This chapter focuses on women, who are HIV positive, from a global perspective. It illustrates more easily what makes groups of people, and in this case women, vulnerable and then consider vulnerability from a global health (GH) perspective using the chronic illness, HIV. The chapter presents some examples of situations that make women vulnerable to HIV and, once infected, vulnerable for life, and use a case-based approach to highlight women as a vulnerable population. It also focuses on the real ethical issues that occurred with each case, which one anticipate will help prepare the new GH nurse for practice in the global environment. The chapter demonstrates by using an exemplar of HIV-positive women, vulnerable populations exist both within and outside the United States. Reasons for vulnerability may include stigma, victimization, mental illness, migration, limited access to needed health care or food, or substance use.
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This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. It provides Dr. Sachs’s honest and open remarks along with interspersed additions from the authors to introduce the field and its accompanying issues. In explaining his career trajectory, Dr. Sachs recalls earning his undergraduate degree in psychology and then applying to graduate programs in applied behavioral analysis. Dr. Sachs’s somewhat zigzagged trajectory in the field demonstrates the important sport and exercise psychology principle that explains the benefits of focusing on the process rather than the outcome when setting goals. Dr. Sachs added that the United States leads the way in research and writing with regard to sport and exercise psychology, while other countries may be more advanced in the application of that knowledge at the professional levels.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. The topic of decision making has been covered in psychology, economics, and motor learning but addressed very sparsely in sport, exercise, and performance psychology. Rational decision making requires defining the problem, identifying criteria, weighing those criteria, generating alternative solutions, and ultimately computing the optimal decision. The chapter introduces the literature on decision making and provides examples of factors that influence the choices people make. The decision to act, move, or what move to make is decided in the response selection stage, and the final stage is when one’s brain and muscles are organized to make the actual move. The key to improve the decision-making over time is to increase personal awareness of own limitations and keep learning and collecting information from reliable sources.
One of the most important findings from the original battered woman syndrome (BWS) research was the existence of a three-phase cycle of violence that could be described and measured through careful questioning of the battered woman. This chapter describes the cycle, updates it by adding information from the courtship period, and divides the third phase into several different sections where appropriate so that there may not be any loving contrition or even respites from the abuse at times during the relationship. Teaching the woman how her perception of tension and danger rises to an acute battering incident after which she experiences feelings of relief and then gets seduced back into the relationship by the batterer’s loving behavior, often similar to what she experienced during the courtship period, has been found to be helpful in breaking the cycle of violence that keeps the woman in the relationship.Source:
This chapter presents the anatomy review of the human heart. The human heart is a hollow four-chambered muscle that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The heart lies in the mediastinum in the thorax, pointing toward the left of the midline. The heart consists of four main layers: the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart muscle. The middle layer of the heart is called the myocardium. The innermost layer of the heart is the endocardium. The heart is divided into right and the left side. The right side of the heart contains the right atrium and right ventricle. The left side of the heart contains the left atrium and left ventricle. The heart has four valves: tricuspid valve, mitral valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve; acting as tiny doors that keep the blood moving in one direction.
The chapter explores how to measure the electrical direction for the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave, as well as for other forces. It provides a method for determining the direction of the electrical force for any of these waves, or complexes, on the electrocardiograph (EKG). The heart produces electrical and mechanical energy on a continuous basis. Both forms of energy come from specialized cardiac muscle fibers. These fibers provide electrical signals and mechanical energy that physically pumps the blood. Although the EKG does not show that mechanical energy, it can be used to measure a variety of electrical events. When a force is abnormal in size or direction, it may indicate that the specific part of the heart producing the force is abnormal. Therefore, learning the normal electrical direction of forces in the heart provides a simple and scientific way of understanding and interpreting an EKG.
