on the personality. In efforts toward understanding the lifestyle, Adler viewed humans’ unique approaches to life through the lenses of the life tasks. These tasks included: the work task, the social task, and the sexual task. Adler believed that encouragement, the act of promoting courage within someone else, was the cornerstone of therapy and could inspire clients toward growth, healthy adaptation, and functioning in life.
Although there has been an increase in federal spending on suicide prevention, the overall number of suicides in United States has actually increased over the past several years. It is important to understand the epidemiological trends, prevalence, and incidence rates of adult suicidality to understand why our effectiveness at reducing adult suicide rates has been so limited. Further, in order to improve existing prevention and intervention efforts, identification of relevant risk and protective factors among adults is essential. This chapter deconstructs myths and misconceptions related to suicide among adults, and provides an overview of empirically grounded strategies for effective assessment and treatment of this population. Although the presence of a diagnosable mental disorder, specifically depression, raises an adult’s risk potential, many adults without a diagnosis may be suicidal. Sociodemographic and psychiatric risk and protective factors should be assessed to aid in determining suicide risk to fully assess and plan treatment.
This chapter helps the reader to be familiar with the concept of an advanced specialization practicum. The overarching goal is to learn core competencies for assessment, intervention, consultation, and systems-level pedagogical supports. There is an increasing need for school psychologists with expertize in high school transition and postsecondary evaluations as well as dual enrollment collaborative evaluations. Clinic-based examples of specialized practica might include forensics evaluation through a law clinic or adjudicated youth programs, inpatient or outpatient hospital units, community mental health agencies, and private practice. The chapter describes important considerations for pursuing a variety of advanced practicum experiences, including coordinating postsecondary transition services, conducting forensic evaluations, and working within settings that utilize a medical model. To secure disability services at the college level, eligible students are required to submit acceptable documentation.
This chapter presents several strategies, analogies, and metaphors to address dissociation from different angles and perspectives. Clinicians will have a wide range of methods of introducing and explaining dissociation to children. Analogies and stories that help children understand the multiplicity of the self may be presented during the preparation phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. A good way of introducing the concept of dissociation is by using the dissociation kit for kids. Stimulating interoceptive awareness is a fundamental aspect of the work needed during the preparation phase of EMDR therapy with dissociative children. Visceral, proprioceptive, as well as kinesthetic-muscle awareness should be stimulated. The installation of present resolution (IPR) was inspired by an exercise developed by Steele and Raider. In this exercise, the child is asked to draw a picture of the past traumatic event followed by a picture of the child in the present.
Advertisements differ from fictional media in that they are purposely intended to change behavior. This chapter shows how influential are advertisements on our behavior, what “tricks” do advertisers use to influence behavior, and how do the influences of advertisements compare to fictional media. Advertising is a subset of marketing. Advertisements are designed to make the public aware of a product, as well as to provide a pitch for why that particular product is superior to its competitors. False advertisements tried to entice consumers with lofty but untrue claims of benefits and to hide weaknesses or financial liabilities with their products. One form of advertising that has been controversial is product placement. One other area that is controversial is advertisement directed at children. Children are thought of as being particularly vulnerable given that they are less adept than adults at reality testing.Source:
Patients who present with affect dysregulation suffer from a variety of clinical and sub-clinical impediments to their daily functioning. Affect dysregulation is an affective style that can be conceptualized as having four main components. One is a distorted and unnecessarily intense qualitative appraisal of routine stimuli and interpersonal contact. Thus, the intensity of the emotional reaction does not correspond to that indicated by the environmental trigger. The second is an accompanying psychophysiological hyperarousal. Psychophysiological markers can range from elevated heart rate and rapid breathing to the bradycardic rhythms of the freeze response that also result from autonomic nervous system arousal. The third component consists of emotional, cognitive, and/or behavioral manifestations of affect dysregulation. These frequently include the internal experience of being flooded or overwhelmed with emotion and feeling out of control. Cognitively, a person may suffer from extreme anticipatory anxiety or rumination.
