Alzheimer’s disease (AD) presents one of the most urgent health care issues of our time. AD is a disease of the brain and mind, and as such, neuropsychology has an essential and evolving role to play in addressing this growing public health concern. Measurement of key cognitive functions, such as delayed recall of recently presented information, is crucial in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. In addition to the importance of advancing scientifically informed disease-specific measurement of cognition, neuropsychology has a growing role to play in the design and implementation of nonpharmacological interventions for AD. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD are senile plaques (SP), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and cell and synapse loss in multiple brain areas. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) has long been recognized to be present in the brains of AD patients.
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- Go to chapter: Barriers and Applications of Medication Therapy Management in the Homeless Population
Medication therapy management (MTM) remains a challenging endeavor to optimally implement in the homeless population. Working in various settings in collaboration with other health professionals, pharmacists are spearheading patient-centered efforts to optimize MTM and assist the homeless with attaining health insurance and continuity of care. In the case of MTM, homeless persons may face significant hardship in not only procuring and using effective drug therapy, but also in following-up with their providers and establishing provider–patient relationships that will help them to meet their target therapeutic goals. This chapter enumerates a review of the more common barriers to MTM in the homeless population, followed by a number of practical applications of MTM in optimizing the health of the homeless. In order to appreciate the value and role that stable MTM can offer the homeless, the chapter briefly discusses perspectives on homeless health and the concept of MTM.
- Go to chapter: The Best of Intentions: What Goddard Teaches us about the Development of Intelligence (and the Rough-and-Tumble World of Science)
The Best of Intentions: What Goddard Teaches us about the Development of Intelligence (and the Rough-and-Tumble World of Science)
This chapter presents a balanced overview of the man and his work to illustrate the complicated history of intelligence theory and testing. In 1904 the French government commissioned a group of experts to create a mechanism for identifying low-achieving students who would benefit from special education services. Henry Herbert Goddard brought the Binet-Simon scale to the United States and translated it into English, replacing mental level with mental age. Feeble-minded was the original term for the highest of the low-performing groups, but the descriptor came to be an all-encompassing term that confounded low intellectual functioning with other problems including epilepsy, substance abuse, and evidence of moral deficiency. Obama signed Rosa’s Law, mandating that the phrases mental retardation and mentally retarded be removed from federal health, education, and labor policy and replaced with intellectual disability and person with an intellectual disability.Source:
When children are exposed to toxic environments for many years of their childhood, they may have a difficult time even imagining a calm or safe place. Fort Tent has been adapted from Francine Shapiro's Calm Place exercise. This adaptation is designed to better suit children's needs. Abused and neglected children have very few internal and external resources to enhance the original Calm Place. The initial goal of this intervention is to create a specific experience of a Calm Place. The Fort Tent Calm/Safe Place (Fort Tent) is an intervention designed to help create safety within the constructs of the therapy office. This creative intervention heightens present moment experience of safety in real time. The Fort Tent allows clients who need a more concrete, kinesthetic intervention to be involved in the development of the safe place, thus empowering them to have a level of control in their own sense of safety.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in older homeless people. Traditional CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia, and nontraditional CV risk factors, such as substance abuse, psychological stress, and lack of diagnostic and preventative medical care, contribute to CVD in this population. Barriers to CV prevention and treatment in homeless individuals include their environment, lack of access to care, substance dependence, mental illness, food insecurity, and medication non-adherence. Healthcare models that provide Housing First and just-in-time care by non-judgmental multidisciplinary teams have been shown to improve the CV health of people who are homeless. CV health requires prevention, as well as prompt intervention, and close follow-up. CV healthcare practice adaptations for homeless clients include ascertaining living conditions, improvising the physical exam, scheduling longer clinic appointments with frequent follow-up, prioritization of the plan of care, and simplification of the medication regimen.