This chapter explains various types of heart blocks such as premature atrial contraction, sinus arrest and asystole. It explains various types of pacemakers such as ventricular pacemaker and artrial pacemakers. Junctional rhythm is a regular rhythm. A P wave is frequently not seen because the rhythm originates in the AV junctional node. Junctional rhythm may be a manifestation of digitalis toxicity, sick sinus syndrome, and acute inferior wall infarction. Pauses are most commonly caused by premature atrial contractions (PACs) that do not conduct down to the ventricle and generate a QRS complex. These are called nonconducted PACs (NCPACs). Asystole is a prolonged period of no electrical activity. Cessation of function of the sinus node is called sinus arrest. Normally, when sinus arrest occurs, another pacemaker must take over, such as the junction or the ventricles. Ventricular pacemaker rhythm demonstrates a vertical electrical artifact (EA) at the beginning of the QRS.
This chapter presents the case examples of pressure and volume overload on the left ventricle and provides list of criteria for the diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) on the electrocardiogram (EKG). It also describes and explains how to identify ST changes in LVH and LVH simulating anterior wall infarction on the EKG. LVH refers to an increase in the wall thickness or dilation of the left ventricle. LVH is often the result of increased pressure, or volume, within the left ventricular chamber. Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve allows the backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium. The most common cause of pressure overload is hypertension (HTN). Hypertrophy of the left ventricle increases the amplitude of the left ventricular forces, because more mass generates more electricity. In LVH, the frontal plane, the horizontal plane, or both may show increased QRS amplitude.
- Go to chapter: Social Work and the Law: An Overview of Ethics, Social Work, and Civil and Criminal Law
This chapter demonstrates how social work ethics apply to ethical and legal decision making in forensic social work practice. It discusses the context of social work practice in legal systems. The chapter also details the basic structures of the United States (U.S.) civil and criminal legal systems. It lays the foundation for the criminal and civil court processes in the United States and introduces basic terminology and a description of associated activities and progression through these systems. The chapter focuses on providing an introductory, and overarching, picture of both civil and criminal law in the U.S. and introduces the roles social workers play in these systems. It focuses on the ETHICA model of ethical decision making as a resource and tool that can be used to help forensic social workers process difficult and complex situations across multiple systems.
This chapter explains the theoretical basis for motivational interviewing (MI). It reviews the empirical evidence for the use of MI with diverse populations in forensic settings. MI involves attention to the language of change, and is designed to strengthen personal motivation and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. It is now internationally recognized as an evidence-based practice intervention for alcohol and drug problems. MI involves an underlying spirit made up of partnership, acceptance, compassion, and evocation. The chapter discusses four key processes involved in MI: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. It also describes five key communication microskills used throughout MI: asking open-ended questions, providing affirmations, offering summarizing statements, providing information and advice with permission, and reflective statements.
In this chapter, the author began working in international medical humanitarian aid, with an organization called Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors without Borders (MSF). Pediatrics and Pediatric Intensive Care are where the author’s nursing career had started. With assignments in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, and South Sudan, the author have provided care for people who have been displaced due to conflict, victims of war trauma, women with high-risk pregnancies, malnourished and critically ill children, and people with HIV and tuberculosis, and responded to outbreaks of preventable illnesses such as measles and cholera. MSF opened the Sibut project, with a focus on providing care for young children and women of child-bearing age. The security system includes daily contact with all of the village leaders in Sibut, including the Catholic priests, the imams at the Muslim mosque, the village elders, and the militia leaders.
The author worked in a public health research lab, after graduation from college. She liked the flexibility of nursing and the promise to always have a job. She was fascinated by the intricacy of the mind-body intersection and how horribly wrong things could get with seemingly small perturbations. She felt that nursing school discouraged any consideration of a career in psychiatric nursing, as a mentor shared a comment by one of her advisors years ago that “only the bad nurses go into psychiatry”. A common occurrence was the admission of patients with psychiatric needs in addition to medical comorbidities. She cared for patients who had anxiety as a consequence of hospitalization, depression due to chronic illness, persons suffering from acute delirium, as well as someone with dementia secondary to HIV. Later she accepted a job at a local community health center that serves a predominance of Latino immigrants.
