This chapter provides an overview of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
This chapter reviews current research and practice regarding persistent depressive disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of generalized anxiety disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of Hoarding Disorder for school psychologists with regard to criteria and considerations from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
This chapter focuses on obsessive-compulsive behaviors in children and adolescents. Classification issues based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
This chapter offers an overview of Selective Mutism, which is classified as an Anxiety Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
This chapter focuses on disinhibited social engagement disorder (
This chapter covers the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of childhood and adolescent mental health problems. Prevalence, risk factors, and protective factors are examined. The need for school-based mental health services is explored and potential benefits of implementing such programs are discussed. The role of school psychologists as mental health providers is addressed. The chapter also compares the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (
This chapter focuses on reactive attachment disorder (
The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of autism spectrum disorder (
This chapter provides information for school psychologists that focuses on child trauma and the ways in which children and adolescents respond to traumatic experiences. It addresses Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
This chapter provides an overview of major depressive disorder (
This chapter provides an overview of intellectual disability for school psychologists with regard to criteria from both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (
This chapter covers Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
Although the vast majority of the motivational interviewing (
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book and the following chapters. It describes the advances in the field of motivational interviewing (
Motivational interviewing (
Over the past two decades, Implementation Science has emerged as a discipline concerned with understanding the dissemination and implementation of new innovations across multiple service settings, including schools. Within education, a consultation approach referred to as coaching has received attention as a promising mechanism to improve the adoption and implementation of highly effective practices in education settings. There is a substantial need for coaching models that clear and comprehensive. A few researchers have turned to motivational interviewing (
This chapter extends these motivational interviewing (
It is important, if not essential, to get the attention and initial willingness of parents, teachers, and students to consider talking about issues that are important to them. The focus of this chapter is how to keep that momentum going. Motivational interviewing (
Most schools are composed of various problem-solving teams to support student learning. Common teams include behavior support teams, response-to-intervention teams, academic support teams, student-support teams, grade-level teams, and teams for individualized education programs. Often these teams bring together a range of professionals and caregivers whose task it is to work together to solve problems. The success of these teams often hinges on the competence of the individual members to solve problems and their willingness and ability to work together. Many of the engagement strategies and motivational interviewing (
Addressing the motivational aspects of academic and behavior supports at home and school represent the next frontier of school-based practices. How to make these motivational interviewing (
This chapter describes the rationale for using structured Check-Ups and for delivering effective feedback in a motivational interviewing style. It focuses on the Family Check-Up (
This chapter describes the content, procedures, and resources needed to learn or teach motivational interviewing (
As most educators are well aware, children benefit when their parents are involved in all aspects of their education. This is true for high-performing students as well as low-performing students, and for students with and without special needs. Unfortunately, not all parents are actively involved in school. This chapter explores ways of using the motivational interviewing (
Trauma refers to exposure to events that pose a significant threat. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 added the contingency that the experience can be based on learning of such a threat to someone with whom one has a meaningful relationship. Trauma can be experienced in a wide range of ways that can be an event, or an abuse experience over a period of time in one's formative years or as an adult, as in childhood abuse or interpersonal violence. Complex trauma and developmental trauma perspectives address these distinctions. The implications for attachment processes in formative years have received more attention, particularly in relation to neurological adaptations. This chapter discusses dissociative symptoms related to anxiety, trauma informed care, post traumatic growth, secondary/vicarious trauma and moral injury. It presents the intersectionality/resilience formulation as a format for diagnosing anxiety disorders from a strength based perspective.
Co-occurring disorders refer to individuals having both a mental disorder and a substance use disorder. Evidence shows that there are a large number of individuals, both minors and adolescents, with mental illness who have a substance use disorder, the literature shows that that relevant services are lacking on a program level and in relation to preparation of clinicians to implement these programs and work effectively with these clients. This chapter discusses the significance of service delivery for individuals with co-occurring disorders with an integrated behavioral health approach. It presents Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders considerations, understanding factors have a role in the development of addiction, and evidence-informed and best practice models. The chapter provides discussion of cases examples, discussion questions and application of the intersectionality/resilience formulation to this population.
Being steeped in an environment where there is divisiveness and black/white thinking has a number of important implications. It has an impact on the thinking, emotions and behavior. It can increase the stress level, reduce the quality of life, can damage the quality of the interpersonal relationships, and negatively impact the ability to effectively help others. Challenging oneself to avoid reductionistic thinking, one taking the harder road in the short run, but the dividends it pays, both personally and professionally, is worth the price. When one work with the clients, using the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation can helps to view them in a way that challenges simplistic and reductionistic thinking, providing a format for us to view the clients from a perspective that helps to gain a more comprehensive understanding and ultimately becoming more effective in the practice.