Emotional dysregulation is a key component of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to understand the basic neurophysiology of stress and how it influences a survivor’s ability to cope. The mechanism involved in stress includes the connections among the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal gland. Glucocorticoids influence metabolism and immune function, and send signals back to the brain about the stressor. Low cortisol levels immediately after a trauma may also be a risk factor for developing PTSD. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) secretes catecholamines during stress, which help to consolidate memories. When military personnel have a history of childhood abuse and subsequent military sexual trauma (
MST), they may be particularly vulnerable to developing PTSD. Anticipatory anxiety is also one of the greatest barriers in engaging clients in treatment. Mindfulness can be described as any practice that brings clients back to the present moment.Source:
This chapter describes what happens after a concussion, from the immediate changes in neurochemistry to the signs and symptoms that may be present in the days, weeks, and months following the event. It discusses the neuropsychological effects, including cognitive, physical, emotional/mood, and sleep symptoms. This chapter also describes dangers signs, which could be indicative of a more serious brain injury. It explains possible long-term effects of concussion, including complications associated with multiple concussions, postconcussion syndrome, second impact syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and suicide. Concussion symptoms provide clues related to what is going on in the child’s or adolescent’s brain. Concussions often go unreported because individuals are unaware that an injury has occurred. Some may also consider the injury not severe enough to warrant medical attention. In some cases, the effects of concussions are so intense, and individuals become so distraught, that they become suicidal.
Increasing rates of eating disorders are found among males, individuals of all ages, and from an increasing diversity in terms of culture and ethnicity. This chapter discusses the prevalence rates of eating disorders among males and females. There are identifiable differences between those of a different age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status when it comes to eating disorder diagnoses and issues related to eating disorders such as body image dissatisfaction. Understanding these differences can help us understand why some people struggle with eating disorders and related issues and others do not, though it remains important to be wary of stereotyping for any group as making an assumption about the presence or absence of an eating disorder based on what is currently known can mean someone with an eating disorder will be overlooked and not get the treatment he or she needs.
- Go to chapter: Alexithymia, Affective Dysregulation, and the Imaginal: Resetting the Subcortical Affective Circuits
Alexithymia, Affective Dysregulation, and the Imaginal: Resetting the Subcortical Affective Circuits
This chapter focuses on the strategies that use neocortical resources of imagery to increase affective mentalization as well as, possibly reset them to allow increased adaptive, relational, and intersubjectivity capacity. Brain organization reflects self-organization; and human emotions constitute the fundamental basis the brain uses to organize its functioning where parent-child communication with regard to emotions directly affects the child's ability to organize his- or herself. Alexithymia and affective dysregulation play a significant role in that they constitute profound barriers for the effective treatment of traumatic stress syndromes and dissociative disorders by directly interfering with emotional processing as well as contributing to emotional destabilization. Traumatic stress and early childhood trauma has been associated with alexithymia, affective dysregulation, and deficits with regard to affective mentalization. Mentalization has been described as the ability to read the mental states of others through the brain’s mirror system.
This chapter helps the reader to understand the history of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), specific components of the ADA and how the ADA provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. The ADA, while groundbreaking, was not initially intended for people with disabilities rather than for older adults. As time progressed, however, the benefits of the ADA were much more far-reaching than originally intended, especially for aging adults with disabilities. The individual titles of the ADA have had some dramatically positive and specific impact for older adults wishing to remain in their homes or in their communities as long as possible. Although the ADA is still in its young adulthood, the benefits of the ADA have only grown as new and further linkages, such as the ADRCs, have developed in all regions of the United States.
This chapter explores the nature of trauma-related anger and resentment, and examines the impact that may have on our life. Anger is a natural emotion in response to something that is wrong, a violation, or something that should not have happened. The fury of rage can be frightening for both the person experiencing it and for others around him or her and it may lead to regrettable behavior, such as fights or self-destructive acts. Resentment is unresolved anger resulting from not addressing angry feelings associated with hurt or injustice from the past. Forgiveness is a topic that comes up frequently in a course on healing sexual trauma and in particular when discussing anger and justice. The root cause of anger for many people is a lingering feeling of injustice. Radical acceptance means being clear-eyed about what happened by breaking the silence and telling our truths.
