Although relatively brief, the history of school psychology is brimming with innovation, missteps, successes, and challenges. Over the past 125 years, the profession of school psychology has been shaped by a number of influences, including developments in the fields of psychology and education, the changing sociopolitical environment of the United States, and, ultimately, the evolving contexts and needs of public schools. Many of these influences continue to be evident in contemporary practice. Studying the history of school psychology is essential for understanding the current status of the field. In particular, knowledge of school psychology’s history allows current scholars, practitioners, and graduate educators to avoid repeating past mistakes and to capitalize on opportunities for rectifying past injustices. This chapter describes important events and trends that contributed to the development of the field.
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The assessment of intelligence has long been mandated by law for eligibility determination for special education and related services (e.g., intellectual disabilities, specific learning disabilities, and intellectual giftedness). Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), there are explicit regulations for evaluation procedures that delineate the role of intelligence tests for identifying disabilities and for determining eligibility for special education and related services. The aims of this chapter are first to define the construct of intelligence and to discuss how it is measured. Following this, we describe how intelligence tests are used in the schools and to discuss issues of social justice pertaining to intelligence test use.
As the role of the school psychologist has evolved, systems-level service provision has become an integral aspect of comprehensive school psychology service delivery. This chapter provides school psychologists with information on how to engage in effective planning and implementation of systems change. First, we introduce the value of systems change, factors that influence the change process, and a framework for systems change. Next, we outline considerations for leading systems change efforts, highlighting skills for practitioners and considerations for maximizing success. Finally, we define program evaluation and describe how school psychologists can engage in process and outcome evaluation of their systems change efforts to inform further improvements. Throughout the chapter, we assume a social justice perspective in which school psychologists are viewed as advocates for equitable service delivery for all children and families.
Discussions about school psychology as a socially just profession have been underscored by racially and ethnically marginalized school psychologists since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the field has shifted toward an increased emphasis on social justice–oriented practices, resulting in a long overdue awakening regarding the experiences of marginalized people in the United States. One key idea that practitioners and scholars have emphasized is the need for school psychologists to collaborate with families and communities to assume a comprehensive, culturally responsive approach to service delivery and to promote equitable outcomes among students. In this regard, school psychologists must be intentional about addressing the needs of all youth through the provision of school, community, and family partnerships. This chapter provides an overview of critical considerations for fostering school, community, and family partnerships that are equity-centered and social justice–oriented.
This chapter explores the importance of multiculturalism to school psychological services. Specifically, it details how use of multiculturalism can guide school psychological service delivery for minoritized student populations and explores how social justice is a natural extension of multiculturalism. This discussion takes place in the context of a mismatch between the racial, ethnic, and linguistic diversity represented by U.S. school psychologists and the diversity of the U.S. public school-age population that experiences unique challenges in schools. The chapter offers recommendations for promoting multiculturalism and social justice orientations to school psychology practice.
The process of learning academic skills is more difficult for some students than others. It is the responsibility of school psychologists to identify those students who might struggle in the absence of additional assistance from school personnel, as well as to identify what type of assistance students need. By effectively implementing a multitiered system of supports (
MTSS), school psychologists can objectively evaluate the quality of instruction provided to all students, identify students who need intervention, and evaluate whether intervention is sufficient. This chapter describes the importance of considering the environment in which learning is occurring, measures that can be used to assess group and individual response to tiers of instruction, and factors to consider in developing interventions that meet individual students’ instructional needs. The importance of promoting equity and social justice when selecting and interpreting assessment instruments and interventions is also discussed.
School psychology is a unique profession that merges expertise in a variety of areas, including mental health, education, and learning and instruction, all in the service of supporting youth, families, schools, and communities. This chapter provides an overview of the field of school psychology and identifies major professional organizations representing the interests of school psychologists. It also introduces the National Association of School Psychologists’ Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (
NASPPractice Model), which describes 10 major domains of school psychology practice. Finally, this chapter highlights the integral linkages between school psychology and social justice, noting that the former cannot be practiced effectively without intentionally centering the latter.
School safety is essential for students to learn and thrive. Experiencing violence and other crises can disrupt students’ rights to be educated in safe, supportive, and inclusive schools. In this chapter, school violence and crisis are contextualized under the larger umbrella of school safety. The importance of balancing physical and psychological safety is emphasized. Moreover, this chapter reviews approaches such as Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (
CPTED); multitiered systems of support ( MTSS) to meet social, emotional, and behavioral needs; and comprehensive planning for targeted violence through threat assessment and management. Drawing on the National Association of School Psychologists’ ( NASP’s) PREPaREmodel, the importance of multidisciplinary crisis teams and comprehensive emergency operations plans is highlighted. Practices to mitigate, respond to, and recover from crisis events are explicated. Culturally responsive practices are detailed, with attention to social justice connections for the field of school violence and crisis prevention and intervention.
The field of school psychology has a long history of self-reflection leading to the continued expansion and growth of the profession. Looking toward the future, there are clear indications of continued positive development. This chapter considers past predictions regarding the field of school psychology and also provides new ones. These new predictions concern: (a) the evolution of school psychology’s professional organizations; (b) the ongoing impact of workforce shortages; (c) the continuation of the specialist degree as the entry-level degree; (d) the need for greater cultural diversity in the field; (e) the evolution of professional standards; and (f) the expansion of the role of the school psychologist. In addition, suggestions are provided for contributing to the future of school psychology.
Although research has identified a large gap between the number of youth with social, emotional, and behavioral (
SEB) needs and the number of these youth receiving appropriate care, schools represent an ideal setting in which to provide these services. In this chapter, we describe the types and prevalence of SEBchallenges that school-age youth may experience. We also present a multitiered model of service delivery, including intervention and assessment strategies, for supporting students’ SEBwellness in schools. Within this model, all students receive core (i.e., Tier 1) instruction in social–emotional and/or behavioral skills within the general education classroom. Schools then conduct universal screening to identify those students for whom additional supports are needed. At Tier 2, students may receive feasible, supplementary supports within the classroom setting (e.g., self-monitoring intervention) or may be pulled out of the classroom with other students with similar needs to receive small-group interventions (e.g., social skills group). At Tier 3, intensive assessment procedures are carried out for those students with the most intensive behavioral needs and used to design highly individualized intervention plans.
This chapter describes school psychology from an international perspective. In describing the internationality of this discipline, the chapter highlights key concepts and definitions, relevant professional characteristics and statistics, and what it means to promote internationalization rather than simply understanding or achieving internationality. The chapter also summarizes contemporary scholarship that is culturally informed, represents researchers and participants living in various parts of the world, and aims to address one or more social justice issues relevant to a particular geographic context. The chapter concludes with a summary of challenges and opportunities that influence internationalization within the profession, which reflects a social justice imperative broadly relevant for the entire field.
