College counseling has entered an era that promises to be radically different than any time in its previous 100-year history. College students in this 21st century are more technologically advanced than previous generations and more likely to take virtual classes than previous generations of college students. Traditional services provided by the college counseling center are: individual and group counseling, psychoeducational groups, evaluation and assessment, career counseling, consultation to faculty and staff, medication management and resident advisor (RA) training. Nontraditional services are defined as virtual counseling, advising, and related services offered via distance technology. College counseling centers have long offered types of self-instructional services. They will need to address social media in ways that are both ethically sound and also able to effectively engage college students in seeking counseling services. The counselor can administer the Dimensions of a Healthy Lifestyle Scale (DHLS) to the client and then discuss the findings.
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Abuse, neglect, and mistreatment in the nursing facility are difficult topics, particularly because there is an expectation that dedicated care is being given to vulnerable frail older adults and those with disabilities. Elder abuse is a deliberate act or failure to act that initiates or creates a risk of harm to an older adult. Abuse can be divided into physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, psychological abuse, financial abuse, and neglect. The abuse often occurs at the hands of a caregiver or a person whom the elder trusts. All social workers, along with all other members of the nursing facility team, are generally considered mandated reporters. In all states, licensed social workers are required to report suspected or actual abuse, neglect, or mistreatment. Reporting abuse does not mean that the social worker is liable for its occurrence nor true verification of its occurrence. It is valuable for the social worker to be familiar with the definitions of abuse and to carefully review their facility’s policy defining abuse, neglect, and mistreatment and their particular policy of the mandatory reporting law. Policies can vary from facility to facility, and the social worker should not assume that every facility, even in the same state or region, handles these issues in the same manner.
This chapter discusses the need for organizational transparency and accountability. Social work leaders and managers have a responsibility to clients, as well as various regulatory systems, to ensure that programs are operating ethically and legally. It is imperative that social work leaders and managers have a comprehensive understanding of the various regulations that guide daily functions and develop judicious habits that safeguard clients, employees, and the organization from manifold risks. Various committees can be developed to oversee compliance with a number of regulations, including financial regulations, safety, and overall risk prevention aims, along with policies and procedures outlined as organizational expectations. Organizational expectations offer the foundation for organizational and programmatic goals to be established. Finally, the chapter briefly revisits the concept of mentoring or grooming staff for the purpose of succession planning and dismantle some of the processes inherent to succession planning.
This chapter explains the process of solution focused narrative therapy (SFNT) and offers suggestions for the therapist’s use of conversational questioning. SFNT therapy comprises six steps: best hopes, mapping the effects of the problem, constructing the preferred story, exception gathering, preparing the presentation of the preferred future and moving up the scale, and summarizing and inviting clients to watch for success. The most important step is beginning therapy. The therapist begins the session by introducing himself, learning the names of those attending, and asking the same question of all present. The chapter also presents an exercise, which may help to identify traits, values, and actions that help readers present their best self to their clients, particularly clients that are challenging.
This chapter introduces readers to the Active Client Engagement (ACE) model, which includes acquiring information, creating a context for collaboration, and evocation of clients’ strengths and resources. As with the strengths-based principles, each facet of ACE works in concert with and is dependent on the others. Together the three components assist with creating a focus in therapy and strengthening the therapeutic alliance. Additionally, the three aspects of ACE are interventive. The chapter introduces methods for gathering client information and using routine outcome monitoring (ROM). An additional part of this chapter involves ways to match clients’ communication styles. The chapter examines two different processes for gathering information: (a) routine outcome monitoring (ROM) in practice (including feedback-informed treatment [FIT]) and (b) interviewing for strengths. The processes are meant to make early contacts and what follows treatment-wise seamless.
Serving in the military presents many challenges, opportunities, and risks. Recently, the suicide rates among military service members and veterans have trended upward and reached unprecedented levels. Research has found that the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is a desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, similar to motives reported by those in nonmilitary samples. This chapter highlights the individuals who are currently serving or have served in the military as they are specific populations due to their importance and distinct vulnerability. It explores the statistics, epidemiology, and trends in active military personnel and veteran suicide. In addition, the chapter draws specific risk factors (psychiatric, sociodemographic, interpersonal, and other associated factors) for military personnel and veterans from evidence-based research. The chapter also presents protective factors identified in literature for military service members and veterans. Finally, it explores treatment considerations and interventions for active military personnel and veterans.
It is paramount for professionals working with bereaved children to provide activities and opportunities for a child to explore his or her grief experience. Activities can provide insight to the professional about the child, their family prior to the death, and how the death has impacted the child’s environment. This chapter describes some things to keep in mind when planning activities for children and provides samples of activities that can be used with children in a support or counseling setting. Activities, by their very nature, facilitate meaning making because they allow the person to be creative, interact with others, or engage in ritual. The chapter presents a few samples of activities used over the years with children for the purpose of meaning making, continuing bonds, problem solving, and perspective building. Activities can also provide structure to the support setting.
Acute care hospitals and ambulatory health care facilities employ more social workers than other settings including individual and family services, schools, and state and local government agencies. The number of practicing health care professionals continues to rise and health care is now the largest employer in the United States. Acute care hospitals often include medical and surgical units, and patients need services that are required to be supervised by licensed medical personnel. Ambulatory settings provide diagnosis, treatment, and care that is not inpatient, and the treatment and care do not require the specialized services. This chapter identifies dialysis social work in nephrology settings as ambulatory care. It provides case exemplars to highlight acute and ambulatory care social work and the processes that are involved in assessment, intervention, and treatment. The chapter explicates areas of strength and concern in the present state of acute and ambulatory care social work practice delivery.