Anger is a curious phenomenon and an ambiguous psychological state. While it is generally viewed as a negative emotion to be addressed in psychological therapy, it is likewise often seen as a positive emotion. Anger tends to be seen as, and often is, empowering, at least in the short run. It can often coerce and direct other people’s behavior, establish social dominance, and aid in acquiring additional resources. But in the long run, an excessive level of anger can lead to health problems, poorer relationships, and diminished occupational functioning. Psychological therapy has been shown to be effective in treating anger problems. There are few research studies specifically on the use of hypnosis in treating anger. However, anger reduction may occur when hypnosis is targeted toward reduction of anxiety and stress.
In 2010, antidepressants were the second most frequently prescribed medications in the United States. The most widely used are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with sertraline and citalopram leading the pack in 2010. Research on brain neuro-genesis indicates that the older antidepressants can cause the growth of new astrocytes in the brain. Drugs that specifically suppress the removal of serotonin from the synapse, including all the SSRIs and venlafaxine, have a particular capacity to produce these life-ruining and life-threatening reactions. Although some antidepressants have a lesser capacity to do so, all antidepressants have the potential to produce overstimulation and mania, as well as behavioral reactions such as violence and suicide. Antidepressants should not be given to patients with a history of bipolar disorder and when possible, patients with a history of manic-like behavior should be withdrawn from these drugs.
Antipsychotic drugs work by producing indifference and apathy without any specific effect on psychotic symptoms. The antipsychotic drugs have many short-term adverse effects that may lead the clinician, patient, or family to consider medication reduction or withdrawal, including Parkinsonism, dystonias, akathisia, sedation, and apathy. Tardive dyskinesia-often called TD-is a movement disorder caused by antipsychotic drugs that can impair any muscle functions that are partially or wholly under voluntary control, such as the face, eyes, tongue, neck, back, abdomen, extremities, diaphragm and respiration, swallowing reflex, and vocal cords and voice control. Antipsychotic drugs, including the newer ones, can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which can be fatal in 20” of untreated cases. Long-term exposure to any antipsychotic drug carries severe risks, and a plan for eventual withdrawal should always be part of the treatment. Patients on antipsychotic drugs should be regularly evaluated and physically examined for symptoms of TD.
Anxiety disorders are the most common form of mental illness, with a prevalence rate of 18” in the United States and 15” in Europe. In Germany, almost 40” of psychotherapy patients are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Anxious or phobic patients feel psychophysiological symptoms, such as sweating, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, and muscle spasms, which, in some cases, lead to fatigue or exhaustion. In terms of cognition, they have unrealistic and dysfunctional thoughts about the phobic objects. A significant problem is that most of these patients behaviorally avoid objects and situations of which they are anxious or phobic. This might be the only reason why exposure-based therapies are so effective. Unlike cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, for which exposure is the empirically validated treatment of choice, there is, to date, insufficient scientific evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis/hypnotherapy for anxiety disorders.
This chapter provides an overview of the neurophysiology underlying the innate human response of anxiety. Knowledge regarding the brain’s response to normal levels of stress and how it responds in a healthy manner will help clarify the various ways the brain can misfire and produce debilitating symptoms and outcomes. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an unhealthy emotional reaction to the experienced trauma. Inability to control stress can lead to release of neurochemicals and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can result in both central nervous system (CNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (pNs) dysregulation. The mental health provider should be familiar with various anxiety disorders, so to diagnose more accurately, because treatment differs depending upon the specific anxiety disorder diagnosis. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder in general clinics, but it is one of the least frequently diagnosed anxiety disorders in specialized anxiety clinics.Source:
Children and teens with anxiety disorders share some common patterns in their thinking and response. They share core difficulties in accurately appraising specific situations, experiences, and other stimuli. Enhancing self-regulation, that is, shifting one’s attention in order to control and modulate one’s psychophysiological reactivity, emotions, thoughts, and behavior leads to various, individualized goals for treating anxious youth with hypnosis, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and other mind-body approaches. Chronic childhood anxiety, the earliest and most frequent mental disorder among youth, has a potentially lifelong negative impact on self-regulation, learning, memory, and social behavior. Despite the dearth and variable quality of research, hypnosis offers a valuable adjunct to psychological interventions in the treatment of childhood anxiety, presenting as anxiety disorders, anticipatory and medical procedural anxiety, primary care presentations, or “normal nervous” responses to developmentally based situational stressors.