High-quality graduate preparation is critical to the ability of school psychologists to provide robust psychological and educational services to children, youth, and families. Such preparation includes coursework, practica, and a culminating internship leading to a degree at the specialist level or higher. Several professional associations, including the National Association of School Psychologists (
NASP), the American Psychological Association ( APA), and the International School Psychology Association ( ISPA) have established standards for graduate preparation and credentialing to serve as a model for programs and relevant state agencies. However, despite these national standards, inconsistencies across states continue to exist. This chapter addresses the landscape of graduate education and credentialing, including state and national certification and licensure.
The United States has become an increasingly diverse society, with growing numbers of racially/ethnically minoritized (
REM) school-age youth. These populations have been disproportionally impacted by health and mental health concerns as well as by poorer educational outcomes. Racism is a critical risk factor leading to these disparities, preventing many Americans from attaining their highest levels of health. In this chapter, we provide an overview of racism, including its definition, the impact of racism on youth, and its connections to the field of school psychology. Further, we discuss critical antiracism efforts within the field to promote the health and well-being of our most marginalized youth.
The primary goal of schools is to provide students with the educational services they need to become well-adjusted and productive members of society. This means that schools should provide high-quality programs and services that promote students’ academic development as well as their social, emotional, and behavioral well-being. The primary goals of this chapter are to: (a) describe the multitiered systems of support framework for service delivery; (b) describe how screening, assessment, and progress monitoring are used in data-based decision-making; (c) define a data-based problem-solving model for use in decision-making about services and programs; and (d) discuss the importance of research evidence in selecting interventions. The chapter also highlights the importance of using implementation strategies to support successful intervention use.
School psychologists should be knowledgeable about ethical, legal, and professional standards for practice and must be competent in delivering services in accordance with these standards. Professional organizations such as the American Psychological Association, the International School Psychology Association (
ISPA), and the National Association of School Psychologists ( NASP) have created codes of ethical conduct to support best practice. Specifically, NASP’s Principles for Professional Ethics encompass “moral duties” such as nonmaleficence, fidelity, beneficence, justice, and autonomy, and they provide a framework (i.e., a code of conduct) for the application of these moral duties within the scope of professional duty (i.e., applied professional ethics). School psychologists must also be knowledgeable about public legislation, including federal and state laws, that is relevant to the practice of school psychology. Finally, they must be able to integrate and apply legal and ethical principles to their professional practice so as to make morally sound decisions. This chapter describes the nature of legal and ethical codes that govern school psychology service delivery. Moreover, it presents a model for ethical decision-making and describes its applications.
This chapter focuses on school psychologists’ use of assessment, a methodical process that involves the collection, evaluation, integration, and application of information to guide decision-making and achieve professional objectives. Assessment is an essential component of psychological practice in schools. This chapter discusses a variety of assessment tools and techniques (e.g., standardized assessments, ratings scales, observations, and interviews). Moreover, we emphasize the appropriate use of tests and interpretation of test scores by explaining validity evidence, reliability, and test fairness. Throughout the chapter, culturally responsive assessment practices are described. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the necessity of culturally responsive assessment practices and offers several specific recommendations.
Research is an essential component of school psychology, as we must utilize it to inform practice and vice versa. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of research to the field. We also describe areas of research within the 10 domains of the National Association of School Psychologists (
NASP) Practice Model, with particular attention to highlighting social justice research and the scholarship of women and racially/ethnically minoritized researchers. We also describe various research methodologies used in the field, aspects of the peer review process, and ways to become a good consumer of research.
This chapter describes the process of consultation, a critical activity in school psychology. First, we provide definitions of fundamental concepts and key terms essential to school consultation. Next, we introduce conceptual models and modalities of practice, making distinctions between the different ways we can practice consultation as well as various modalities (e.g., teleconsultation). Then, we outline the steps of a problem-solving approach to consultation (e.g., relationship building, problem identification, problem analysis, plan implementation, and plan evaluation) and review evidence of the effectiveness of school consultation. Finally, we consider how multicultural and social justice issues are essential elements for contextualizing contemporary consultation practice.
While most school psychologists who complete specialist-level training are employed in the schools, individuals who hold the doctoral degree and attain licensure may also be employed in hospitals, private practice, postsecondary institutions, and other settings. This chapter reviews career opportunities in school psychology as well as considerations for choosing a graduate education program, coursework, field experiences, and other training opportunities aligned with these career paths. Additionally, strategies for representing one’s professional qualifications and experiences (i.e., through the development of a résumé or curriculum vitae) are provided.
This chapter provides an overview of generalized anxiety disorder (
GAD) in children and adolescents as applied to the school setting. GADis diagnosed frequently in adults and is one of the most common disorders among children and adolescents. It is characterized by excessive worry that can be about many things, and, in children, it is somewhat common to be connected to school performance. This chapter focuses on GADas it pertains to school psychologists with regard to criteria from both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA). Cultural issues related to etiology, identification, and treatment are also addressed. The chapter addresses functioning and quality-of-life issues for individuals with GADacross childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment and intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of conduct disorder for school psychologists with regard to criteria and considerations from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5). Risk factors and cultural issues related to etiology and treatment are also described. The chapter addresses school and home functioning for individuals with conduct disorder and their families across childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in school-based supports and effective intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter provides information for school psychologists that focuses on child trauma and the ways in which children and adolescents respond to traumatic experiences. It addresses Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) diagnostic issues related to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD) and considers the use of a proposed diagnosis: developmental trauma disorder. Cultural issues related to traumatic events experienced by children of color, such as community violence, racial trauma, and PTSDsymptomatology among underrepresented groups, are also addressed. The chapter informs school psychologists about the impact of trauma on social–emotional well-being, behavioral functioning, and learning among children. Implications for school psychologists and their role in implementing educational and social–emotional supports and mental health interventions are discussed.
This chapter offers an overview of Selective Mutism, which is classified as an Anxiety Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5). This chapter provides the reader with diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5 as well as information regarding school-based eligibility requirements as a student with a disability. Issues related to risk factors and behaviors in the home and school are highlighted. The school psychologist’s roles in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are explored.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of childhood and adolescent mental health problems. Prevalence, risk factors, and protective factors are examined. The need for school-based mental health services is explored and potential benefits of implementing such programs are discussed. The role of school psychologists as mental health providers is addressed. The chapter also compares the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (
DSM-5), in diagnosing mental health disorders in the medical/clinical field and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) to determine eligibility as a student with a disability in schools.
This chapter covers the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) criteria for Separation Anxiety Disorder and potentially relevant federal protections, including Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) classifications and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Risk factors, correlates, and predictors of separation anxiety disorder, along with cultural considerations are reviewed. Assessment of separation anxiety disorder using a number of reviewed tools is included in the chapter. In addition, long-standing empirically supported treatments are highlighted, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of separation anxiety disorder, along with other potentially necessary interventions that may be needed to address the myriad of potential academic, behavioral, and social skills issues connected with separation anxiety. The chapter incorporates services that school psychologists could implement in supporting the treatment and school success of children and adolescents who have separation anxiety disorder.