- Go to chapter: When the Unthinkable Happens: A Mindfulness Approach to Perinatal and Pediatric Death
This chapter explores traumatic grief and loss and discusses various treatments for it. It focuses on mindfulness-based interventions for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Traumatic grief appears relatively responsive to the psychosocial approach, particularly when it includes exposure elements, such as retelling the story of the loss, reutilization, and building tolerance to the emotions associated with loss. More recently, Thieleman, Cacciatore, and Hill have presented evidence for a mindfulness-based, psychosocial approach for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Western culture’s interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially, and practices have been integrated into a variety of general, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), mindful- ness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Of all mindfulness practices, one of the most cost-effective strategies to help providers working with bereaved parents is meditation.
This chapter highlights key elements of adolescent growth and development and outlines communication strategies to serve as a guide for health care clinicians. It provides a summary of research findings on the adolescent female bereavement response to an early pregnancy loss prior to 20 weeks gestation like miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or elective termination. To gain a greater understanding of the adolescent response to pregnancy loss, it is helpful to review normal adolescent emotional and psychological development. Erik Erikson’s classic developmental theory offers an outline of the psychosocial tasks of adolescents. Blos described three separate phases of adolescence: early, middle, and late, which evolve throughout the transition from childhood to adult hood. Sanders’s integrated bereavement theory has been used to organize grief responses and the bereavement process. When adolescents have experienced an early pregnancy loss they will experience grief responses that are physical, emotional, social, and cognitive in nature.
This chapter explains the seminal Institute of Medicine (IOM) report: The Future of Nursing (
FoN): Leading Change, Advancing Health and the background organizations that wrote it. It demonstrates some key recommendations of FoN: Leading Change, Advancing Health report and its “fit” with Indian Country. The chapter differentiates between challenges in obtaining nursing education in Indian Country and those in dominant culture settings. The IOM’s effort with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) on the FoN has been noticed by many, yet direct care nurses are largely unaware of the report. The chapter outlines the FoN recommendations into two groups: gaining education, practicing to its fullest scope, and pushing for more, including lifelong learning; and shaping policy, being at the table as full partners in health care redesign, and leading change. For American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) nurses graduating from tribal colleges and universities (TCU), the majority will have an associate’s degree.
This chapter aims to give the behavioral health specialist (BHS) a basic understanding of pain, knowledge about how to effectively evaluate chronic pain, and a description of effective pain management techniques. Knowledge of the biological and psychological basis of pain is important to understanding the experience of chronic pain. A biopsychosocial assessment is the foundation for providing behavioral health treatment to the chronic pain patient. Chronic pain is less responsive to treatments commonly used for acute pain such as opioid analgesia and avoiding physical activity. A multidisciplinary team approach can substantially improve outcomes in chronic pain treatment. Whatever the format of service provision, utilizing multiple interventions such as physical therapy/exercise, emotional management, pacing, and medication, rather than a single modality can substantially improve outcomes for chronic pain. Providing psychoeducation about chronic pain can be an important strategy.
Multiple physical changes can impair the mental health of the aging individual. These changes include: acid-based imbalances, dehydration, electrolyte changes, hypothermia or hyperthermia, and hypothyroidism. This chapter reviews the most common mental health disorders affecting the elderly population and trends affecting care delivery. Moreover, chronic, unresolved pain has been associated with an increased risk of a mental health disorder such as depression, suicide, or anxiety. The aging individual may exhibit signs and symptoms of insomnia such as sleeping for short periods during the night, sleeping during times of normal social activities, arising early in the morning while others sleep, and experiencing daytime sleepiness. The chapter concludes by applying the nursing process from an interpersonal perspective to the care of an elderly patient with a mental health disorder.
Respiratory disorders are the most common causes of illness and hospitalization in children. Respiratory disorders range from mild and self-limiting to life-threatening. Pediatric respiratory health is promoted through prevention, early detection, treatment of disorders, and education efforts. This chapter reviews common pediatric respiratory disorders, explores etiology of pediatric respiratory disorders, and discusses specific care of pediatric clients with respiratory disorders. Newborns have less mucous production, making them more susceptible to infection. Throughout childhood, infants/preschoolers have larger tongues, tonsils, and adenoids, which can cause airway obstruction even in the absence of disease. The common cold is the most common upper respiratory infection (URI) or nasopharyngitis. The causes of a URI include rhinoviruses, parainfluenza, and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Pediatric disorders that affect the lower respiratory tract can be short- or long-term conditions depending upon the cause.