Depressive and bipolar disorders (
Diagnosis is a critically important process that sets the stage for treatment and also establishes the groundwork for long-term consequences that bear on quality of life and social identity. This chapter reviews issues that continue to challenge the development of a more effective application of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Specifically, there is a need for more thorough diagnostic process comprising diverse populations and for incorporation of sources of strength and resiliency in diagnostic process. The chapter addresses culture, social identifications and mental health by focusing on updated theoretical and research literature that has explored the meaning of the diverse contexts of clients and the complex interactions among constructs such as culture, social class, ethnicity, gender, and race. It summarizes the relationship between these contexts and the experience of seeking and receiving help for a diagnosed mental illness and concludes with a rationale for proposed diagnostic template/format.
Alzheimer's disease (
Although mental health professionals embrace broad assessment protocols, which attempt to incorporate biopsychosocial, and, more recently, the cultural and spiritual identities of the individual, attention is rarely given to the individual's unique internal and external sources of strength and support. The limitations of traditional medical model diagnosis, particularly in the form of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification system, have been noted by many researchers and practitioners. At the same time, research has focused on predictive factors in treatment outcome, both in terms of client characteristics and in the utility of evidence-based treatment protocols applied to specific mental disorders. The cumulative themes in contemporary discussions of diagnostic systems and effective treatments, logically related to diagnosis, suggest the need for an additional core component of the diagnostic system, for which the authors advocate the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation.
This chapter examines three common childhood disorders (conduct disorders, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders) using the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formation framework, with special attention to important developmental processes at play. It focuses on two specific disruptive disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder because these disruptive behavior disorders are more likely to arouse negative reactivity in persons in child's environment and also pull mental health professionals toward a negative focus on pathology. These two disorders are seen in mental health and community clinics more than any other disorders in minors, are often co-occurring with other psychiatric disorders, and may be complicated by substance abuse and severely delinquent behavior. As externalizing disorders, they are visible to observers and disruptive in the child's environment, whereas externalizing disorders are often less salient to caregivers, teachers, and peers. The chapter focuses on diagnostic developmental considerations when evaluating these and other common disorders in children and adolescents.
A diagnosis of schizophrenia is terrifying and demoralizing to both the client and family members and has, until recently, been associated with dread and despair, the anticipation of a lifetime of chronic struggle, and a bewildering journey through the quagmire of psychiatric institutions and treatments. This chapter focuses on schizophrenia while noting the additional psychotic disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (
Anxiety disorders are the most common types of disorders that present in clinical and health care settings. Some of the subtypes (e.g., phobias and generalized anxiety) share both anxiety and fear responses, which are proposed to receive equivalent attention in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
The elimination of the multiaxial structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
This chapter takes the longer view on how the reader can become positioned for success over time in order to make a significant impact on a particular area of healthcare. Although the chapter focuses on research, the points are relevant to systematically building grant funding to support training and educational innovation as well. The chapter discusses the importance of applying a strong work ethic, garnering support for the necessary resources to do impactful scientific work, mapping a strategy for writing sequential grant applications, and planning for the dissemination of the products of program of research. It also defines what is meant by a program of research. The chapter helps the reader identify resources and strategies for building a program of research and understand the expectations and the process for disseminating results of a program of research.
This chapter introduces the postaward world and suggests the basic administrative and programmatic steps to follow when implementing a new grant, whether it be for research, service, or education activities. In carrying out a project, there are a myriad of important legal, institutional, and administrative details that must be adhered to by the institution, the funding agency, and the principal investigator or project director. There are also various rules and regulations that are set forth by the funding agency and specified in the particular award. It is also necessary for all project-related activities to comply with state and local laws and ethical standards of professional and clinical conduct. This chapter helps the reader understand the initial steps for starting a funded project and identify grant reporting requirements. It also helps the reader understand budgeting and effort reporting requirements and learn about standard institutional policies and resources.
This chapter explores the technical components of developing a grant budget and introduces the basic government circulars that frame budget management. Federal grant budgets are governed by the Office of Management and Budget, and regulations are specified in three circulars, which can be made available through an institution’s research administration office. Although it is not necessary to study in depth the content of these circulars, it is helpful to have a working knowledge of their purpose and content and to have them easily available for reference. In addition, the grants administrator, fiscal office, or office of research administration can be consulted with regard to the circulars’ content and updates, as well as the rules and regulations guiding all grant budgets from their development to their monitoring and management. Working with a grants administrator from the start of the grantwriting process is essential, and he or she should be a member of the grant team for accurate and effective budgeting.