This chapter provides an overview of Hoarding Disorder for school psychologists with regard to criteria and considerations from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5). Risk factors and genetic components related to etiology and treatment are also examined. The chapter addresses school and home functioning for individuals with hoarding disorder and their families across childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in school-based supports and effective intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of oppositional defiant disorder (
ODD) in children and adolescents as applied to the school setting. The chapter highlights the criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5) diagnosis of ODDalong with school-based eligibility requirements for qualification for special services under federal law, including disability categories and controversy over social maladjustment. Issues related to home and school functioning as well as mental health and educational supports are explored. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment and intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of autism spectrum disorder (
ASD). Diagnostic issues are addressed. Cultural issues, including ethnic differences in ASDdetermination are discussed. Social–emotional and behavioral difficulties often experienced by children with ASDare examined. Learning issues associated with ASDare discussed. Implications for school psychologists and their role in advocacy, consultation, assessment, and provision of mental health services are explored. The chapter also examines educational supports that may be needed by children with ASDas well as mental health interventions.
The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (
ADHD) often significantly impact the overall functioning of children and adolescents with this mental health condition. This chapter provides an overview of ADHDas it pertains to criteria from both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) category of Other Health Impairment. Cultural issues related to etiology, identification, and treatment are highlighted. The chapter addresses social, emotional, and behavioral issues that manifest in the school and home for individuals with ADHD. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed.
This chapter focuses on reactive attachment disorder (
RAD), which results from social neglect in early childhood. Diagnostic symptoms and related issues are addressed. Social–emotional and behavior difficulties associated with RADare explored. Consideration is given to learning issues that may be experienced by children with RAD. Implications for school psychologists in addressing educational, social–emotional, and behavioral needs of youths with this disorder are addressed, and school-based mental health interventions are examined. A discussion of a case study is provided to demonstrate social, emotional, behavioral, and learning needs and ways in which school psychologists can play a role in helping to address those needs.
This chapter provides an overview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) diagnostic criteria of Intermittent Explosive Disorder ( IED) in children and adolescents. The chapter highlights the prevalence, etiology, and cultural considerations of IED. The expectations for school and home functioning for students with IEDare discussed along with the educational and mental health interventions likely to promote adjustment and progress. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment and intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of major depressive disorder (
MDD) as it impacts the functioning of children and adolescents with the diagnosis. This chapter focuses on MDDas it pertains to school psychologists with regard to criteria from both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) category of Emotional Disturbance. Cultural issues related to etiology, identification, and treatment are also addressed. The chapter describes school and home adjustment for individuals with MDDacross childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (
DMDD), a new psychiatric diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5). This chapter offers an overview of its diagnostic criteria along with highlights from the controversy surrounding the diagnosis. School-based eligibility for services as well as educational and mental health supports for DMDDare discussed. The school psychologist’s role in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are explored.
This chapter provides an overview of intellectual disability for school psychologists with regard to criteria from both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (
DSM-5), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA). Cultural issues related to etiology, identification, and treatment are also addressed. The chapter addresses functioning and quality-of-life issues for individuals with intellectual disabilities across childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in assessment and intervention implementation are discussed.
This chapter covers Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) criteria for Social Anxiety Disorder and potentially relevant federal educational protections, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) classifications of Emotional Disturbance and Other Health Impairment and supports offered through Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Risk/protective factors, family predictors, common comorbid disorders, and cultural considerations are reviewed. Epidemiological studies estimating the prevalence of social anxiety disorder in the United States and across the world are summarized. Validated assessment tools for children and adolescents, including those that measure a number of anxiety disorders and those specific to social anxiety disorder, are included. Further, evidence-based treatments, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, and social skills interventions, are highlighted. The impact of social anxiety disorder on social development in children and adolescents is summarized. The chapter offers activities and services that school psychologists can provide through direct service, consultation, support of families, and advocacy efforts.
This chapter focuses on disinhibited social engagement disorder (
DSED) and its impact on children. Diagnostic issues related to this disorder are examined, particularly in comparison to criteria for reactive attachment disorder ( RAD). The chapter also explores the functioning of a child with DSEDacross social–emotional, behavioral, and learning domains. Implications for school psychologists are addressed. Educational supports and school-based mental health interventions are discussed.
This chapter reviews current research and practice regarding persistent depressive disorder (
PDD). This chapter highlights the diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5) as well as information regarding potential school-based eligibility for special services for students with depression. Risk factors and behaviors in the home and school are reviewed. The school psychologist’s role in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are explored.
This chapter focuses on obsessive-compulsive behaviors in children and adolescents. Classification issues based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) are discussed. An examination of cultural issues related to this disorder are also addressed in the chapter. The influence of OCDon a child’s social–emotional and behavioral functioning are examined. School-based academic and social–emotional supports are included in the chapter as well as school-based mental health interventions.
Addressing the motivational aspects of academic and behavior supports at home and school represent the next frontier of school-based practices. How to make these motivational interviewing (
MI) practices more commonly available in schools? In other words, how to best disseminate this new best practice for intervening in academic and behavior problems? By making more school professionals aware of MIand by equipping them with the basic knowledge and expertise needed for MIpractice, the authors hope to begin spreading the word. They hope to improve training methods for MIby capitalizing on online education and distance supervision. MIis intended to complement school-based initiatives and maximize their impact. Given the progress of extending MIapplications throughout the world and in a wide variety of settings, the next generation of academic and behavior interventions in schools will surely attend to the motivational context of interventions.
Although the vast majority of the motivational interviewing (
MI) literature has been focused on applications with adults, recent efforts have extended the MIprinciples to working with youth. Most research-based applications with youth to date have focused on working with adolescents regarding their use of substances and other addictive behaviors. More recently, efforts have expanded to include motivating youth on a range of other behaviors including academic-related problems. This chapter reviews appropriate applications of MIwith youth, emphasizing developmental adaptations that are needed to be successful. It provides an extended example of using MIto decrease substance use given that this topic has the strongest support in the literature. The chapter then extends the principles derived from this example to other applications within schools.
Most schools are composed of various problem-solving teams to support student learning. Common teams include behavior support teams, response-to-intervention teams, academic support teams, student-support teams, grade-level teams, and teams for individualized education programs. Often these teams bring together a range of professionals and caregivers whose task it is to work together to solve problems. The success of these teams often hinges on the competence of the individual members to solve problems and their willingness and ability to work together. Many of the engagement strategies and motivational interviewing (
MI) techniques can be integrated into the work of school-based problem-solving teams. This chapter discusses the strategies that problem-solving teams can use to support students, particularly those facing significant academic and/or behavioral challenges. It focuses on this population because the challenges in supporting students with complex presentation are well known.