Musculoskeletal disorders are some of the most common causes of illness and hospitalization in children due to their active nature. This chapter reviews common pediatric musculoskeletal disorders, etiology of pediatric musculoskeletal disorders, and pediatric-specific care of musculoskeletal disorders. The musculoskeletal system supports the body structure and provides for client movement. Skeletal growth is most rapid during infancy and adolescence. Injury to the epiphysis can affect bone growth. The most common pediatric musculoskeletal disorders involve pediatric trauma. Torticollis is a symptom that causes a child’s chin to be rotated to one side and the head to the other side. The two most common disorders that can cause torticollis include: Congenital muscular torticollis, and Acquired torticollis. Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that occurs most often in infancy or between the ages of 5 and 14 years.
The endocrine or ductless glands work with the nervous system to regulate the body’s metabolic processes. Hormones interact with specific target organs to create an effect on the body. This chapter reviews the pathophysiology behind the metabolic system in pediatric clients. It describes nursing care required for pediatric clients with various metabolic conditions. The chapter explores instruction necessary for families of clients with metabolic conditions. Most of the glands and structures of the endocrine system develop during the first trimester of fetal development. Hormonal control is immature until approximately 18 months of age, leaving the infant prone to dysfunction of the endocrine system. Hundreds of hereditary biochemical disorders affect the metabolism. As the infant adjusts to life, symptoms can rapidly emerge that are life-threatening. The most common endocrine dis.
The Senior House Calls program (SHC) was started as a component of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing (TTUHSC SoN) practice program through a 2-year grant from a local foundation. Operated as part of the Larry Combest Community Health and Wellness Center (LCCHWC), it primarily serves the needs of vulnerable elders in the area. SHC is a nurse-managed clinical service for homebound elders that provides comprehensive primary care through advanced practice nurses who are employees of the SoN. The goal of this program is to provide access to a continuum of community-based services for the elderly population in the city of Lubbock, as an alternative to institutional care. Family therapy services are provided in the SHC program; those needing more intensive therapy are referred to appropriate services. SHC is largely funded through Medicare since almost 99” of its patient volume is covered by Medicare.
- Go to chapter: Overview of Nurse-Managed Wellness Centers and Wellness Programs Integrated Into Nurse-Managed Primary Care Clinics
Overview of Nurse-Managed Wellness Centers and Wellness Programs Integrated Into Nurse-Managed Primary Care Clinics
Nurse-managed wellness centers (NMWC) are practice settings that are community based, directed by an advanced practice nurse, and staffed by public health nurses, advanced practice nurses, and other members of an interdisciplinary health care team. The wellness center model stresses primary prevention and facilitates self-care of the individual with regard to health care strategies and decision making. Freestanding NMWC services include health promotion and disease prevention activities that focus on primary and secondary prevention strategies as well as wellness programs. Students from various health care disciplines, such as nursing, pharmacy, social work, physical therapy, and nutrition, actively participate in NMWC activities. Students benefit in multiple ways because clinical assignments at NMWCs expose them to real-life situations that individuals, families, and groups experience beyond the boundaries of the acute care setting. Wellness centers complement existing primary care services. NMWCs are effective and achievable models of health care delivery.
The 19130 Zip Code Project at the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) started as a curriculum innovation: the CCP Department of Nursing’s response to the national shift toward community-based health care. The project resulted in the refocusing of the nursing curriculum and the development of partnerships with CCP’s neighbors in the 19130 zip code. It also is an excellent example of a nurse-managed wellness center without walls. The Zip Code Project has put down deep roots in the neighborhood and in the nursing curriculum. It has produced a community-based model for educating local health professionals and a service-learning model for enhancing health service delivery by local agencies. The faculty arranged community-based clinical experiences for nursing students in the neighborhood surrounding CCP. Although CCP sits in the middle of the zip code, faculty knew little about community-based health care services in the community.