Relationships are important to our happiness but, as it turns out, things are not quite as straightforward as this proposition would seem to imply. The first important observation that we can make of this association is that the perception of social support appears to be more significant to happiness than objective indicators of social support. Objective indicators of social support such as number of friends and frequency of social activity show small and sometimes nonsignificant relationships with happiness. One possibility is that the correlation between satisfaction with one’s relationships and satisfaction with life is simply a product of method invariance. The chapter focuses on how different types of relationships affect happiness. But this approach has a tendency to ignore the common relationship dynamics that might impact happiness across relationships. It also focuses on three dynamics of happy relationships: capitalization, gratitude, and forgiveness.Source:
This chapter describes many of the theories that involve taxonomies. Most taxonomies of love begin in the same place: The language of love is examined, whether through an examination of film, literature, music, or firsthand accounts of people about their love life. The three primary love styles are eros, storge, and ludus. Eros is a passionate kind of love that is characterized by strong emotions and intense physical longing for the loved one. With storge, should the lovers break up, there is a greater chance than with other love styles that they remain friends. Ludus commonly is displayed by people who prefer to remain single and who see love as a game of conquest and numbers. A pragmatic lover hesitates to commit to a relationship until he or she feels confident of finding the right partner. The different love styles also correlate with some other personality traits.Source:
This chapter examines the experience of internalized oppression within the Asian American community. It provides an introduction to the theoretical and applied literature that addresses the critical issue of how to challenge the internalization of one’s oppression. The critical educational disparities continue to be mirrored in employment, occupational, and income disparities. Parallel to these educational and employment risks, Asian Americans have also been found to be at risk for health disparities. In terms of mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression are common in Cambodian and Vietnamese American refugees. As a continuation of these colonial experiences, Asians who immigrated to the United States were also looked down upon, considered of lower status, and were thus discriminated against, exploited, and, at worst, violently attacked and murdered. Cultural racism occurs when the values, norms, and beliefs of a group encourage often leading to the oppression of racial groups deemed inferior.
International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD)’s professional training institute offers comprehensive courses on childhood dissociation that are taught internationally and online. This chapter briefly cites some of the theories that have emerged in the dissociative field. One system, the apparently normal personality (ANP) enables an individual to perform necessary functions, such as work. The emotional personality (EP) is action system fixated at the time of the trauma to defend from threats. As with the Adaptive Information Processing Model (AIP) in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), each phase brings reassessment of the client’s ability to move forward to effectively process trauma. There are many overlapping symptoms with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and dissociation that often mask the dissociation. The rate of diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder has increased 40 times in the last ten years.
This chapter lists and examines essential criteria to consider when assessing patient stability and readiness for the standard eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (
EMDR) procedural steps. In considering a patient’s suitability and readiness for standard reprocessing, five kinds of issues need to be considered: medical concerns; social and economic stability; behavioral stability; mood stability; and complex personality and dissociative disorders, life-threatening substance abuse, and severe mental illness. Depersonalization and derealization as expressions of primary structural dissociation are frequently the only dissociative symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The chapter reviews standardized assessment tools that can assist clinicians in assessing symptom severity, screening for dissociative disorders, and monitoring treatment progress and outcomes. The trauma assessment packet includes four test instruments, along with three research and clinical articles, which together provide a comprehensive assessment of trauma histories at different ages.
This chapter begins by describing various practical assessment issues related to the effective implementation of emotion-centered problem-solving therapy (
EC-PST). It first describes major areas of clinical assessment relevant to EC-PSTincluding: assessment of general social problem solving abilities and attitudes; assessment of current and previous SPSactivities; assessment of problems, stressful difficulties, major negative life events, and/or traumatic events recently or currently experienced by a given client or client population; and assessment of outcome variables related to presenting problems and emotion reactivity vulnerabilities. The chapter then provides treatment guidelines to assist the reader to best determine what form or version of EC-PSTor training sequence should be implemented with a given individual. To foster effective treatment planning and clinical decision-making specific to EC-PST, it provides a series of frequently asked questions for therapists unfamiliar with this approach.