It is important, if not essential, to get the attention and initial willingness of parents, teachers, and students to consider talking about issues that are important to them. The focus of this chapter is how to keep that momentum going. Motivational interviewing (
MI) provides the tools needed to help consultees resolve their ambivalence about change. Infusion of MItechniques into school-based intervention research is in its early stages but is continuing to be adopted by researchers. MIis used to increase the fidelity of evidence-based interventions that depend on changes in teacher or parent behavior, such as parenting skills or classroom-management practices. Although the evidence for MI's effective use by school personnel is still emerging, it is reasonable to expect that MIwill expand within the context of school support services in the next decade.
Motivational interviewing (
MI) occurs in the context of conversation; thus, it requires that people be willing and able to engage in social interaction. Unfortunately, many of the less involved families, teachers, and students are inaccessible in some way, either unwilling or unable to attend school meetings or simply unwilling or unable to talk about change. This chapter presents a model for examining the common contextual barriers to change in schools and for overcoming these barriers. The personal qualities of the consultant or liaisons for the school are the foundation for successful invitations and discussions about change. The chapter describes some of these qualities. It also introduces literature that provides carefully documented methods for reaching even the most challenging families in order to get our foot in the door and to initiate meaningful conversations about change.
As most educators are well aware, children benefit when their parents are involved in all aspects of their education. This is true for high-performing students as well as low-performing students, and for students with and without special needs. Unfortunately, not all parents are actively involved in school. This chapter explores ways of using the motivational interviewing (
MI) strategies, to gain greater parent involvement in schools, as well as to provide assistance with positive parenting practices. It first provides a rationale and discusses common challenges in achieving this goal. Next, it presents strategies that can be used at each MIprocess—engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. The goal of the chapter is to describe the use of MIstrategies in everyday interactions with families. In addition, it situates these strategies within a structured consultation model that can be applied in longer interactions and meetings with parents.
- Go to chapter: An example of a Structured Motivational Intervention for Families, Students, and Schools: The Family Check-Up
An example of a Structured Motivational Intervention for Families, Students, and Schools: The Family Check-Up
This chapter describes the rationale for using structured Check-Ups and for delivering effective feedback in a motivational interviewing style. It focuses on the Family Check-Up (
FCU) given that it involves all three groups targeted in prior chapters: parents, teachers, and students. Delivering feedback using FCUapproach facilitates the sorts of interactions with parents that promote more collaborative, open, optimistic, and productive encounters. Check-Ups align with the stages of MI: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. It involves two or three meetings ranging from 20 minutes to an hour each. The first meeting involves a structured interview and an ecological assessment involving self and other reports of strengths and areas of concern related to the target problem; and the second involves delivering personalized feedback that is used to develop goals and an action plan. MIis the foundation for each meeting— MIprinciples guide the structure of the interview and feedback meetings.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book and the following chapters. It describes the advances in the field of motivational interviewing (
MI) and related engagement strategies. The chapter presents a modern view of motivation. In this modern approach, motivation is not dichotomous (i.e., either people are motivated or they are not) but rather it is dynamic and evolving. In this conceptualization, motivation resides in an interpersonal and ecological context rather than simply dwelling inside the person. The science of MIcontinues to blossom with new extensions in school settings emerging regularly. The goal is to provide a useful model for consultation that will lead to increased use of effective practices in schools.
This chapter describes the content, procedures, and resources needed to learn or teach motivational interviewing (
MI) to school-based personnel. It suggests measurement tools to facilitate professional development efforts or assess MIquality or fidelity. The ability of school personnel to learn to use the MIapproach competently is an area of research that is likely to receive a great deal of attention over the next decade. As a result, careful and systematic attention must be given to systems that can support school personnel in learning this approach. Efforts to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of systems to teach school personnel the technical and relational skills, as well as to avoid MIinconsistent behavior, are currently in process.
Over the past two decades, Implementation Science has emerged as a discipline concerned with understanding the dissemination and implementation of new innovations across multiple service settings, including schools. Within education, a consultation approach referred to as coaching has received attention as a promising mechanism to improve the adoption and implementation of highly effective practices in education settings. There is a substantial need for coaching models that clear and comprehensive. A few researchers have turned to motivational interviewing (
MI) as a tool for assisting with this process. The application of MIto support implementation of specific programs and practices is a reasonable extension of the approach. Here we focus on several school-based applications that have used MIto help support the delivery of classroom curriculum and behavior management programs at home and school.
This chapter extends these motivational interviewing (
MI) methods to teachers. It structures the discussion around the four processes of MI: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. These processes should not be treated as static phases but rather as benchmarks for conceptualizing change conversations and the types of responses that may be most helpful depending on the process. The chapter concludes with a brief description of a structured consultation model for supporting teachers, called the Classroom Check-Up ( CCU) that adheres to the four processes of MI. The skills and strategies used with MIcan be applied in any consultation visit with a teacher, with or without the formal structure of the CCU. To highlight the use of MIduring even brief visits with teachers, the chapter includes examples in the section called “Everyday Conversations About Change”.
Anxiety disorders are the most common types of disorders that present in clinical and health care settings. Some of the subtypes (e.g., phobias and generalized anxiety) share both anxiety and fear responses, which are proposed to receive equivalent attention in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
DSM). Many changes proposed in current DSM-5 discussions will sharpen thinking about diagnostic considerations and systematic integration of prompts that will encourage exploration of cultural factors. However, the role of culture in shaping and defining fears and anxieties and the importance of an assessment of client strengths as well as pathological symptoms in the diagnostic process requires further development of diagnostic protocols, as would, for example, be provided with the Diversity/Resiliency This chapter describes key aspects of anxiety disorders, best practices and application of the Intersectionality/Resilience Formulation to Anxiety Disorders. It presents case studies and discussion questions and assignments.
Depressive and bipolar disorders (
BPD) are among the greatest challenges to mental well-being and are diagnosed in increasing numbers despite advances in research and treatment. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that BPDsand severe unipolar depression have strong biological hereditary origins and benefit from psychopharmacological intervention as well as other medical treatments such as electroconvulsive therapy. The best results, however, involve a combination of medical and psychosocial treatments; in mild to moderate depression, the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapies is proven beyond that of medication. The addition of the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic system, with its attention to internal and external sources of resiliency, ensures that attention is systematically paid to the patient's unique identity and his salient personal contexts.