This chapter talks about monitoring equipment, and procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). In addition to respiratory suppression, the medications used for PSA may suppress the autonomic nervous system’s ability to adequately respond to hypovolemia; therefore, close monitoring of vital signs is important for the well-being of patients. PSA medications promote a rapid recovery stage with minimal postprocedure impairment. Patients need to be observed until there is no risk of cardiorespiratory depression or compromise; monitoring vital signs, including level of consciousness (LOC), with ability to intervene quickly with resuscitation efforts if needed. The rapid response system (RRS) provides critical care expertise when intensive care unit (ICU) level care is needed for compromised patients outside of the ICU, including radiology. The RRS is the radiology nurse’s resource when patients have adverse reactions to sedation, procedures, or diagnostic tests.
Nurses have a key role in the identification, treatment, and control of the transmission of infection within the correctional setting. The prevalence of infectious disease among the incarcerated has great impact on the safety and security of correctional facilities and on the public health. Nursing interventions that prevent communicable diseases such as ectoparasites, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) include screening, patient education and counseling, immunization, monitoring treatment compliance, and symptom management. Handwashing, or hand hygiene, is arguably the best overall workplace practice for preventing spread of infection. Isolation procedures are used to control transmission of disease when treating patients with known or suspected transmissible infections. Nursing procedures involved in prevention and control of communicable diseases include medication administration, monitoring inmate adherence to the treatment plan, education, counseling to reduce risk of disease transmission, collaboration with public health organizations, and discharge planning.
This chapter provides practical strategies for nursing care related to sleep promotion and prevention and treatment of sleep disorders in pediatric primary care settings, acute care settings, and schools. In children with sleep disorders, inadequate sleep does not often result in excessive daytime sleepiness, but in behavioral difficulties such as inattention, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, and/or scholastic problems. Nurses who see children in the primary care setting can take an active role in the evaluation and assessment of all children’s sleep health and provide follow-up care and ongoing treatment monitoring for children who have sleep disorders. In the acute care setting, nurses can incorporate regular treatment plans for a child’s sleep disorder during hospitalization and should be aware of potential for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related perioperative complications for children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. School nurses have the opportunity to promote healthy sleep and improve behavior and school performance in children at risk.
Reformed churches are predominantly Presbyterian in polity, where the congregation is governed by a group of elected elders who are lay persons and a minister. Regional groups of churches form a Presbytery, and groups of Presbyteries form Synods that together form the national General Assembly. The Reformed Tradition is monotheistic, affirming one God, in three persons. The persons of the Trinity are God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Reformed Christians are called, always and everywhere, to a committed pursuit of social justice and human wholeness. Disease, illness, suffering, and death, and indeed natural disaster as well, are a consequence of humankind’s choosing to go its own way and to live. Theologically, death is a consequence of human willfulness or going our own way in disobedience to God. Reformed Christian religious terminology reflects, in large part that found in mainstream Protestant Christian traditions.
The provision of end-of-life care to inmates with terminal illnesses is one of the distinguishing features of correctional nursing. Both the American Correctional Association (ACA) and the National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC) have established accreditation standards for end-of-life care. Aspects of pain management that are emphasized or unique in palliative care are that the pain will get worse, it is managed aggressively, and side effects must be anticipated. An oral health assessment should be included in the admission and periodic nursing assessment of inmates who are receiving end-of-life care in an inpatient setting. The results of the oral health assessment are used to develop a plan to maintain oral hygiene. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing has established competencies for nursing care of patients at the end of life that include assisting patients with emotional and spiritual issues, including distress.
Faith community nurses (FCNs) need to carefully assess literacy levels of printed health education materials and prepare their own user-friendly instructional materials based on the literacy levels and ages of those they instruct. FCNs also should carefully plan where, when, and how best to conduct instructional programs for members of the faith community to achieve positive outcomes. The American Medical Association (AMA) Website has an entire section on health literacy and its implications for health and compliance with medical regimes. If health screening activities are part of a planned program, privacy for actual screening procedures is required. Decisions about instructional methods should be made based on variables such as how active or passive the learner will be and how much control the teacher wants to have during the learning experience. The instructional methods include lectures, group discussions, games, and electronic resources.