Several strategies can be used to improve the quality of written work. These strategies include organizing the task, avoiding common writing problems, and developing and working with a grantwriting team to facilitate the process. This chapter examines each strategy in detail. One strategy that can improve proposal writing is to develop a systematic plan by which to approach the task. The chapter provides six organizing strategies for grant writing. The second way to improve the quality of a proposal is to avoid problems that are commonly found in grant writing, including the use of imprecise language. The chapter discusses nine recommendations for effective proposal writing. Another strategy to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of proposal writing is to organize a grantwriting team. There are ten common tasks required to write a grant proposal, and the chapter outlines the ten roles that individuals can assume on a grantwriting team.
Entering the world of grant writing and being successful in acquiring funding requires knowledge and skill. It also requires having appropriate institutional supports or an infrastructure that supports the pursuit of funding as well as performing the proposed activities of a project, if funded. To have a successful and long career in grant writing, an investigator must either be situated in a supportive environment or create one. In fact, funding agencies and review panels will evaluate whether an environment is adequate to support the proposed project. This chapter first examines the key factors that can serve as barriers to successful grant writing and identifies strategies to overcome potential limitations. The chapter then considers the core components of a supportive environment for pursuing grantsmanship. The chapter helps the reader identify common barriers to grant writing and describes the support needed to be successful in grant writing.
Because the funding environment and the interests of agencies are constantly evolving, it is important to systematically monitor changes in agency policies and priorities. This chapter identifies the major sources of funding for health and human service professionals, discusses ways to learn about the current and future interests of various funding agencies, and shows how to interpret calls for proposals. The chapter describes different pilot research mechanisms that are available to individuals in the formative stage of their research careers. Based on this information, the reader will be in a better position to develop a plan of action for tracking potential funding opportunities and responding with competitive applications. The chapter helps the reader identify potential sources of funding, understand how to track funding opportunities, comprehend calls for proposals, and prepare for conversations with program officers.
One of the most challenging aspects of grantsmanship is identifying an idea that both matches an investigator’s interests and passion and has funding potential. The idea must be novel, have the potential to advance science, and address a gap in current research literature, education, or practice. The idea should also fit an investigator’ short- and long-term career interests and match the interests of a funding source. This chapter identifies resources and a process to help develop a competitive idea with funding potential. The chapter helps the reader identify what makes an idea fundable and describes strategies for identifying fundable ideas and matching the reader’s idea to funding opportunities.
Developing a budget is as important as detailing the science or training requirements of a proposal. There are numerous considerations in constructing a budget. First, it is important to recognize that the proposal budget will be reviewed by a number of different departments and officials, including individuals in the university, peer reviewers, and officials in the funding agency. One of the more important groups who will review the budget is the review panel of the funding agency. Once the budget and budget justification are completed, many institutions have internal forms that must be completed and that involve obtaining signatures from institutional officials including a department chair and/or the head of research administration. This chapter helps the reader understand how to construct a budget for a project. It also examines costs associated with proposed activities and determines consultation and subaward budget arrangements.
Most public health concerns are complex and require perspectives from different areas of expertise and disciplines to address them effectively. Also, working with others on a team to develop and submit a grant application can support the application’s competitive edge. Yet the process of forming a team can be challenging and sometimes confusing. This chapter discusses how to form a team and evaluate and maximize a team’s effectiveness. The chapter also explores how to define the specific roles and responsibilities of each team member, emphasizing the importance of the team leader role. This chapter also examines common problems in collaborative teams and offers effective solutions. The chapter ends with a case study that illustrates the basic concepts discussed in the chapter and serves as an example of applying the five-stage model of collaboration.
In developing a research, training, demonstration, or education grant proposal, an important consideration is the structure of the project. Understanding the available options and the nuances of different project structures is helpful and enhances work efficiency, the competitiveness of an application, and the ease with which the project can be implemented. This chapter introduces four models (individual, consultative, cooperative, and collaborative) and discusses the relative merits, characteristics, and considerations of each. An individual model reflects the traditional academic approach. A consultative model is an extension of the individual approach and includes assistance from experts or consultants. Cooperative models can involve either a main investigator who invites individuals at the same institution to work on aspects of the same project or an arrangement among two or more institutions. A collaborative model builds upon a cooperative approach and involves a more complex organizational structure. The chapter will help the reader determine which model is most appropriate for the reader’s proposed project.