Co-occurring disorders refer to individuals having both a mental disorder and a substance use disorder. Evidence shows that there are a large number of individuals, both minors and adolescents, with mental illness who have a substance use disorder, the literature shows that that relevant services are lacking on a program level and in relation to preparation of clinicians to implement these programs and work effectively with these clients. This chapter discusses the significance of service delivery for individuals with co-occurring disorders with an integrated behavioral health approach. It presents Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders considerations, understanding factors have a role in the development of addiction, and evidence-informed and best practice models. The chapter provides discussion of cases examples, discussion questions and application of the intersectionality/resilience formulation to this population.
- Go to chapter: Emerging Perspectives for Effective Mental Health Practice in a Divided, Tumultuous Time
Being steeped in an environment where there is divisiveness and black/white thinking has a number of important implications. It has an impact on the thinking, emotions and behavior. It can increase the stress level, reduce the quality of life, can damage the quality of the interpersonal relationships, and negatively impact the ability to effectively help others. Challenging oneself to avoid reductionistic thinking, one taking the harder road in the short run, but the dividends it pays, both personally and professionally, is worth the price. When one work with the clients, using the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation can helps to view them in a way that challenges simplistic and reductionistic thinking, providing a format for us to view the clients from a perspective that helps to gain a more comprehensive understanding and ultimately becoming more effective in the practice.
Diagnosis is a critically important process that sets the stage for treatment and also establishes the groundwork for long-term consequences that bear on quality of life and social identity. This chapter reviews issues that continue to challenge the development of a more effective application of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Specifically, there is a need for more thorough diagnostic process comprising diverse populations and for incorporation of sources of strength and resiliency in diagnostic process. The chapter addresses culture, social identifications and mental health by focusing on updated theoretical and research literature that has explored the meaning of the diverse contexts of clients and the complex interactions among constructs such as culture, social class, ethnicity, gender, and race. It summarizes the relationship between these contexts and the experience of seeking and receiving help for a diagnosed mental illness and concludes with a rationale for proposed diagnostic template/format.
Alzheimer's disease (
AD) and Traumatic Brain Injury are classified as neurocognitive disorders in the DSM®-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition). For the purposes of illustrating the utility of the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation for diagnosis and effective treatment, this chapter highlights these diagnoses in detail along with their major differential diagnostic issues. It focuses on two of the most prevalent forms of neurocognitive disorder, in confidence that the lessons learned are widely applicable to persons with other neurocognitive disorders regardless of their age or situation. The chapter elaborates on the complex challenges of aging and its relationship to mental health diagnosis because the developmental phase of elderhood has come to be marginalized in society, resulting in a scarcity of mental health providers who have interest in caring for this population.
Although mental health professionals embrace broad assessment protocols, which attempt to incorporate biopsychosocial, and, more recently, the cultural and spiritual identities of the individual, attention is rarely given to the individual's unique internal and external sources of strength and support. The limitations of traditional medical model diagnosis, particularly in the form of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification system, have been noted by many researchers and practitioners. At the same time, research has focused on predictive factors in treatment outcome, both in terms of client characteristics and in the utility of evidence-based treatment protocols applied to specific mental disorders. The cumulative themes in contemporary discussions of diagnostic systems and effective treatments, logically related to diagnosis, suggest the need for an additional core component of the diagnostic system, for which the authors advocate the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation.
The elimination of the multiaxial structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
DSM)-5 removed incentive to systematically explore aspects of the client's life and experience that would assist in understanding their presenting symptoms. Although the multiaxial format did not specifically extend to address intersectionality issues that could inform in understanding a client's presentation, it did, however, provide a basis for exploring meaningful, experiential information. The Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation offers a format with assumptions regarding the value of complexity and diversity, that promotes understanding the complexity of an individual in the service of developing an effective diagnosis and treatment plan. More research is needed on the interactions of genetic, neurological and psychosocial factors, and on the role of culture in the expression of mental disorders. Proposals are made to support strength based DSMpractice.
This chapter examines three common childhood disorders (conduct disorders, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders) using the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formation framework, with special attention to important developmental processes at play. It focuses on two specific disruptive disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder because these disruptive behavior disorders are more likely to arouse negative reactivity in persons in child's environment and also pull mental health professionals toward a negative focus on pathology. These two disorders are seen in mental health and community clinics more than any other disorders in minors, are often co-occurring with other psychiatric disorders, and may be complicated by substance abuse and severely delinquent behavior. As externalizing disorders, they are visible to observers and disruptive in the child's environment, whereas externalizing disorders are often less salient to caregivers, teachers, and peers. The chapter focuses on diagnostic developmental considerations when evaluating these and other common disorders in children and adolescents.
A diagnosis of schizophrenia is terrifying and demoralizing to both the client and family members and has, until recently, been associated with dread and despair, the anticipation of a lifetime of chronic struggle, and a bewildering journey through the quagmire of psychiatric institutions and treatments. This chapter focuses on schizophrenia while noting the additional psychotic disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (
DSM-5) for the purpose of honing in on issues of intersectionality and resiliency. Gaining greater understanding about the nature of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders requires the development of more effective strategies for treatment at the onset and with long-term chronic conditions. Evidence-based practice points to a combination of psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions. The recovery model approach, based on hopes and lived experience, emphasizes the centrality of the individual's desires and initiative in relation to treatment planning.
Trauma refers to exposure to events that pose a significant threat. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 added the contingency that the experience can be based on learning of such a threat to someone with whom one has a meaningful relationship. Trauma can be experienced in a wide range of ways that can be an event, or an abuse experience over a period of time in one's formative years or as an adult, as in childhood abuse or interpersonal violence. Complex trauma and developmental trauma perspectives address these distinctions. The implications for attachment processes in formative years have received more attention, particularly in relation to neurological adaptations. This chapter discusses dissociative symptoms related to anxiety, trauma informed care, post traumatic growth, secondary/vicarious trauma and moral injury. It presents the intersectionality/resilience formulation as a format for diagnosing anxiety disorders from a strength based perspective.
Because the funding environment and the interests of agencies are constantly evolving, it is important to systematically monitor changes in agency policies and priorities. This chapter identifies the major sources of funding for health and human service professionals, discusses ways to learn about the current and future interests of various funding agencies, and shows how to interpret calls for proposals. The chapter describes different pilot research mechanisms that are available to individuals in the formative stage of their research careers. Based on this information, the reader will be in a better position to develop a plan of action for tracking potential funding opportunities and responding with competitive applications. The chapter helps the reader identify potential sources of funding, understand how to track funding opportunities, comprehend calls for proposals, and prepare for conversations with program officers.