This chapter describes nursing care for sleep disorders in the primary care setting. The most prevalent sleep disorders in adults and older adults, and those most commonly seen in primary care settings are insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and restless legs syndrome. There is a compelling need for widespread access to sleep assessment and treatment among the large population of primary care clients who have sleep disorders-many of which are currently undetected. Primary care providers, especially nurses, are in an ideal position to assess, implement, and evaluate sleep promotion and sleep disorders treatment in primary care clients. The reach, adoption, implementation, and long-term maintenance of sleep promotion and sleep disorders treatment is most likely to be successful if implemented at the practice/organizational level. Nurses, especially advanced practice nurses play a pivotal role in implementing and evaluating policies and procedures to assure the translation and uptake of these important services.
This chapter explains the concept of vulnerability and demographics of vulnerable populations. Poverty is the primary cause of vulnerability: It limits resources in many areas of life. From a public health perspective, a population is vulnerable by virtue of status, which means that some groups are at greater risk than others. Faith community nurses (FNCs) may have many or few opportunities to work with vulnerable persons, depending on the demographics of the faith community. Living in poverty decreases access to resources. It increases the likelihood that a person will experience adversity related to physical, psychological, and social health, as well as poor housing, nutrition, health care services, and education. FCNs need to be knowledgeable about programs such as social services, welfare, Medicaid, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as well as local food banks.
Research is a foundation of correctional nursing practice. Correctional nurses can apply general nursing research to the correctional patient population and environment to improve care outcomes. In addition, research specific to correctional nursing practice can provide a basis for nursing care delivery in the specialty setting. Evidence-based practice (EBP) expands upon research utilization to include clinical expertise and patient preference. EBP and best practice guidelines apply external sources of information to local clinical practice. By using research principles in practice, correctional nurses can have greater confidence when changing clinical practice to improve patient outcomes. Involvement in a clinical trial should be of benefit to the inmate and a possible treatment for a known condition. Common therapeutic clinical trial involvement includes treatments for cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Hepatitis C. Clinical issues specific to the specialty practice can be investigated to expand the knowledge base and improve patient outcomes.
The primary purpose of Module 3 of the MAC program is the understanding and exploration of values as a central orienting concept. In the context of understanding the important role of values in enhanced performance and quality of life, the functional and dysfunctional role of emotions is also considered. This chapter suggests to clients that their personal values will be the anchor point for all behavioral decisions that need to be made in the course of enhancing performance and achieving goals. The concepts of mindful awareness, mindful attention, and cognitive fusion and cognitive defusion become integrated with the concept of values-directed versus emotion-directed behavior. The Relevant Mindful Activity Exercise is intended to connect the mindfulness concept to a relevant performance situation in the client’s life. The question of personal values is particularly salient when confronted by the variety of emotions and internal rules that client confronts on a daily basis.
The Corrections Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice provide a framework for making appropriate decisions in the face of ethical dilemmas in practice. Ethics is a standard of professional correctional nursing practice and is multidimensional. This standard will guide a discussion of professional nursing ethics in the correctional setting. Ethical principles are categorized according to the nurse relationship to patients, coworkers, the profession, and the practice. A common theme in the American Nurses Association (ANA) and International Council of Nurses (ICN) ethical codes is the prime importance of compassionate nursing care and the alleviation of suffering. Valuing human dignity also concerns interactions with others in the care community, whether other health care staff, support, or custody staff. Nurses have an ethical responsibility to advance the profession through contributions that will increase knowledge development and shape public policy. Caring is the essence of professional nursing practice.
This chapter helps the reader to plan a health program in a faith community. The types and scope of health education programs depend upon the resources of the faith community. Types of programs include health screening, health monitoring, health education, health fairs, guest speakers, and support groups. Blood pressure screening and monitoring programs are often provided to faith communities by their nurses. Faith community assessment data provide direction for planning the content of health promotion and disease prevention programs. Screening and monitoring program reviews the faith community assessment data to determine risk for hypertension and the numbers of members who identify themselves as hypertensive. Health fairs are events that bring people and health professionals together to provide health education, screening, counseling and referral. The faith community nurse (FCN) should be responsible for choosing the theme of the health fair and for compiling a list of potential participating agencies and organizations.