This chapter focuses on practical assessment issues related to the effective implementation of problem-solving therapy (PST). When comparing an individual’s Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) scores with the normative data provided in the manual, raw scores are converted to standard scores such that the total SPSI-R score as well as each of the five major scale and four subscale scores have a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of 15. If the referral problem is specific, or if PST is being provided to a group that was constituted around a common diagnosis, other checklists may exist or can be developed that include common problems related to that diagnosis or group theme. Group treatment can be preferable in those situations where multiple clients are able to serve as sources of feedback to each other regarding both problem-solving skill acquisition and implementation.
This chapter describes the growing impact of internet addiction on children and adolescents. It focuses on assessment methods that practitioners working with this population can use to measure and assess the behavior. The chapter explains how practitioners can develop their own screening tools of media use for children and adolescents. It outlines comprehensive parenting guidelines based on the developmental age of the child to best integrate technology at home. Issues of screen time impact a child’s moods and feelings. Children and adolescents who suffer from anxiety, especially social anxiety, are more likely to develop an addiction to technology. The chapter describes assessment methods such as Parent–Child Internet Addiction Test (PCIAT), which assists in clinical evaluation of children suspected to suffer from addiction and Problematic and Risky Media Use in Children Checklist. The chapter describes 3–6–9–12 prevention for screen addiction outlining steps parents can take at each child’s age.
Assessment of academic achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics is a crucial part of most assessments of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents. This chapter discusses general issues that psychologists and other practitioners need to consider, including timing of the assessment in the second language (L2), cultural knowledge and bias, impact of oral language proficiency (OLP) on performance, and previous experience with the types of achievement testing done in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) immigrant-receiving countries. It explains specific academic assessment strategies, and interprets assessment results. The chapter provides a discussion of the diagnosis of learning disabilities (LDs). It analyses the strengths and problems associated with using discrepancy definitions, response to intervention (RTI), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and shows how the research on typical development and differentiating L2 and LD can be applied.
This chapter provides guidelines for psychologists to use when assessing behavioral, social, and emotional functioning of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents. It begins by describing the typical methods psychologists use to assess these areas, and analyzing them in terms of their effectiveness and validity with CLD children and teens. The chapter then proposes that psychologists use an adaptation of Mash and Hunsley’s developmental systems approach (DSA) to assess CLD children and adolescents. It then discusses specific issues involved in assessment of CLD children and adolescents who display inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive behaviors, externalizing behaviors, internalizing behaviors, and severe social problems. The chapter specifically addresses questions involving the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders with CLD children and adolescents to diagnose specific disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety and mood disorders, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
Assessment of intelligence and diagnosis of intellectual disability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents are controversial and challenging. This chapter discusses some of these controversial and challenging issues, and describes methods of assessing intelligence in CLD children and adolescents, that is, individuals whose language and cultural backgrounds are significantly different from the normative group of most standardized Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. It addresses several issues that psychologists need to consider when evaluating intelligence, including developing rapport; fluid and crystallized intelligence; adaptive behavior; using IQ tests to establish IQ/achievement discrepancies to diagnose learning disabilities; and determining when to use formal IQ tests. The chapter then turns to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of assessment techniques, including several types of intelligence tests, and offers alternative approaches for evaluating intelligence that can help to overcome some of the difficulties, including modifying test administration, dynamic assessment, and ecological assessment.
This chapter provides guidelines for psychologists on the assessment of oral language proficiency (OLP) of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents who study in their second language (L2). It discusses the issues that should be considered in the assessment of OLP, including the aspects of oral language that should be assessed in L1 or L2, the factors that should be considered in interpreting assessment data, and the advantages and challenges of assessing children in their L1. The chapter then describes specific methods for assessing OLP. It discusses issues involved in interpretation of data from OLP assessments, including a discussion of the diagnosis of a language disorder. The chapter also explains specific tasks and observational schedules that psychologists might find helpful when conducting assessments of OLP.