The specific aims section is arguably the most important part of the grant application. It is also the most difficult to write, as it must succinctly describe the problem that will be addressed, the significance of the problem, the critical knowledge gap that is preventing progress in the field, the goal of the proposal, and the impact the results will have on the field when the project is completed. The specific aims, like all sections of the grant application, should be written for a general scientific audience and not just specialists in the field. Some agencies invite end users or key stakeholders to review their grants, so writing for a broad audience in these cases is of particular importance. Reviewers are easily distracted by highly technical jargon that can make it difficult to understand what the grant writer is trying to communicate. This chapter introduces a template for structuring each paragraph of the specific aims page so that the research idea flows logically and captures the interest of reviewers. It also discusses strategies for presenting compelling specific aims and presents examples to illustrate what to include in each paragraph of the specific aims page.
This chapter takes the longer view on how the reader can become positioned for success over time in order to make a significant impact on a particular area of healthcare. Although the chapter focuses on research, the points are relevant to systematically building grant funding to support training and educational innovation as well. The chapter discusses the importance of applying a strong work ethic, garnering support for the necessary resources to do impactful scientific work, mapping a strategy for writing sequential grant applications, and planning for the dissemination of the products of program of research. It also defines what is meant by a program of research. The chapter helps the reader identify resources and strategies for building a program of research and understand the expectations and the process for disseminating results of a program of research.
This chapter discusses the background and significance sections of a proposal and describes how the literature review supports both. Over time, literature reviews have become more systematic and rigorous because investigators have understood the value and necessity of applying review methodologies that strengthen the scientific foundation of their study. Systematic and narrative reviews are sometimes confused because both provide a summary of existing literature on a research topic. This chapter compares the narrative review and the systematic review to differentiate between the two. The chapter also introduces the matrix method of organizing the literature search and provides a step-by-step outline for conducting a review of the literature, which includes activities that are indispensable to “owning the literature” so the grant writer can discuss major ideas and prior research conducted and ensure that the research questions asked are logically developed and based on a solid scientific foundation.
An understanding of the process of collaboration will enable the reader to become a more competent participant and a more effective leader. This chapter discusses how to form collaborative teams and the potential dynamics within these teams. The chapter first presents a brief discussion of a theoretical framework that provides a rationale for collaborative behavior. This framework is based on social exchange theory and the literature on team building. The chapter introduces two important concepts to facilitate a collaborative group structure: role differentiation and role release. It then compares the roles assumed on a traditional solo investigator-driven research project with the roles on a collaborative team and discusses the responsibilities of a team leader. Based on this framework, the chapter presents a five-stage model of collaboration that describes the process by which to develop and nurture collaborative teams for research and education proposal development and implementation.
Developing a budget is as important as detailing the science or training requirements of a proposal. There are numerous considerations in constructing a budget. First, it is important to recognize that the proposal budget will be reviewed by a number of different departments and officials, including individuals in the university, peer reviewers, and officials in the funding agency. One of the more important groups who will review the budget is the review panel of the funding agency. Once the budget and budget justification are completed, many institutions have internal forms that must be completed and that involve obtaining signatures from institutional officials including a department chair and/or the head of research administration. This chapter helps the reader understand how to construct a budget for a project. It also examines costs associated with proposed activities and determines consultation and subaward budget arrangements.
Most proposals, especially those submitted to the National Institutes of Health (
NIH), are not funded on their first submission. This is true not only for applications that are submitted by new investigators but also for those submitted by veteran grant writers. With decreased federal funding for research and training projects, it is becoming more difficult to obtain funding. Thus, resubmission of an unfunded proposal is an unfortunate but somewhat normal process of grantsmanship today and a reality for even the most expert grant writer or experienced researcher. This chapter helps the reader understand resubmission options and identify a resubmission strategy. It also defines terms related to the specific resubmission options of the National Institutes of Health. The chapter recommends three steps to determine whether an investigator should resubmit: assess the priority score; carefully review comments of reviewers; and discuss review and options with a program officer.
Funding agencies are primarily interested in funding the best ideas from among those that are submitted and the applicants most capable of being successful in carrying out their proposed project. Therefore, the proposal needs to present a compelling case to convince a funding agency to support the idea. A call for proposals may contain a list of potential topics or areas of inquiry related to the interest of the agency, the format of the proposal, and an outline of the evaluation criteria that will be applied by reviewers to proposals. It is critical to follow the instructions carefully and to use the sections stated as the headings in the proposal. This chapter describes the basic narrative components of most proposals. Although each agency structures its calls for proposals differently, there are sections that are commonly required. The chapter presents an overview of the content of each section.
Electronic submission is the primary method used by federal agencies and foundations for submitting grant applications. Occasionally paper submissions are required so be sure to check the requirements for each competition. Electronic submission represents a significant leap forward in increasing efficiency in the submission and processing of grant applications. The primary challenge with an electronic submission is that the grant writer will be required to have a completed and final grant application ready for uploading anywhere from 5 days to 2 weeks prior to the funder’s deadline. The key to success is allowing sufficient time and having patience with system and computer bungles. This chapter provides general tips for some of the key challenges involved with online submissions of grant applications and what it takes to be efficient and ready to submit an application electronically.
Most public health concerns are complex and require perspectives from different areas of expertise and disciplines to address them effectively. Also, working with others on a team to develop and submit a grant application can support the application’s competitive edge. Yet the process of forming a team can be challenging and sometimes confusing. This chapter discusses how to form a team and evaluate and maximize a team’s effectiveness. The chapter also explores how to define the specific roles and responsibilities of each team member, emphasizing the importance of the team leader role. This chapter also examines common problems in collaborative teams and offers effective solutions. The chapter ends with a case study that illustrates the basic concepts discussed in the chapter and serves as an example of applying the five-stage model of collaboration.
Although mentors serve different functions throughout an investigator’s career, this chapter explores the specific role of mentoring as it relates to grantsmanship. In fact, lack of mentoring can be a significant barrier to becoming a successful grant writer, researcher, and/or scholar. The chapter starts with an examination of formal funding opportunities for mentorship and then explores several different mentorship models. It then discusses strategies for developing a mentorship relationship, key roles and responsibilities of mentor and mentee, and how to balance mentoring and team support with the need to show independence as a researcher. As mentees will also be or become mentors, mentees need to understand both their responsibilities and the responsibilities of their mentors, and this chapter looks at the roles of both. The chapter helps the reader understand the importance of mentorship across their career and identify roles and responsibilities of mentors and mentees.
Funding agencies require that an official of the applicant’s institution with signing privileges review the budget to confirm accuracy of salary information and ensure compliance with all federal regulations concerning such things as equal employment opportunities, budget oversight, and maintenance of a drug- and smoke-free environment. Each institution will also have policies that need to be followed if the project is funded. This chapter helps the reader identify what is necessary to know from an institution in order to develop a budget. It also explains institutional review board (
IRB) considerations. The chapter also helps determines which level of review a research proposal will require from the IRB. Knowing the policies and procedures of an institution early in the proposal development process will help the reader work productively at both the preaward and postaward stages.
This chapter introduces the postaward world and suggests the basic administrative and programmatic steps to follow when implementing a new grant, whether it be for research, service, or education activities. In carrying out a project, there are a myriad of important legal, institutional, and administrative details that must be adhered to by the institution, the funding agency, and the principal investigator or project director. There are also various rules and regulations that are set forth by the funding agency and specified in the particular award. It is also necessary for all project-related activities to comply with state and local laws and ethical standards of professional and clinical conduct. This chapter helps the reader understand the initial steps for starting a funded project and identify grant reporting requirements. It also helps the reader understand budgeting and effort reporting requirements and learn about standard institutional policies and resources.
This chapter continues to delve into specific strategies and considerations for writing different sections of the narrative of the proposal. The chapter uses the National Institutes of Health as the model. It examines the approach, or how the investigator will go about answering the research questions or addressing the aims while conducting the research study or project. The approach section describes in sufficient detail the strategies that will be implemented to achieve the aim(s) of the study. This should include an unbiased approach in the design, recruitment of participants, procedures and measures, human subjects (if relevant), timeline, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results. When writing the narrative for this section, it is important to consider the lens of reviewers. Lastly, the chapter describes writing considerations for specific types of research designs that are commonly used by health professionals: the randomized clinical trial, the pragmatic clinical trial, community-based participatory research, and mixed method designs.
There are many common problems found in proposals, particularly for those submitted by new investigators and novice grant writers. Some of these problems are relatively minor but may result in a review panel lowering the overall score. Other problems are more serious and can result in what is referred to as a “fatal flaw” in a proposal, which will make it noncompetitive. Knowledge of these problems and implementation of the strategies described in this chapter can help the reader avoid the most common errors made by grant writers. The chapter discusses the six major areas of a grant application where these mistakes usually occur, including the significance; the specific aims or objectives; the experimental approach; the investigators; institutional qualifications; and the budget. This chapter helps the reader identify problems commonly found in proposals, understand potential fatal flaws, and implement strategies for addressing pitfalls.
Several strategies can be used to improve the quality of written work. These strategies include organizing the task, avoiding common writing problems, and developing and working with a grantwriting team to facilitate the process. This chapter examines each strategy in detail. One strategy that can improve proposal writing is to develop a systematic plan by which to approach the task. The chapter provides six organizing strategies for grant writing. The second way to improve the quality of a proposal is to avoid problems that are commonly found in grant writing, including the use of imprecise language. The chapter discusses nine recommendations for effective proposal writing. Another strategy to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of proposal writing is to organize a grantwriting team. There are ten common tasks required to write a grant proposal, and the chapter outlines the ten roles that individuals can assume on a grantwriting team.
Each funding agency establishes its own set of procedures to guide the conduct of a rigorous and comprehensive review of proposals. Review procedures can differ across agencies and even for each competition sponsored by an agency. Foundations may establish special review panels for each competition, have members of their board review applications, or seek expertise from the scientific community on an ad hoc basis. Exceptions to this are made for special funding opportunities such as supplementary or discretionary funding, minority supplement awards, or certain fellowships. This chapter discusses the most common review process, the peer-review system used by the Public Health Service (
PHS), which includes the National Institutes of Health ( NIH) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The chapter also looks at review criteria, scores, and categories of acceptance and rejection.
Grantsmanship reflects a unique world with its own language, rules, strategies, and requirements. This chapter introduces the language of grantsmanship and locates grant writing within the larger context of career building and as an essential professional activity. Grant writing should not be a “one-off” activity; each grant should be viewed as a stepping stone to building programs that progress along a career trajectory. Grantsmanship is a thoughtful process and a professional commitment, with each award contributing to the advancement of knowledge, practice, and programmatic development. This chapter helps the reader understand common terms of grantsmanship, identify how grant writing fits along a career trajectory, and develop a plan of action for writing a grant from any career stage.
This concluding chapter uses a case example to tie together all of the chapters, serving as a review and a way to integrate the key points made throughout this book. The reader will obtain a sense of the whole grantwriting process, moving through the grantwriting steps from idea inception to grant submission to notice of award and then postaward management. This chapter helps the reader understand the grantwriting process from start to finish and identify which chapters to refer back to for more in-depth information. Successful grant writing is not an elusive goal that only a few can achieve. There are basics that make it possible: a novel idea with funding potential; a systematic and logical approach to addressing the issue; and, above all, persistence and passion.
One of the most challenging aspects of grantsmanship is identifying an idea that both matches an investigator’s interests and passion and has funding potential. The idea must be novel, have the potential to advance science, and address a gap in current research literature, education, or practice. The idea should also fit an investigator’ short- and long-term career interests and match the interests of a funding source. This chapter identifies resources and a process to help develop a competitive idea with funding potential. The chapter helps the reader identify what makes an idea fundable and describes strategies for identifying fundable ideas and matching the reader’s idea to funding opportunities.
In developing a research, training, demonstration, or education grant proposal, an important consideration is the structure of the project. Understanding the available options and the nuances of different project structures is helpful and enhances work efficiency, the competitiveness of an application, and the ease with which the project can be implemented. This chapter introduces four models (individual, consultative, cooperative, and collaborative) and discusses the relative merits, characteristics, and considerations of each. An individual model reflects the traditional academic approach. A consultative model is an extension of the individual approach and includes assistance from experts or consultants. Cooperative models can involve either a main investigator who invites individuals at the same institution to work on aspects of the same project or an arrangement among two or more institutions. A collaborative model builds upon a cooperative approach and involves a more complex organizational structure. The chapter will help the reader determine which model is most appropriate for the reader’s proposed project.
This chapter explores the technical components of developing a grant budget and introduces the basic government circulars that frame budget management. Federal grant budgets are governed by the Office of Management and Budget, and regulations are specified in three circulars, which can be made available through an institution’s research administration office. Although it is not necessary to study in depth the content of these circulars, it is helpful to have a working knowledge of their purpose and content and to have them easily available for reference. In addition, the grants administrator, fiscal office, or office of research administration can be consulted with regard to the circulars’ content and updates, as well as the rules and regulations guiding all grant budgets from their development to their monitoring and management. Working with a grants administrator from the start of the grantwriting process is essential, and he or she should be a member of the grant team for accurate and effective budgeting.
Entering the world of grant writing and being successful in acquiring funding requires knowledge and skill. It also requires having appropriate institutional supports or an infrastructure that supports the pursuit of funding as well as performing the proposed activities of a project, if funded. To have a successful and long career in grant writing, an investigator must either be situated in a supportive environment or create one. In fact, funding agencies and review panels will evaluate whether an environment is adequate to support the proposed project. This chapter first examines the key factors that can serve as barriers to successful grant writing and identifies strategies to overcome potential limitations. The chapter then considers the core components of a supportive environment for pursuing grantsmanship. The chapter helps the reader identify common barriers to grant writing and describes the support needed to be successful in grant writing.