Mennonites, Brethren, Amish, and Hutterite communities are the main heirs of the radical end of 16th century Protestant Reformation. A key element in this radical reformation critique was the insistence that baptism be reserved for confessing adults, given infants and children were not ready to repent and promise to live lives of costly discipleship. As an independent free church branch of Christianity, Anabaptists are monotheistic. In the ministries of Jesus and the early church, restoration of physical health from illness or disability was seen as a sign of God’s present and coming kingdom. The dominant explanation for illness and disease among Mennonite-related groups is the power of sin both personal and systemic. Many Mennonites believe that persons enter into God’s presence immediately upon death. In most Mennonite-related communities, at least some attention is given to the Advent through Pentecost cycle of the Christian liturgical year.
Basic management and leadership skills are necessary for nurses in all levels of the organization. Leadership is a key standard of correctional nursing practice as defined by the American Nurses Association. As a licensed health care professional, nurses have a legal and ethical responsibility to appropriately delegate tasks within the health care team. The American Correctional Association (ACA) accreditation program is a voluntary accreditation process evaluating the service delivery of a correctional facility. National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC) standards are widely recognized as a basis for effective health service delivery in the correctional setting. The health care programs operated by Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP) have been accredited under the ambulatory health care standards of The Joint Commission (TJC). Effecting organizational and clinical change through a structured process and attention to the human factors of change can move a clinical program forward, even in the challenging correctional environment.
This chapter describes the characteristics, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of movement disorders: periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and suggests implications for nursing practice. Parasomnias and movement disorders are associated with many behaviors that occur in proximity to the sleep period during sleep stage transitions, or during REM or NREM sleep. Movement disorders, in particular, are associated with significant impairment in quality of life and possibly negative cardiovascular consequences. Both groups of conditions occur in adults and children. Although some conditions are occasional, benign, and self-limiting, others are persistent and associated with significant sleep loss and/or the risk of injury to self and others. Nursing care for movement disorders and parasomnias is focused on patient education, providing appropriate reassurance regarding benign and self-limiting behaviors, a safe environment, and symptom control where necessary. Sleep hygiene, avoiding caffeine, and regularly scheduled sleep-wake cycle often reduces negative consequences.
This chapter reviews research and theory linking religion and health. It presents number of reasons why nurses should appreciate the role of religion as they provide health care. Social scientists describe facets of religion with typologies. The growing body of evidence linking religious belief with health care decision making describes the influence of beliefs on varied decisions, from those related to pregnancy and genetic testing to cancer and HIV treatment. Furthermore, a health-related event may have religious implications. Nurses have many reasons for recognizing patient religiosity. These include the fact that religion is prevalent, that some religious practices have health-related implications, and that some health-related events have religious implications for adherents of some religions, and professional mandates. Religion serves many functions, from social cohesion to intrapsychic comfort. When religion lacks personal spirituality, it becomes harmful.
Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) are monotheists, believing that there is one, triune God. God is intimately personal, involved, and compassionate. The concept of God as being always present and aware is comforting, reassuring, and supportive. SDAs have always focused a great deal of attention on being healthy. Exercise, wearing healthful clothing, diet that excludes stimulants and the “unclean” meats listed in the Old Testament, sunshine, clean air, and sufficient rest are all seen as contributors to good health. Health-promotion education offered in an SDA context will typically extol exercise, sunshine; trust in Divine Power, hydration, rest, vegetarian diet, and abstinence from abusive drugs. Health promotion activities have traditionally been the purview of a church appointed “Health and Temperance Committee”. Internationally, the church owns and operates about 170 hospitals, 440 clinics, 40 nursing homes, and numerous educational institutions for training nurses and other health care professionals.