Grantsmanship reflects a unique world with its own language, rules, strategies, and requirements. This chapter introduces the language of grantsmanship and locates grant writing within the larger context of career building and as an essential professional activity. Grant writing should not be a “one-off” activity; each grant should be viewed as a stepping stone to building programs that progress along a career trajectory. Grantsmanship is a thoughtful process and a professional commitment, with each award contributing to the advancement of knowledge, practice, and programmatic development. This chapter helps the reader understand common terms of grantsmanship, identify how grant writing fits along a career trajectory, and develop a plan of action for writing a grant from any career stage.
Electronic submission is the primary method used by federal agencies and foundations for submitting grant applications. Occasionally paper submissions are required so be sure to check the requirements for each competition. Electronic submission represents a significant leap forward in increasing efficiency in the submission and processing of grant applications. The primary challenge with an electronic submission is that the grant writer will be required to have a completed and final grant application ready for uploading anywhere from 5 days to 2 weeks prior to the funder’s deadline. The key to success is allowing sufficient time and having patience with system and computer bungles. This chapter provides general tips for some of the key challenges involved with online submissions of grant applications and what it takes to be efficient and ready to submit an application electronically.
This chapter discusses the background and significance sections of a proposal and describes how the literature review supports both. Over time, literature reviews have become more systematic and rigorous because investigators have understood the value and necessity of applying review methodologies that strengthen the scientific foundation of their study. Systematic and narrative reviews are sometimes confused because both provide a summary of existing literature on a research topic. This chapter compares the narrative review and the systematic review to differentiate between the two. The chapter also introduces the matrix method of organizing the literature search and provides a step-by-step outline for conducting a review of the literature, which includes activities that are indispensable to “owning the literature” so the grant writer can discuss major ideas and prior research conducted and ensure that the research questions asked are logically developed and based on a solid scientific foundation.
This concluding chapter uses a case example to tie together all of the chapters, serving as a review and a way to integrate the key points made throughout this book. The reader will obtain a sense of the whole grantwriting process, moving through the grantwriting steps from idea inception to grant submission to notice of award and then postaward management. This chapter helps the reader understand the grantwriting process from start to finish and identify which chapters to refer back to for more in-depth information. Successful grant writing is not an elusive goal that only a few can achieve. There are basics that make it possible: a novel idea with funding potential; a systematic and logical approach to addressing the issue; and, above all, persistence and passion.
Although mentors serve different functions throughout an investigator’s career, this chapter explores the specific role of mentoring as it relates to grantsmanship. In fact, lack of mentoring can be a significant barrier to becoming a successful grant writer, researcher, and/or scholar. The chapter starts with an examination of formal funding opportunities for mentorship and then explores several different mentorship models. It then discusses strategies for developing a mentorship relationship, key roles and responsibilities of mentor and mentee, and how to balance mentoring and team support with the need to show independence as a researcher. As mentees will also be or become mentors, mentees need to understand both their responsibilities and the responsibilities of their mentors, and this chapter looks at the roles of both. The chapter helps the reader understand the importance of mentorship across their career and identify roles and responsibilities of mentors and mentees.
Each funding agency establishes its own set of procedures to guide the conduct of a rigorous and comprehensive review of proposals. Review procedures can differ across agencies and even for each competition sponsored by an agency. Foundations may establish special review panels for each competition, have members of their board review applications, or seek expertise from the scientific community on an ad hoc basis. Exceptions to this are made for special funding opportunities such as supplementary or discretionary funding, minority supplement awards, or certain fellowships. This chapter discusses the most common review process, the peer-review system used by the Public Health Service (
Funding agencies require that an official of the applicant’s institution with signing privileges review the budget to confirm accuracy of salary information and ensure compliance with all federal regulations concerning such things as equal employment opportunities, budget oversight, and maintenance of a drug- and smoke-free environment. Each institution will also have policies that need to be followed if the project is funded. This chapter helps the reader identify what is necessary to know from an institution in order to develop a budget. It also explains institutional review board (
Most proposals, especially those submitted to the National Institutes of Health (
An understanding of the process of collaboration will enable the reader to become a more competent participant and a more effective leader. This chapter discusses how to form collaborative teams and the potential dynamics within these teams. The chapter first presents a brief discussion of a theoretical framework that provides a rationale for collaborative behavior. This framework is based on social exchange theory and the literature on team building. The chapter introduces two important concepts to facilitate a collaborative group structure: role differentiation and role release. It then compares the roles assumed on a traditional solo investigator-driven research project with the roles on a collaborative team and discusses the responsibilities of a team leader. Based on this framework, the chapter presents a five-stage model of collaboration that describes the process by which to develop and nurture collaborative teams for research and education proposal development and implementation.
Developing a budget for a grant proposal is similar to writing other sections of the application. It takes time, careful thought, knowledge of technical budget terms, and an understanding of the budgetary requirements and restrictions of both the funding agency and the investigator’s institution. It is important to begin developing a budget for a proposal as early as possible in the grantwriting process. As soon as the investigator has identified a project idea and its specific aims, they should consider the budget to ensure that the proposal idea and aims are realistic from a funding perspective. This chapter helps the reader understand the language of grant budgets, consider the policies and requirements of both the agency and the reader’s institution, identify the components of a budget, write a budget justification, and determine when to use the National Institutes of Health (
This chapter continues to delve into specific strategies and considerations for writing different sections of the narrative of the proposal. The chapter uses the National Institutes of Health as the model. It examines the approach, or how the investigator will go about answering the research questions or addressing the aims while conducting the research study or project. The approach section describes in sufficient detail the strategies that will be implemented to achieve the aim(s) of the study. This should include an unbiased approach in the design, recruitment of participants, procedures and measures, human subjects (if relevant), timeline, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results. When writing the narrative for this section, it is important to consider the lens of reviewers. Lastly, the chapter describes writing considerations for specific types of research designs that are commonly used by health professionals: the randomized clinical trial, the pragmatic clinical trial, community-based participatory research, and mixed method designs.
There are many common problems found in proposals, particularly for those submitted by new investigators and novice grant writers. Some of these problems are relatively minor but may result in a review panel lowering the overall score. Other problems are more serious and can result in what is referred to as a “fatal flaw” in a proposal, which will make it noncompetitive. Knowledge of these problems and implementation of the strategies described in this chapter can help the reader avoid the most common errors made by grant writers. The chapter discusses the six major areas of a grant application where these mistakes usually occur, including the significance; the specific aims or objectives; the experimental approach; the investigators; institutional qualifications; and the budget. This chapter helps the reader identify problems commonly found in proposals, understand potential fatal flaws, and implement strategies for addressing pitfalls.
Funding agencies are primarily interested in funding the best ideas from among those that are submitted and the applicants most capable of being successful in carrying out their proposed project. Therefore, the proposal needs to present a compelling case to convince a funding agency to support the idea. A call for proposals may contain a list of potential topics or areas of inquiry related to the interest of the agency, the format of the proposal, and an outline of the evaluation criteria that will be applied by reviewers to proposals. It is critical to follow the instructions carefully and to use the sections stated as the headings in the proposal. This chapter describes the basic narrative components of most proposals. Although each agency structures its calls for proposals differently, there are sections that are commonly required. The chapter presents an overview of the content of each section.
The specific aims section is arguably the most important part of the grant application. It is also the most difficult to write, as it must succinctly describe the problem that will be addressed, the significance of the problem, the critical knowledge gap that is preventing progress in the field, the goal of the proposal, and the impact the results will have on the field when the project is completed. The specific aims, like all sections of the grant application, should be written for a general scientific audience and not just specialists in the field. Some agencies invite end users or key stakeholders to review their grants, so writing for a broad audience in these cases is of particular importance. Reviewers are easily distracted by highly technical jargon that can make it difficult to understand what the grant writer is trying to communicate. This chapter introduces a template for structuring each paragraph of the specific aims page so that the research idea flows logically and captures the interest of reviewers. It also discusses strategies for presenting compelling specific aims and presents examples to illustrate what to include in each paragraph of the specific aims page.
This chapter discusses key strategies in writing a proposal that can improve the competitiveness of a submission and potentially save valuable time in the writing process. These considerations include writing a concept paper prior to initiating a grant application, conducting pilot studies that include needs assessments to support a proposed idea, obtaining supporting documents, and formulating strategies for attending to administrative details efficiently. The chapter summarizes six major uses of a concept paper and discusses the importance of needs assessments and pilot data for supporting a proposal. The chapter also addresses how to obtain supplementary materials and covers other administrative details that, if addressed early on in developing a proposal, can make the writing process more efficient and save a considerable amount of time, particularly as the deadline for the grant submission approaches.
Although the cognitive behavioral therapy (
The first case in this chapter reviews a third-grade student’s difficulty with self-regulation, frustration tolerance, and a cognitive distortion related to perfectionism perpetuated by all or nothing thinking. Counseling strategies included teaching relaxation techniques, the cognitive behavioral therapy (
Cognitive behavioral theory (
At its essence, counseling is the art of facilitating a trusted and guided conversation that fosters healthy thoughts and behaviors as well as inspires personal insight. Within the plethora of research studies on counseling techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (
Much of the work involved in effective counseling occurs outside of the therapy sessions through preplanning and astute matching of client needs with specific intervention components most likely to be effective. Although scripted cognitive behavioral therapy (
This chapter covers theoretical formations that undergird cognitive behavioral therapy (
Counseling children and adolescents requires the ability to adapt theoretical terms and concepts that are more abstract in nature to the individual’s developmental level. Such adaptation is essential to cognitive behavioral therapy (
Mental health issues and services have been relegated to the periphery of healthcare and have not received the clinical and research attention they deserve. This chapter addresses the fragmentation of the mental health system and examines barriers to psychiatric hospital innovations and service integration. It offers recommendations that may streamline and improve the system. The integration of mental health and substance abuse screening, assessment, and treatment into primary care physician offices is showing positive outcomes. The chapter provides a sample description of collaborative care components, a model that has shown effectiveness in treating anxiety and depression. To be effective, treatment for mental health problems must coexist within a healthy lifestyle. Much recent attention has been given to the role of technology in improving the delivery of mental health services. The chapter examines organizational changes that can support service innovations and includes suggestions for promoting social workers as important innovators in mental healthcare.
Mental health policy and treatment were formulated in ways that reflect historical events, the development of fields such as psychiatry and social work, and political and financial realities and incentives. This chapter addresses the history of the mental health system and the national, state, and local policies that regulate treatment of the mentally ill. It helps social workers trace the development of mental health services and the role of social work through American history, analyze the historical role of asylums for the mentally ill within society, and discuss the reasons for deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill that began in the 1950s. The chapter offers a chronological examination of the highlights in the history of mental health treatment. Details covered include: The beginning of mental health state care: asylums, through to the 2000s: parity and universal health. The chapter also examines the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996.
This chapter highlights the experiences of those with mental illness. It also offers a picture of the families of those with mental illness, and the challenges family members face. The chapter examines the responses of individuals to the experience of psychiatric hospitalization. Most often, psychiatrists prefer to focus on the biomedical factors of illness rather than the concerns of the lived experiences of patients. While social workers and other mental health professionals can seek to understand the symptoms and treatments for individual patients, it is critical to hear the voices of those with mental illness. Many celebrities such as actors, writers, musicians, and sports figures have come forward to acknowledge and talk about their own mental health challenges. The chapter identifies the special challenges of families coping with schizophrenia. It offers a number of recommendations for the delivery of services within psychiatric hospitals.
Mental illness can be both a cause and a consequence of homelessness. People with mental health problems are more likely to become homeless than those without mental disorders. The mentally ill who are most at risk of homelessness have serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This chapter examines the relationship between homelessness and mental illness and substance abuse. It examines the risk factors for homelessness as well as special groups such as homeless families, women and children, and veterans. It also examines the recent rise of homelessness and related societal responses. The chapter discusses the role of homeless courts and the shelter system. Responses to homelessness include Housing First and Treatment First model approaches. The National Alliance on Mental Illness policy recommendations are discussed, as are the recommendations of the National Alliance to End Homelessness. Finally, the chapter addresses the role of social workers in reducing homelessness.
This chapter reviews the responses to the mentally ill by the three major components of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. It examines the relationships between mental illness and violence as well as race and ethnicity and antisocial personality disorder as factors that determine services for the mentally ill within the criminal justice system. The chapter reviews police responses to the mentally ill with a focus on crisis intervention training for officers. It describes the mental health issues of those incarcerated in jails and prisons with special attention to issues of mentally ill women in the criminal justice system and concerns for their children. The chapter reviews specialty courts, particularly mental health courts developed in the late 1990s. Finally, it calls for expanded social work services for the mentally ill in all phases of the criminal justice system, including release to the community with parole or probation supervision.
Social work is a demanding and very stressful profession, but relatively little research attention has been given to coping with and managing stress in the mental health profession. Clients have complex problems, and settings in which social work services are provided can also present challenges. This chapter addresses some of the most demanding and stressful aspects of mental health social work. Some especially stressful responsibilities of social workers include confidentiality, the commitment of patients to psychiatric hospitals without their consent, child abuse and neglect reporting, and the duty to warn and protect when clients make threats to the safety of others. The chapter examines the frustrations of dealing with health insurance companies for mental health social workers in private practice. It also offers recommendations to prevent and reduce stress and burnout through enhancements of staff support and organizational changes.
This chapter addresses the promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental disorders. It describes types and examples of mental health prevention such as primary, secondary, tertiary, and suicide prevention. The chapter examines a recovery model that is based on the premise that individuals with mental health problems must take responsibility for their recovery while setting their own treatment goals. Social work leadership and research make valuable contributions to advances in the treatment for those with mental illness. The chapter also discusses the need to promote mental health social work as a satisfying career to address the workforce shortage. Finally the chapter discusses the future of mental healthcare, bringing greater involvement and increased focus on improving the environmental and social factors associated with mental illness.
This chapter describes the types of mental illness that can develop over the life course. Childhood mental disorders often focus around issues of attention, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and behavioral problems that cause distress for the child and others. The chapter discusses mental health problems of emerging adulthood. It examines trends in mental healthcare for children and adolescents. The chapter demonstrates an understanding of the difficulties of assessing the mental health problems of older adults, including distinguishing between dementia and depression. Mental health is a pressing issue for active duty members of the armed forces as well as for veterans. Reducing psychiatric hospitalizations is a positive step for clients and families and an important way to conserve resources. Social workers are the professionals most likely to work with clients and families in all stages of life and can bring considerable expertise to improving and expanding interventions across the life cycle.
Social workers know that an accurate diagnosis, when possible, is essential to figuring out the appropriate treatment. This chapter provides an overview of the various types of mental health disorders and their corresponding treatments. The lack of consensus and clear paths to treatment is a major impediment to advancing the field of mental healthcare. The classification of mental illnesses is important because it provides a common language and the ability to communicate in an organized way. The two most prominent classification systems for mental illness are the International Classification of Diseases and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
This chapter reviews global ideas about mental health and addresses the stigma associated with mental illness that is often exacerbated by the media. It provides an overview of mental illness in the United States today. The chapter also begins authors’ examination of the role of mental health social workers in providing services and developing policy. This is to apply the core competencies of social work to mental health as determined by the Council on Social Work Education, the accrediting body of social work undergraduate and graduate programs. The chapter provides the nine core competencies of social work that address the policy, research, and treatment needs of those with mental illness, suggestions for how social workers can help to reduce the stigma of mental illness, for substance abuse and mental health services administration, and for the principles that guide the provision of mental health services by social workers.
Racial and ethnic diversity within the United States offers rich cultural differences that enhance life experiences and perspectives. This chapter evaluates the role of gender, culture, race, and ethnicity within the mental health system, describes the reasons women are more likely than men to seek mental healthcare, and analyzes the racial and ethnic disparities in access to mental healthcare in the United States. It then examines the barriers to mental health treatment of sexual and gender minorities, and demonstrates an understanding of the mental health needs of refugees and immigrants. This chapter shows race and ethnicity are closely correlated with mental health, especially disparities in access and use of mental health services. It also examines that behavioral problems combined with a long history of racial discrimination in the United States can result in a juvenile justice response rather than mental health interventions.
It is essential that social workers and psychiatrists cooperate in providing mental healthcare. With an abundance of mental health diagnoses and many medications to treat them, it is often challenging to accurately diagnose and find medications that will be helpful. This chapter examines the development of psychiatry and its relationship to social work. It examines the increase in medication use for the treatment of mental disorders, and the medications most likely prescribed for specific mental illnesses. The chapter reviews the role of primary care physicians as the predominant prescribers of psychotropic medications, and the role of social workers in working with clients regarding their medications. The use of all psychiatric drugs has increased in recent years. The chapter then examines neuromodulation techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Finally, the chapter examines the role of pharmaceutical companies and their enormous profits.
This chapter helps the reader to understand leadership and management theories and styles, and identifies and assumes various leadership styles that can be situationally adapted. It explores the concepts of leadership and management, specifically as these constructs relate to the Network for Social Work Management and Council on Social Work Education competencies, to illustrate how various leadership and management paradigms can translate to practice behaviors. The chapter helps the reader to inspire confidence in others and form positive relationships, and demonstrate commitment to and knowledge about the agency. It discusses application of emotional intelligence, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management in leadership and management. The chapter explains the distinctions between leadership and management. It also discusses interpersonal skills as they impact organizational functions and tie to how one engages with individuals, groups, and organizational culture.
Leaders and managers are responsible for managing and overseeing key organizational functions. These functions include diverse tasks such as managing staff, budgets, and information technology; creating and implementing strategic plans; and cultivating an atmosphere where staffs are motivated and encouraged to achieve the organizational goals and mission. This chapter explores how leaders manage organizational functions. Inherent to managing organizational functions is the ability to lead, inspires, and motivates staff to move beyond cynicism and complacency in order to perform in an optimal manner. It identifies examples of organizational dysfunction and ways to overcome various organizational dysfunctions. Leaders and managers are encouraged to model exemplary behaviors to inspire staff and to engage in ethical behaviors. Finally, the chapter reviews the importance of acknowledging diversity and taking steps to ensure that the organization provides culturally competent services to clients or students.
Social work leaders and managers are responsible for understanding the organization’s budget processes. The organization’s budget can be considered a blueprint for knowing how to programmatically proceed. For instance, there will be times when the budget can help to identify costs that need to be reduced and resources that may need to be reallocated. Budgets are also used as management tools in and of themselves since they provide a picture of how the program is operating. This chapter discusses budgeting and the budgeting process in the organization and also the types of income and expenses. It describes managing finances to meet program goals and maximizing financial resources. The chapter discusses developing investment strategies and developing contracts. It explains budget as a management tool and helps to understand financial statements, analysis, and planning. The chapter explains dealing with limited resources, cutbacks, reductions, and environmental challenges. It finally discusses developing downsizing strategies.
This chapter examines the process of program design, focusing on how agency and university leaders can initiate this process by assessing need, and then using the information gathered to effectively plan programmatic interventions to address these needs. It describes the use of logic models as a program planning tool and identifies the elements of good program design. The chapter also examines effective approaches for implementing programs and discusses how evaluation can be used to provide valuable feedback to those seeking to further adjust these programs to makes them more effective. The chapter provides an understanding, interpreting, and using best evidence-based practices to improve organizational effectiveness. It creates needs assessments and designs a logic planning model. The chapter identifies elements of good design and helps to understand how to implement the program. It discusses about evaluating the program and providing feedback mechanisms.
This chapter discusses strategic resource development. Strategic resource development entails creating a case statement, which is a description of your organization including its mission and goals and explains the rationale for why the agency needs financial support. A case statement also provides information to prospective donors about why you are seeking funds, how the donated funds will be allocated, and how the donation will help to achieve specific strategic objectives, while also identifying who exactly will benefit from these services. Successful funding strategies are discussed with examples from programs that have successfully raised funds. Organizations, particularly academic institutions, create research centers to advance opportunities for faculty to engage in creative activities and to provide a service to the community. By conducting research, the knowledge and evidence-based findings related to specific populations in need further contribute to the professional community. Finally, the chapter examines how to be successful in grant writing.
This chapter discusses the need for organizational transparency and accountability. Social work leaders and managers have a responsibility to clients, as well as various regulatory systems, to ensure that programs are operating ethically and legally. It is imperative that social work leaders and managers have a comprehensive understanding of the various regulations that guide daily functions and develop judicious habits that safeguard clients, employees, and the organization from manifold risks. Various committees can be developed to oversee compliance with a number of regulations, including financial regulations, safety, and overall risk prevention aims, along with policies and procedures outlined as organizational expectations. Organizational expectations offer the foundation for organizational and programmatic goals to be established. Finally, the chapter briefly revisits the concept of mentoring or grooming staff for the purpose of succession planning and dismantle some of the processes inherent to succession planning.
This chapter examines the multifarious ways to enhance staff motivation and foster employees’ professional growth and development. Leaders and managers must be mindful of how they frame reward systems and include input from employees to effectively develop positive contingencies-but above all leaders and managers need to recognize and nurture the talent of their staff. By attending to the growth of individual staff and cohesion among teammates, leaders and managers can facilitate innovative changes and motivate staff performance and productivity. The chapter helps the reader in implementation of staff orientation, training, and development; and being sensitive to inequities. The chapter focuses on promoting and ensuring diversity. It describes dealing with faculty performance and learning how to lead by example. The chapter helps the reader to give directions and understand generational differences. It finally describes the importance of effective communication and how to use empathic language.
This book presents a comprehensive list of leadership and management competencies from the Network for Social Work Management (