This chapter discusses key strategies in writing a proposal that can improve the competitiveness of a submission and potentially save valuable time in the writing process. These considerations include writing a concept paper prior to initiating a grant application, conducting pilot studies that include needs assessments to support a proposed idea, obtaining supporting documents, and formulating strategies for attending to administrative details efficiently. The chapter summarizes six major uses of a concept paper and discusses the importance of needs assessments and pilot data for supporting a proposal. The chapter also addresses how to obtain supplementary materials and covers other administrative details that, if addressed early on in developing a proposal, can make the writing process more efficient and save a considerable amount of time, particularly as the deadline for the grant submission approaches.
Developing a budget for a grant proposal is similar to writing other sections of the application. It takes time, careful thought, knowledge of technical budget terms, and an understanding of the budgetary requirements and restrictions of both the funding agency and the investigator’s institution. It is important to begin developing a budget for a proposal as early as possible in the grantwriting process. As soon as the investigator has identified a project idea and its specific aims, they should consider the budget to ensure that the proposal idea and aims are realistic from a funding perspective. This chapter helps the reader understand the language of grant budgets, consider the policies and requirements of both the agency and the reader’s institution, identify the components of a budget, write a budget justification, and determine when to use the National Institutes of Health (
NIH) modular budget format.
Although the cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) model directly emphasizes the use of cognitive and behavioral interventions as part of the therapeutic process, emotional and behavioral regulation strategies are included in CBTprotocols. Such strategies are varied in nature, application, and efficacy depending on the clinical presentation of students as well as their own particular needs. Such strategies are varied in nature, application, and efficacy depending on the clinical presentation of students as well as their own particular needs. In other words, different emotional and behavioral regulation strategies will be effective for different students, and it might not be clear which will work the best. Therefore, therapists should feel free to try several different strategies. This chapter provides a brief description on: recognizing emotions and physiological triggers; relaxation training; mindfulness training; and additional behavioral regulation strategies. Therapists should consider both emotion and behavior regulation problems when working with students.
At its essence, counseling is the art of facilitating a trusted and guided conversation that fosters healthy thoughts and behaviors as well as inspires personal insight. Within the plethora of research studies on counseling techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) is highly regarded as a first-line treatment for many mental health and personal stressor needs. This chapter focuses on the provision of effective CBTfrom the initial techniques of rapport building and microskills, facilitating counseling session discussions, to the components that are most efficacious for specific mental health needs. Understanding these precision targeted components allows counselors to streamline intervention, conserving valuable time and resources, so clients are well served and institutions can effectively meet the needs of individuals. CBThas been successfully adapted to provision of services within school settings. The chapter provides an overview of the use of CBTwithin schools and the multitiered systems of support ( MTSS) model.
Much of the work involved in effective counseling occurs outside of the therapy sessions through preplanning and astute matching of client needs with specific intervention components most likely to be effective. Although scripted cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) manuals are available, the lessons take a broad and sequential approach, often covering more concepts than may be necessary for a particular child or group. Within the umbrella of CBT, there are a plethora of techniques and strategies, thus giving room to individualize therapy. By being familiar with these basic principles and techniques, the counselor can customize sessions to optimize precious time within the school settings for intervention. Use of progress monitoring measures can serve as a guide for practitioners when deciding what components are proving to be effective or not effective. This chapter offers an overview of essential components to counseling therapy planning, starting with case conceptualization through first session considerations.
The first case in this chapter reviews a third-grade student’s difficulty with self-regulation, frustration tolerance, and a cognitive distortion related to perfectionism perpetuated by all or nothing thinking. Counseling strategies included teaching relaxation techniques, the cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) triad, and replacement thoughts for perfectionism. Counseling was coupled with a positive reinforcement behavioral plan for the classroom and home-school collaboration with parents. The second case study addresses separation anxiety characteristics by applying graduated separation exposures, relaxation training, and CBTto address what if and catastrophizing thinking errors. The third case reviews counseling for a 14-year-old eighth grader with social anxiety. Counseling involved exposure therapy and CBTfor catastrophizing and mindreading thinking errors. The final case study reviews school intervention coupled with outpatient therapy for a 10th-grade student with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Exposure therapy was provided, and subjective units of distress data were utilized for progress monitoring.
Counseling children and adolescents requires the ability to adapt theoretical terms and concepts that are more abstract in nature to the individual’s developmental level. Such adaptation is essential to cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) as cognitive ability and maturity are key considerations in assuring that students understand the relationship between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to make change. The chapter reviews sample-applied strategies and related activities that school mental health providers can use when working with the students they serve. The options are of course unlimited, and there are numerous free-access published worksheets or activities for inspiration in customizing sessions for students.
This chapter covers theoretical formations that undergird cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) and applied practice. It provides an overview of the CBTtheoretical model and contextualizes with the work of leading scholars. The chapter then discusses the medical model of psychopathology because much of the CBTliterature focuses on ameliorating internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. It also discusses key features of various disorders to inform practitioners of unique considerations for treatment planning. In this regard, the chapter lists specific treatment goals, and proposes CBTinterventions for various disorders. The chapter includes a discussion on tailoring CBTto be culturally responsive to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. It is important to recognize that culture influences every therapist and client in unique and dynamic ways. Therefore, cultural considerations are an essential part of the CBTprocess.
Cognitive behavioral theory (
CBT) proposes that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected, which allows for different points of intervention. One common evidence-based behavioral intervention approach is called behavioral exposure, exposure therapy, exposure with response prevention ( ERP), or exposure with ritual prevention. Over a century of clinical trials supports the efficacy of this behavioral approach with a range of psychiatric and behavioral conditions. However, ERPis the first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and other obsessive-compulsive-related disorders that have compulsive features such as rituals and avoidance. When starting exposure therapy, therapists should provide developmentally appropriate psychoeducation for clients about how this therapeutic approach can help. Because exposure therapy can be somewhat abstract and counterintuitive for children and adolescents, drawing a graph can help with elucidating this process. Following psychoeducation, therapist using exposure therapy should conduct a thorough evaluation to understand the nature of the student’s distress.
Social work is a demanding and very stressful profession, but relatively little research attention has been given to coping with and managing stress in the mental health profession. Clients have complex problems, and settings in which social work services are provided can also present challenges. This chapter addresses some of the most demanding and stressful aspects of mental health social work. Some especially stressful responsibilities of social workers include confidentiality, the commitment of patients to psychiatric hospitals without their consent, child abuse and neglect reporting, and the duty to warn and protect when clients make threats to the safety of others. The chapter examines the frustrations of dealing with health insurance companies for mental health social workers in private practice. It also offers recommendations to prevent and reduce stress and burnout through enhancements of staff support and organizational changes.