The long-term use of benzodiazepines causes severe cognitive and neurological impairments, atrophy of the brain, and dementia, and the newer sleep aids should be considered a potential but unproven risk in this regard. Some of the most severe cases of chronic brain impairment (CBI) occur after years of exposure to benzodiazepines. This chapter examines the risk of increased mortality associated with benzodiazepines and closely-related sleep aids when given in relatively small doses for short periods of time in the treatment of insomnia. All of the benzodiazepines and the more common prescribed sleep aids are addictive. Opiate and opioid withdrawal tends to be more predictable than psychiatric drug withdrawal. Like the abuse of stimulants and benzodiazepines, abuse of opiates and opioids can result in unlawful acts. The chapter addresses legally used opioids, involving mild-to-moderate abuse or dependence as found in patients who can often be safely withdrawn in an outpatient setting.
Muslims believe that Islam is the completed and perfected religion that incorporates Judaism and Christianity. The primary objectives of Islamic law are protection of life, religion, body and mind, property, family, and lineage. Islam is a monotheistic religion that believes in one God, Allah. Faith and health were described by Prophet Mohammad as the most important attributes one could possess. Disease can be mainly physical, but often there can also be spiritual and mental components affecting the disease process. Muslims address illness and suffering first by following the religious prescriptions for healing alongside medical therapies. Muslims pray for strength, hope, and patience for the sick, potentially in the presence of the sick person, who is comforted by this. Respecting the modesty of Muslim women is paramount. Keep their bodies covered as much as possible during nursing and medical procedures.
Lutherans are Christians whose name reflects that of Martin Luther, a Catholic monk who sought to reform the church using the teachings of Scripture as the primary norm for faith and life. Lutherans believe in the one Triune God as defined in the historic creeds: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Church promotes health and healing and provides health care services through its social ministry organizations and congregation-based programs. Lutherans support disease prevention and health promotion on local, national, and international levels. The Lutheran Church believes that the means of grace are the primary means of empowerment and healing. Many congregations hold health fairs and provide periodic health screening and health education, often with parish nurse supervision. The Lutheran church has a strong tradition of pastoral care for the sick through clergy or chaplains. Visitation by clergy in hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, and homes are expected.
This chapter presents a case study on performance dysfunction in the case of a 21-year-old African American female basketball player entering her senior year at a major Division I-level university. She described regret about not working out harder during the off-season, which she blamed for a poor start to her current season. In addition, she also reported feeling a great deal of worry over the possibility that she may have a poor season and ruin her chance to be drafted in the first round of the WNBA entry draft. According to the case formulation model, there are 10 elements that are necessary to consider prior to making an intervention decision contextual performance demands; skill level; situational demands; transitional and developmental issues; psychological characteristics/performance and nonperformance schemas; attentional focus; cognitive responses; affective responses; behavioral responses; and readiness for change and level of reactance.
Coverage of obesity in the popular press has reached a fever pitch in recent years. By far, the most common definition of obesity uses the body mass index (BMI) to determine who is overweight or obese. A person's BMI is a ratio of his or her weight to height. Many times BMI is criticized for the false positives, where very muscular people are deemed to be obese despite ultralow body fat levels. Waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measures something called “abdominal or central obesity”, a condition that is closely related to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. The costs to society of obesity and related health issues are tremendous. Women, ethnic and racial subgroups, and those of low socioeconomic status (SES) all display higher rates of obesity than the overall population. Obesity is much more common in certain racial and ethnic subpopulations, as compared with Caucasian Americans.Source:
- Go to chapter: From Change to Acceptance: The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment Approach to Performance Enhancement
From Change to Acceptance: The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment Approach to Performance Enhancement
This chapter presents the theoretical and empirical rationale for the development of an innovative intervention for the enhancement of performance. The mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach to performance enhancement is based on an integration of mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches and is specifically tailored for high-performing clientele. The predominant psychological approaches have emphasized the development of self-control of internal states such as thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations and have been commonly referred to as psychological skills training (PST) procedures. The self-regulatory PST procedures most often discussed are goal-setting, imagery/mental rehearsal, arousal control, self-talk modification, and precompetitive routines. The efficacy of psychological skills training techniques and procedures for performance enhancement has been most carefully evaluated within the context of athletic performance enhancement. Mindfulness can be seen as the process that promotes greater awareness of internal experiences and the defusion of one’s thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations.