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This chapter introduces the constructs of gender and sexism and discusses these concepts in the context of their impact on human development, mental health, interpersonal relationships, and the therapeutic relationship. The chapter reviews concepts of gender identity, gender expression, gender-affirming counseling, and the intersection of gender and gender identity with race, ethnicity, and other salient identities.
This chapter introduces the counselor trainee to the concepts of cultural humility and empathy in counseling. Counselors-in-training must understand that one’s own biases, perceptions, and assumptions must be explored in order to practice cultural humility and empathy. Culturally responsive interventions are discussed.
This chapter will introduce the counselor trainee to the concepts of intersectionality, privilege, and oppression. Counselors-in-training must understand that anti-oppressive counseling hinges upon culturally responsive interventions. Therefore, the tenets of liberation psychology will be offered as a framework to address social inequalities both in theory and in practice.
This chapter addresses cultural affirming practices within the counseling workplace. Counselors-in-training will learn to address diversity and culture at the individual, family, organizational, and societal levels. The levels of care of the cultural care theory are also reviewed in this chapter. Finally, this chapter discusses environmental factors that promote cultural understanding and welcome diversity.
- Go to chapter: Culturally Responsive Counseling for Clients With Disabilities and Addressing Ableism
The disability population is the largest minority group, but one that has historically struggled with the oppression of ableism and discrimination. This chapter focuses on ways counselors can provide competent multicultural counseling to best meet the needs of this population.
The purpose of this chapter is to define social class, classism, and socioeconomic status and address intersectionality in the context of counseling. Furthermore, this chapter examines the dynamics of socioeconomic privilege and marginalization that may be presented when working with clients from low-income, middle-income, and upper-income backgrounds. There are specific frameworks for conceptualizing class and classism that further promote counselor self-awareness and the provision of services that are culturally responsive. The following frameworks are addressed and applied to counseling sessions: The I-
CAREModel, Poverty Counseling Best Practices, the Social Class Worldview Model ( SCWM)–Revised, and the Social Class and Classism Consciousness Model ( SCCC). Lastly, culturally responsive counseling, social justice, and advocacy practices are discussed.
Jewish people have often been overlooked in multicultural counseling textbooks (Langman, 1995). This could reflect the widespread belief that Jews have successfully assimilated in America and that the lives of Jews are no different than those of other White Americans (Kakhnovets & Wolf, 2011). For many Jews, these beliefs oversimplify, and even deny, their lived experiences. Indeed, many Jews do not feel that they fully belong to mainstream American culture (Langman, 1995). A number of factors contribute to this, including the shadow of the Holocaust (Shoah), antisemitic violence in America, the White supremacist notion that Jews are not White, and navigating life in a nation that often labels itself Christian. The counselor who is informed about Jewish beliefs, practices, history, and culture, as well as the breadth of Jewish identities and experiences, will be better prepared with the knowledge, skills, and understanding of the nuances required in counseling this distinctive population.
Social justice and advocacy are key endeavors within the counseling profession. As the fifth force in counseling (Ratts, 2009), counselors with a social justice perspective acknowledge issues of power, privilege, and oppression. Counselors use social advocacy and activism to address inequitable social, political, and economic conditions that impede the academic, career, and personal and social development of individuals, families, and communities (Ratts, 2009). This chapter explains and explores the tenets of social justice, shares steps on how to become an advocate, and discusses the intersection between cultural responsiveness and social justice. The belief is that social advocacy is a necessary step to address issues of equity for those who have been marginalized in society. The Liberation Model Framework and Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (
MSJCC) will demonstrate how counselors can become more self-aware and take steps to become advocates for the clients they serve.
- Go to chapter: Culturally Responsive Counseling for Clients of African American, African, and Afro-Caribbean Descent
Culturally Responsive Counseling for Clients of African American, African, and Afro-Caribbean Descent
This chapter explores the experiences, perspectives, and counseling considerations related to African Americans, Africans, Afro-Caribbeans, and other immigrants of African descent. People of African descent in the United States have different lived realities that largely depend on their history and the circumstances by which they or their ancestors arrived on U.S. soil. To much of the world, they are all categorized as Black or African American. This chapter presents an overview of the individual and collective diversity among these groups. We discuss the varying backgrounds, worldviews, and historical considerations that are important for developing multicultural responsiveness in counseling.