Alcohol and other drugs (AOD)/substance use on college campuses has been an ongoing challenge for campus administrations, health services and health promotion, housing, and counseling centers. The misuse of substances by college students has a significant physiological, emotional, economic, and academic cost. Students are frequently unaware of the impact marijuana use may have on academic performance and motivation. Brief intervention (BI) and treatment have been shown to be effective treatment modalities at reducing high-risk substance abuse behaviors. Counseling centers may consider allowing for at least one session of motivational interviewing to increase the likelihood of clients following through on referrals to comprehensive substance use assessment, self-help groups, or treatment. Counseling center staff, even those with limited AOD treatment experience, can feel empowered to use the screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) model. Group therapy is one of the most widely used treatment modalities for substance use.
Although mental health professionals embrace broad assessment protocols, which attempt to incorporate biopsychosocial, and, more recently, the cultural and spiritual identities of the individual, attention is rarely given to the individual's unique internal and external sources of strength and support. The limitations of traditional medical model diagnosis, particularly in the form of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification system, have been noted by many researchers and practitioners. At the same time, research has focused on predictive factors in treatment outcome, both in terms of client characteristics and in the utility of evidence-based treatment protocols applied to specific mental disorders. The cumulative themes in contemporary discussions of diagnostic systems and effective treatments, logically related to diagnosis, suggest the need for an additional core component of the diagnostic system, for which the authors advocate the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation.
This chapter explains a set of guidelines to help mental health professionals and clients move away from the gender stereotypes that perpetuate inequality and illness. Identifying dominance requires conscious awareness and understanding of how gender mediates between mental health and relationship issues. An understanding of what limits equality is significantly increased when we examine how gendered power plays out in a particular relationship and consider how it intersects with other social positions such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. To contextualize emotion, the therapist draws on knowledge of societal and cultural patterns, such as gendered power structures and ideals for masculinity and femininity that touch all people’s lives in a particular society. Therapists who seek to support women and men equally take an active position that allows the non-neutral aspects of gendered lives to become visible.
Substance users have substantially reduced rates of use of preventive health care services, and reduced rates of compliance with prescribed medical treatment. Primary care providers are frequently overwhelmed and may be reluctant to address substance-related problems given few resources. Direct collaboration with a behavioral health specialist (BHS) co-located within the primary care clinic results in increased efficiency and better treatment outcomes. There are excellent resources available for the BHS who will provide tobacco abuse interventions in the primary care setting. A number of behavioral factors should be considered in effectively addressing substance use and abuse in the primary care setting. Primary care providers should also be alert to unexplained vague symptoms, somatic complaints, difficulty with sleep, anxiousness, frequent life disruptions or chaotic lifestyle, and a family history of mental health problems or substance abuse.
This chapter opens with a brief discussion of interventions that students who have sustained concussions may receive outside of school in a rehabilitation setting and at home. Students who have sustained concussions typically require short-term adjustments while they are still symptomatic. The chapter discusses appropriate school-based educational plans in relation to symptom clusters. The chapter addresses extracurricular involvement of students and special grading considerations during recovery. It includes guidance to help school teams determine if a child with persistent postconcussion symptoms requires a 504 plan or further evaluation for an individualized education program (IEP). Students who are eligible for IEPs under the traumatic brain injury (TBI) category may require significant modifications to the curriculum in order to be successful academically. Finally, the chapter concludes with a note on dealing with students who may malinger or continue to report symptoms when they have actually resolved.
The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler provides a rich theoretical foundation for what has developed into Adlerian psychotherapy. This chapter defines the basic tenets of Adler’s theory of personality and therapy. Adler’s theory is grounded on the idea that childhood experiences are crucial to the psychological development, and that children, who are by nature in an inferior position to parents and other adults, strive to achieve some sense of superiority. Adler ’s work represents a psychological theory that acknowledges the influence of social factors on the personality. In efforts toward understanding the lifestyle, Adler viewed humans’ unique approaches to life through the lenses of the life tasks. These tasks included: the work task, the social task, and the sexual task. Adler believed that encouragement, the act of promoting courage within someone else, was the cornerstone of therapy and could inspire clients toward growth, healthy adaptation, and functioning in life.
- Go to chapter: Administrative Consolidations, Administrative Services Organizations, and Joint Programming
This chapter focuses on a series of case studies and best practices for partnerships that discuss in detail the provision of back-office support for nonprofit partners. Public Health Management Corporation (PHMC) is a nonprofit public health institute that creates and sustains healthier communities using best practices to improve community health through direct service, partnership, innovation, policy, research, technical assistance, and a prepared work force. Traditional back-office services are usually designed to address many of the challenges of today’s changing nonprofit environment. Services depend on the level of organizational need and affordability, but are usually identified through a comprehensive organizational assessment of the nonprofit client. The Urban Affairs Coalition (UAC) is a Philadelphia-based nonprofit that was founded in 1969 following a historic meeting between the city’s business and community leaders. Most nonprofits never rise to the scale of having a full internal administrative staff and purchased equipment.
The focus of all good care is to determine need. Long-term care (
LTC) is not an extension of acute care—it is distinctive in its very nature. Because LTCcontinues for prolonged periods, it becomes enmeshed in the very fabric of people’s lives. Screening for LTCis one way in which the federal government and, in particular, a state attempts to eliminate unnecessary or premature placement of older or disabled individuals in nursing homes. There are two types of screening: those for a level of care ( LOC) involving just medical need and those that address additional factors of care need, which assess issues such as mental illness, development disabilities, and intellectual disabilities. The determination of LOCaddresses whether the individual’s care needs meet criteria for a stay in a nursing facility long term. This chapter provides an overview of long-term care screenings and how the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act ( OBRA) has and continues to impact this process.
This chapter examines the challenges and opportunities of adoption as well as the lifelong issues of the adopted child. Adoption from child welfare agencies typically occurs after foster care placement, when it becomes apparent that birth parents will be unable to reunite with their children. Media attention can be given to children who are free for adoption. Race and ethnicity are among the most controversial issues in adoption practices and typically focus on whether it is preferable to place a child with a family of a different race/ethnicity if a family of the same race/ethnicity is unavailable. Religious beliefs and faith also play a role in adoption. Many adoptive families tout the importance and success of international adoption. Adoption from foster care and international adoption can be very positive experiences for children and families. Although adoption disruption and dissolution occur infrequently, it is a traumatic experience when it does occur.
Research on brain structure and function in white-collar criminals is a notable gap in the neurolaw literature, a gap that was addressed for the first time in one recent research report. Neuroscience is suggesting a link between brain abnormalities and some types of criminal behavior, but it is not yet clear exactly what those abnormalities are. Research on brain function and criminality focuses primarily on levels of hormones and neurotransmitters involved in neuronal communication. The findings regarding connections between the brain and adult criminal behavior, preliminary as they are, have implications for social work practice, including prevention of criminal behavior as well as intervention with offenders. The consistent finding that the likelihood of antisocial behavior is greatest when genetically based brain abnormalities encounter harsh environments has implications for social policy beyond the criminal justice system.
This chapter focuses on the role that Adult Protective Services (APS) and related service systems play in protecting vulnerable older adults and adults with disabilities from abuse, neglect, and exploitation. It articulates policy issues connected to elder justice. The chapter also explores human rights issues related to elder abuse, aging, and disabilities, particularly how to balance rights to self-determination and safety when working with abused, neglected, and exploited older adults. APS operate within a continuum of services that challenge social workers in their efforts to respond effectively to elder abuse. In addition to knowledge of aging, disabilities, the dynamics of family violence and care giving, and community resources and skills in capacity assessment, working in multidisciplinary teams, advocacy, and systems navigation, social workers need commitment to values of self-determination and empowerment to guide their work in this system.
Although there has been an increase in federal spending on suicide prevention, the overall number of suicides in United States has actually increased over the past several years. It is important to understand the epidemiological trends, prevalence, and incidence rates of adult suicidality to understand why our effectiveness at reducing adult suicide rates has been so limited. Further, in order to improve existing prevention and intervention efforts, identification of relevant risk and protective factors among adults is essential. This chapter deconstructs myths and misconceptions related to suicide among adults, and provides an overview of empirically grounded strategies for effective assessment and treatment of this population. Although the presence of a diagnosable mental disorder, specifically depression, raises an adult’s risk potential, many adults without a diagnosis may be suicidal. Sociodemographic and psychiatric risk and protective factors should be assessed to aid in determining suicide risk to fully assess and plan treatment.
This chapter helps the reader to be familiar with the concept of an advanced specialization practicum. The overarching goal is to learn core competencies for assessment, intervention, consultation, and systems-level pedagogical supports. There is an increasing need for school psychologists with expertize in high school transition and postsecondary evaluations as well as dual enrollment collaborative evaluations. Clinic-based examples of specialized practica might include forensics evaluation through a law clinic or adjudicated youth programs, inpatient or outpatient hospital units, community mental health agencies, and private practice. The chapter describes important considerations for pursuing a variety of advanced practicum experiences, including coordinating postsecondary transition services, conducting forensic evaluations, and working within settings that utilize a medical model. To secure disability services at the college level, eligible students are required to submit acceptable documentation.
- Go to chapter: Advancing Human Rights: An Agenda for Social, Racial, Economic, Environmental, and Educational Justice
Advancing Human Rights: An Agenda for Social, Racial, Economic, Environmental, and Educational Justice
In Chapter 5, the authors review important concepts related to human rights and social and economic justice for school social work practice. This chapter defines human rights based on the principles outlined by the United Nations and reviews key concepts for enacting social justice as fundamental to human rights. The authors examine various forms of justice (e.g., social, economic, environmental, and educational justice) that impact students, their families, and their educational experiences. The authors pay particular attention to the plight of immigrant children or immigrant students. Further explored in this chapter is the role of discrimination in school settings that lead to disproportional representation of marginalized students. Reviews of critical race theory, Latin critical theory, and anti-oppressive social work practice are also highlighted in response to educational and social injustice.
This chapter focuses on Competency 2: Advance Human Rights and Social, Racial, Economic, and Environmental Justice within your field placement and beyond. The chapter begins with a brief overview of the conceptual theories and frameworks for social justice. This is followed by an exploration of the types and sources of power, social locations, social constructions, social processes, social identities, conflicts, and the ways these concepts interact in relation to the field experience. The chapter then reviews visions and strategies for change.
Advertisements differ from fictional media in that they are purposely intended to change behavior. This chapter shows how influential are advertisements on our behavior, what “tricks” do advertisers use to influence behavior, and how do the influences of advertisements compare to fictional media. Advertising is a subset of marketing. Advertisements are designed to make the public aware of a product, as well as to provide a pitch for why that particular product is superior to its competitors. False advertisements tried to entice consumers with lofty but untrue claims of benefits and to hide weaknesses or financial liabilities with their products. One form of advertising that has been controversial is product placement. One other area that is controversial is advertisement directed at children. Children are thought of as being particularly vulnerable given that they are less adept than adults at reality testing.
Social justice is the foundation for a democratic society and means that all people should have an equal chance to achieve economic, personal, and public success. Social change means that nonprofit organizations do not accept the status quo in the health, education, poverty, and other areas of public concern where they work. The problem in today’s financially uncertain world is that nonprofits have moved away from doing social change advocacy and concentrate more on their own staff, fundraising, and other management issues. This chapter traces the development and evaluation of a training program for present and future nonprofit leaders that combine management and social change skills and knowledge, which allow a nonprofit executive to take on social change challenges. The training considers social change as a part of the daily workload of a nonprofit and so it is integrated into each management course in the curriculum.
This chapter focuses on how nonprofit leaders can become nonprofit advocates. It provides an overview of the legal guidelines that govern nonprofit lobbying. The chapter details the process of developing a policy agenda, learning the legislative landscape, and executing the agenda. It reviews the tactics of effective lobbying, such as working in coalitions, meeting with lawmakers, and cultivating relationships with legislative allies. The chapter then presents case studies that describe the advocacy process that went into the expansion of the role of nurse practitioners as primary care providers and the expansion of the retail-based convenient care clinic model. It explores case study that discusses an assessment process on which advocacy for college access and success systems change can be built. The chapter examines how nonprofits can shape legislation by lobbying elected officials in ways that are in keeping with the Internal Revenue Service’s (IRS) definitions and requirements.
This chapter describes what happens after a concussion, from the immediate changes in neurochemistry to the signs and symptoms that may be present in the days, weeks, and months following the event. It discusses the neuropsychological effects, including cognitive, physical, emotional/mood, and sleep symptoms. This chapter also describes dangers signs, which could be indicative of a more serious brain injury. It explains possible long-term effects of concussion, including complications associated with multiple concussions, postconcussion syndrome, second impact syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and suicide. Concussion symptoms provide clues related to what is going on in the child’s or adolescent’s brain. Concussions often go unreported because individuals are unaware that an injury has occurred. Some may also consider the injury not severe enough to warrant medical attention. In some cases, the effects of concussions are so intense, and individuals become so distraught, that they become suicidal.
Social workers write many kinds of letters as part of their professional responsibilities. They write to clients, other agencies, government departments, institutions that fund social services, and accreditation bodies that oversee social work practice. These letters often include agency reports, professional requests, thank-you notes, professional endorsements, and so on. This chapter contains examples of letters written by social workers on behalf of their agencies. The criteria for letter writing include the qualities and skills associated with all professional writing, especially brevity, focus, the appropriate use of names and titles (depending on the letter’s purpose and relationship between writer and recipient), organization of content and appropriate formatting.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) presents one of the most urgent health care issues of our time. AD is a disease of the brain and mind, and as such, neuropsychology has an essential and evolving role to play in addressing this growing public health concern. Measurement of key cognitive functions, such as delayed recall of recently presented information, is crucial in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. In addition to the importance of advancing scientifically informed disease-specific measurement of cognition, neuropsychology has a growing role to play in the design and implementation of nonpharmacological interventions for AD. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD are senile plaques (SP), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and cell and synapse loss in multiple brain areas. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) has long been recognized to be present in the brains of AD patients.
Homeless Management Information Systems (
HMIS) are locally operated information technology systems used for collecting client-level data pertaining to the provision of homeless services. This chapter focuses on the use of available data for research, including applied research and evaluation (as with the HMISexample). As the chapter presents the use of available data please consider the following questions: Why might researchers use available data as opposed to collecting data themselves? What are advantages and disadvantages of relying on available data to answer research questions? And what are sources of available data that can be accessed by human services professionals in conducting applied research and evaluation? The chapter provides a brief description on: statistical data; content analysis; issues in content analysis; and assessment of available data analysis.
This chapter focuses on the analysis of qualitative data, like the audio recordings of Native American parolees. As you read this chapter please keep the following questions in mind: How can researchers and practitioners conduct qualitative analysis in a way that helps ensure findings are both valid and reliable? What parallels exist between qualitative analysis and professional human services practice? What unique insights can be obtained through qualitative analysis that may be difficult to obtain through quantitative analysis? The chapter discusses the data-analysis strategies as two types. Categorizing strategies attempt to generalize and abstract by generating concepts and even theories from the raw data. Contextualizing strategies attempt to treat the data as a coherent whole and to retain as much of the raw data as possible to capture the whole context. The chapter reviews both categorizing and contextualizing strategies in the form of coding, reflective remarks, and memos.
Focusing on challenging oppressive systems and structures and creating a more inclusive and egalitarian society, anti-oppressive theory and practice (
AOP) is an important recent addition to social work theory and practice. Developed over the last few decades in response to growing economic and social inequalities, AOPdirects social workers to explore the role that individual, cultural, and structural oppressive systems and contexts can play in creating and reinforcing human problems in our society. AOPalso provides important insights to help social workers address oppression within their own practice. As a lens for practice, AOPdraws from a number of theories and perspectives to provide social workers with a holistic framework for generalist social work practice that is congruent with social work values. While broad in scope, AOPprovides social workers with a dynamic and useful framework for working with diverse populations in a more inclusive manner and helps social workers to be more responsive to ever-changing practice and social realities. The chapter begins with an overview of AOPand describes some of the key concepts of this approach. A review of the opportunities and challenges of using AOPto guide practice in multiple settings is also discussed. A case study is used to illustrate how AOPcan be used in practice.
Anxiety disorders are the most common types of disorders that present in clinical and health care settings. Some of the subtypes (e.g., phobias and generalized anxiety) share both anxiety and fear responses, which are proposed to receive equivalent attention in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
DSM). Many changes proposed in current DSM-5 discussions will sharpen thinking about diagnostic considerations and systematic integration of prompts that will encourage exploration of cultural factors. However, the role of culture in shaping and defining fears and anxieties and the importance of an assessment of client strengths as well as pathological symptoms in the diagnostic process requires further development of diagnostic protocols, as would, for example, be provided with the Diversity/Resiliency This chapter describes key aspects of anxiety disorders, best practices and application of the Intersectionality/Resilience Formulation to Anxiety Disorders. It presents case studies and discussion questions and assignments.
In this chapter, we discuss practice-informed research (Competency 4) and practice evaluation (Competency 9). The focus is on applied research. The chapter covers formative and summative program evaluations, developing logic models, and the ethics of applied social work research. It also discusses informal practice evaluation and the use of supervision and client feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of your social work practice. In addition, it presents the use of single-subject designs to formally evaluate practice effectiveness as well as various types of measures that can be used with in formal and formal evaluations.
This chapter continues to delve into specific strategies and considerations for writing different sections of the narrative of the proposal. The chapter uses the National Institutes of Health as the model. It examines the approach, or how the investigator will go about answering the research questions or addressing the aims while conducting the research study or project. The approach section describes in sufficient detail the strategies that will be implemented to achieve the aim(s) of the study. This should include an unbiased approach in the design, recruitment of participants, procedures and measures, human subjects (if relevant), timeline, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results. When writing the narrative for this section, it is important to consider the lens of reviewers. Lastly, the chapter describes writing considerations for specific types of research designs that are commonly used by health professionals: the randomized clinical trial, the pragmatic clinical trial, community-based participatory research, and mixed method designs.
Relationships are important to our happiness but, as it turns out, things are not quite as straightforward as this proposition would seem to imply. The first important observation that we can make of this association is that the perception of social support appears to be more significant to happiness than objective indicators of social support. Objective indicators of social support such as number of friends and frequency of social activity show small and sometimes nonsignificant relationships with happiness. One possibility is that the correlation between satisfaction with one’s relationships and satisfaction with life is simply a product of method invariance. The chapter focuses on how different types of relationships affect happiness. But this approach has a tendency to ignore the common relationship dynamics that might impact happiness across relationships. It also focuses on three dynamics of happy relationships: capitalization, gratitude, and forgiveness.Source:
This chapter describes many of the theories that involve taxonomies. Most taxonomies of love begin in the same place: The language of love is examined, whether through an examination of film, literature, music, or firsthand accounts of people about their love life. The three primary love styles are eros, storge, and ludus. Eros is a passionate kind of love that is characterized by strong emotions and intense physical longing for the loved one. With storge, should the lovers break up, there is a greater chance than with other love styles that they remain friends. Ludus commonly is displayed by people who prefer to remain single and who see love as a game of conquest and numbers. A pragmatic lover hesitates to commit to a relationship until he or she feels confident of finding the right partner. The different love styles also correlate with some other personality traits.Source:
This chapter focuses on Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities. The chapter reviews assessment of the two mezzo-level client systems: organizations and communities. The chapter reviews organizational theories and five methods of organizational assessment. It also reviews community assessment approaches and community asset mapping.
This chapter reviews the growing published research on assessing risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and repeated IPV. It highlights research on the most commonly validated risk assessment instruments, and discusses some key practice issues relating to the use of IPV risk assessment. The chapter uses the term IPV in accordance with the current use of the term in the literature for physical and sexual assault against an IP, and uses gender-specific language when information pertains to female perpetrators, male victims, or same-sex relationships. Risk assessment instruments can be tools for furthering the understanding of IPV. Although the danger assessment (DA), spousal assault risk assessment (SARA), domestic violence screening instrument (DVSI), and ontario domestic assault risk assessment (ODARA) have good empirical support and are widely used, the field of domestic violence risk assessment is relatively new compared with other areas of forensic or psychological assessment.
Assessment and evaluation provide an opportunity for nonprofits and funders to discuss outcomes and program improvement concretely rather than abstractly. The current funding climate requires nonprofits to embrace evaluation, as a required means for achieving sustainability. This chapter provides an overview of key steps to support assessment and evaluation in addition to building the capacity and competency required to do so successfully. When we consider the scope and the depth of contributions from the nonprofit sector to society, at its core, we find the collective persistence to prioritize the preservation and well-being of human capital. Nonprofit leadership must prioritize assessment and evaluation, as they would any key human resource, budgeting, or fundraising matter. An often overlooked, yet critical step in assessment and evaluation involves the development of a theory of change (ToC) as a precursor to evaluation.
The assessment process involves gathering information so as to more fully understand the client, her circumstances, issues of culture, strengths, and needs. This information is then used to assist the worker and client in identifying goals and relevant interventions. Traditionally, assessment is focused on uncovering problems and identifying pathology. Today, however, social workers embrace a more holistic perspective taking into account a person’s strengths and capabilities as well as needs and challenges. Therefore, this chapter focuses on assessment and goal formulation using a strengths-based approach. The processes of gathering assessment information and formulating goals with clients should always be rooted in the values of the social work profession and the Strengths-Based Framework of Direct Practice. Of particular importance are concerns maintaining client’s self-determination and dignity. From a strengths perspective, continually examining the client’s strengths and incorporating them into the assessment and goal formulation process will lead to better outcomes.
This chapter provides an overview of some potential approaches for working with abused children and their families. Evidence-based practice is part of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics, which requires social workers to contribute to the evaluation of practice. Young children may respond well to music therapy, play therapy, and drama therapy. Emotional and psychological maltreatment can result in learning and behavioral problems in those who are abused. Intervention must focus on the entire family and provide physical, mental health, educational, and similar services to reverse the child’s developmental setbacks. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAA) provide avenues for overcoming of emotional problems, experience trauma, suffer insecure attachment, and live with a myriad of health problems. Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective means to decrease the psychological symptoms associated with the trauma of child maltreatment.
This chapter focuses on the first four stages of the problem-solving model: engagement, assessment, planning/contracting, and implementation for working with victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). It presents theories, tools, and models for empowering victims including the use of safety plans, crisis counseling, and long-term intervention strategies. For clients who do display evidence of IPV, a full-scale IPV assessment is to be completed, which consists of three parts: history taking; determining the primary batterer and victim; and lethality assessment. Among common problems of IPV victims are those of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and sexually transmitted disease (STD). There is an intersection between IPV and HIV/AIDS. Women who have been sexually and physically abused by intimate partners are more than three times as likely to report having a STD. The more abuse a victim suffers, the higher the risk for STDs and HIV.
Essentially, an assessment is a tight summary or a succinct view of a resident’s presenting strengths and problems or needs. Assessments are made in the conceptual framework of being “person-centered,” that is meeting the goals of the person as opposed to goals of therapists or others. In the case of nursing home residents, the Minimum Data Set 3.0 drives some of the assessment. The other part of the assessment is the collection of information about the resident’s formal and informal supports, prior life setting, and physical, emotional, and psychological resources. Social workers generally gather information for an assessment from several places: interviews with the resident, including the utilization of assessment tools; interviews with the family or responsible party; reviews of accompanying medical information; observation of the resident with others; and observations and assessments of other members of the care team.
This chapter begins by describing various practical assessment issues related to the effective implementation of emotion-centered problem-solving therapy (
EC-PST). It first describes major areas of clinical assessment relevant to EC-PSTincluding: assessment of general social problem solving abilities and attitudes; assessment of current and previous SPSactivities; assessment of problems, stressful difficulties, major negative life events, and/or traumatic events recently or currently experienced by a given client or client population; and assessment of outcome variables related to presenting problems and emotion reactivity vulnerabilities. The chapter then provides treatment guidelines to assist the reader to best determine what form or version of EC-PSTor training sequence should be implemented with a given individual. To foster effective treatment planning and clinical decision-making specific to EC-PST, it provides a series of frequently asked questions for therapists unfamiliar with this approach.
Assessment, one of the stages of social work practice, plays a key role in the delivery of effective services, and is used when selecting interventions, as well as monitoring the effectiveness of those interventions. This chapter examines assessment as both a product and an ongoing process, as is relevant to social work intervention in schools. Various types of assessments often utilized in school settings are explored, including social developmental study, functional behavioral assessment, classroom assessment, and school climate survey. This chapter includes an application of multidimensional assessment in the school setting. Additionally, the chapter describes assessment tools, including structured observations of students. It includes a discussion of the essential consideration of culture when assessing client systems of all sizes, including students, families, classrooms, schools, and communities.
This chapter discusses the factors and processes used in problem formulation, methods of involving clients/client systems in problem identification, techniques and instruments used to assess clients/client systems, and methods to incorporate the results of psychological and educational tests into assessment. It describes the risk assessment methods, the indicators and risk factors of the client's/client system's danger to self and others, and methods to assess the client's/client system's strengths, resources, and challenges. The chapter also describes the methods to assess motivation, resistance, and readiness to change, client's/client system's communication skills and coping abilities, and ego strengths. It explains the indicators of client's/client system's strengths and challenges, placement options based on assessed level of care, and the use of the diagnostic and statistical manual of the American Psychiatric Aassociation. The chapter finally explores the indicators of behavioral dysfunction, and methods to assess reliability and validity in social work research.
In both micro and macro practice, social workers must work with clients to identify the problem(s) to be addressed. This chapter discusses the factors and processes used in problem formulation. It explains methods of involving clients/client systems in problem identification, and techniques and instruments used to assess clients/client systems. The chapter discusses methods to incorporate the results of psychological and educational tests into assessment, to assess ego strengths, to assess organizational functioning, to obtain sensitive information, and to assess the client's/client system's strengths, resources, and challenges. It describes the communication theories and styles, the risk assessment methods, and the indicators of motivation, resistance, and readiness to change and of client's/client system's strengths and challenges. Finally, the chapter discusses methods to assess motivation, resistance, and readiness to change, to assess the client's/client system's communication skills and coping abilities, and to assess trauma, and placement options based on assessed level of care.
Assessment of academic achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics is a crucial part of most assessments of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents. This chapter discusses general issues that psychologists and other practitioners need to consider, including timing of the assessment in the second language (L2), cultural knowledge and bias, impact of oral language proficiency (OLP) on performance, and previous experience with the types of achievement testing done in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) immigrant-receiving countries. It explains specific academic assessment strategies, and interprets assessment results. The chapter provides a discussion of the diagnosis of learning disabilities (LDs). It analyses the strengths and problems associated with using discrepancy definitions, response to intervention (RTI), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and shows how the research on typical development and differentiating L2 and LD can be applied.
This chapter provides guidelines for psychologists to use when assessing behavioral, social, and emotional functioning of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents. It begins by describing the typical methods psychologists use to assess these areas, and analyzing them in terms of their effectiveness and validity with CLD children and teens. The chapter then proposes that psychologists use an adaptation of Mash and Hunsley’s developmental systems approach (DSA) to assess CLD children and adolescents. It then discusses specific issues involved in assessment of CLD children and adolescents who display inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive behaviors, externalizing behaviors, internalizing behaviors, and severe social problems. The chapter specifically addresses questions involving the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders with CLD children and adolescents to diagnose specific disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety and mood disorders, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
Assessment of intelligence and diagnosis of intellectual disability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents are controversial and challenging. This chapter discusses some of these controversial and challenging issues, and describes methods of assessing intelligence in CLD children and adolescents, that is, individuals whose language and cultural backgrounds are significantly different from the normative group of most standardized Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. It addresses several issues that psychologists need to consider when evaluating intelligence, including developing rapport; fluid and crystallized intelligence; adaptive behavior; using IQ tests to establish IQ/achievement discrepancies to diagnose learning disabilities; and determining when to use formal IQ tests. The chapter then turns to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of assessment techniques, including several types of intelligence tests, and offers alternative approaches for evaluating intelligence that can help to overcome some of the difficulties, including modifying test administration, dynamic assessment, and ecological assessment.
This chapter provides guidelines for psychologists on the assessment of oral language proficiency (OLP) of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and adolescents who study in their second language (L2). It discusses the issues that should be considered in the assessment of OLP, including the aspects of oral language that should be assessed in L1 or L2, the factors that should be considered in interpreting assessment data, and the advantages and challenges of assessing children in their L1. The chapter then describes specific methods for assessing OLP. It discusses issues involved in interpretation of data from OLP assessments, including a discussion of the diagnosis of a language disorder. The chapter also explains specific tasks and observational schedules that psychologists might find helpful when conducting assessments of OLP.
This chapter focuses on the asset-based approach to community development. It provides the different types of assets that create opportunities for a nonprofit organization, describes the asset-mapping process, and explains the relationship between asset mapping and financial sustainability. The chapter introduces the theories, concepts, and approaches of asset mapping as a strategy to help nonprofit organizations identify obvious and hidden assets within their communities, and mobilize them to connect issues and needs with assets, and foster the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. It examines the community context of nonprofit organizations in relation to community groups, neighborhoods, and larger social systems that influence quality of life. The chapter includes the concept and theory of community capacity, models of asset-based development for building community capacity, empowering individuals and groups, generating funding from new sources, and creating additional paths toward financial sustainability.
Several diverse and unique groups within society are at an elevated risk for suicidality. These at-risk groups are frequently isolated from the larger society, either through stigma, being disenfranchised, separateness, exclusion, and/or sociodemographic characteristics. Although a number of at-risk populations exist, this chapter focuses on three groups: the homeless, Native Americans, and incarcerated individuals. It highlights the prevalence of risk for each of these populations as compared to the larger societal norms. The chapter draws population-specific risk and protective factors from evidence-based research. Membership in at-risk groups poses additional issues and complications for individuals experiencing suicidality. In addition, mental health professionals working with individuals need to become aware of the unique risk and protective factors that may exert further influence on these groups. Professional and personal awareness is essential for mental health clinicians engaging, assessing, and treating members of these and other at-risk populations.
This chapter explores the contributions of attachment theory and the related development of mentalizing as concepts that provide the theoretical cornerstones for clinical interventions with children of substance-abusing parents (COSAPs) of all ages as well as for substance-abusing parents of infants. It describes attachment and mentalization-based treatment programs that have been developed to help people who have difficulty with affect regulation, resulting from insecure attachment with their substance-abusing parents. Attachment patterns developed early in life provide a template through which people approach their interpersonal relationships and regulate their feelings of pleasure and distress. Being unable to regulate feelings is a primary difficulty of people who develop substance-abuse disorders for which COSAPs are at high risk. Mentalization-based treatment holds the promise of providing a way to prevent and ameliorate emotional disturbance in children and adolescents from substance-abusing families and to teach new ways to regulate emotional distress in adult COSAPs.
This chapter describes the importance of individual differences and the importance of identifying a person’s strengths in addition to their problems or deficits. The goal is to assess the adolescent’s unique personality characteristics that can contribute to helping him change his behavior rather than focus on only assessing psychopathology and reaching a diagnosis. The notion of individual differences, that every person is a unique individual, is one of the foundations of modern psychology. The chapter focuses on the problems and troublesome nature of talking with these youngsters. It provides both rationales and practical strategies for conducting interviews that are useful for rehabilitation plans with court-adjudicated adolescent male juvenile delinquents. Juvenile delinquents present a special challenge to the professional mental health interviewer. A successful interview is defined by the types and amount of information revealed that is useful for treatment and rehabilitation.
This chapter discusses the background and significance sections of a proposal and describes how the literature review supports both. Over time, literature reviews have become more systematic and rigorous because investigators have understood the value and necessity of applying review methodologies that strengthen the scientific foundation of their study. Systematic and narrative reviews are sometimes confused because both provide a summary of existing literature on a research topic. This chapter compares the narrative review and the systematic review to differentiate between the two. The chapter also introduces the matrix method of organizing the literature search and provides a step-by-step outline for conducting a review of the literature, which includes activities that are indispensable to “owning the literature” so the grant writer can discuss major ideas and prior research conducted and ensure that the research questions asked are logically developed and based on a solid scientific foundation.
In order to embark on a journey of learning about race and racism, we must take some time to reflect on our own social identities and where they each stand in relation to the overarching mechanisms of individual, systemic, and structural racial oppression. Our social identities are relevant as they are largely responsible for how we experience the world and how society perceives us. Recognizing that each of our identities generally bears some semblance of power and privilege, while others do not helps in developing an awareness of the larger unseen mechanisms of racial oppression that are constantly operating. Knowing how these mechanisms impact our relationships on various levels can facilitate our learning and ability to challenge racism through advocacy and activism.
Book bannings and burnings have long been part of authoritarian regimes, whether aristocratic, fascist, or communist. During the 20th century many books, such as Tropic of Cancer, were banned in the United States because of their perceived “obscene” sexual material. Book bannings are intended to prevent others from reading a book. In recent memory, probably few books have come to epitomize the debates on banned books more than the Harry Potter series, written by J. K. Rowling. Books that are challenged are very often books that are targeted toward youth, yet still contain edgy content such as sexuality, violence, occult themes, profanity and drug references. The relative dearth of research on books is probably the result of several factors. Newer media such as video games, social media, and old standbys such as movies and television, tend to get most of the focus.
- Go to chapter: Barriers and Applications of Medication Therapy Management in the Homeless Population
Medication therapy management (MTM) remains a challenging endeavor to optimally implement in the homeless population. Working in various settings in collaboration with other health professionals, pharmacists are spearheading patient-centered efforts to optimize MTM and assist the homeless with attaining health insurance and continuity of care. In the case of MTM, homeless persons may face significant hardship in not only procuring and using effective drug therapy, but also in following-up with their providers and establishing provider–patient relationships that will help them to meet their target therapeutic goals. This chapter enumerates a review of the more common barriers to MTM in the homeless population, followed by a number of practical applications of MTM in optimizing the health of the homeless. In order to appreciate the value and role that stable MTM can offer the homeless, the chapter briefly discusses perspectives on homeless health and the concept of MTM.
Although there are certain key functions of social work in the nursing facility setting across the country, the role of the nursing facility social worker can vary from facility to facility even in the same state or county. This chapter highlights the social service functions that are important for residents and families. The role of the social worker in the long-term care setting has been delineated in many ways. Primarily, social work in nursing homes can be defined as involving the following: psychosocial; counseling; resource allocation; advocacy; planning and treatment; and mediation. The role of the social worker is enhanced by specialized knowledge in the following areas: aging and disabilities; medical and mental health diagnoses; medical diagnoses; nursing care; and social work training.
The research over the past 40 years led to the validation that living in a domestic violence family can produce psychological effects called the battered woman syndrome (BWS). Over the years, it has been found that the best way to understand violence in the home comes from listening to the descriptions obtained from those who experience it: victims, perpetrators, children, or observers. The understanding of domestic violence reported was learned from the perceptions of the courageous battered women who were willing to share intimate details of their lives. The theory of learned helplessness suggests that they give up the belief that they can escape from the batterer in order to develop sophisticated coping strategies. Learned helplessness theory explains how they stop believing that their actions will have a predictable outcome. The abuse of alcohol and perhaps some drugs is another area that would predict higher risk for violent behavior.
This chapter discusses how the criminal justice system treats battered women over the past 40 years. In the United States, advocates who began working with battered women in the 1980s believed that the most important step to end threats of violence was to punish the batterer and hold him accountable for his misconduct. To do this the legal system had to be encouraged to take action whenever domestic violence was raised. A study of the needs for victims of intimate partner violence commissioned for the Colorado legislature found that over two thirds of the women in prison stated that they had been abuse victims. Other areas of the civil rights laws have also been used to better protect battered women. The gender bias, including sexism and racism, for women coming before the criminal justice system continues to make it difficult for women to seek safety and protection.
Attachment theory provides a rich conceptual framework for understanding issues that arise in intimate partner violence (IPV) that have not been well studied in adults. Attachment was initially conceived as a neurobiological-based need for the purpose of safety and survival. Moreover, through the attachment process individuals develop an internalized set of beliefs about the self and others, known as “internal working models”. In adult relationships, attachment processes are activated by way of a cognitive-affective-behavioral triad. Woman who engage in the commercial sex industry have a much higher risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. An interesting phenomenon that ties use of pornography on the Internet together with the sexual abuse of women and children has been found in the legal community. It is known that early sexualization of children may cause interpersonal difficulties that may make it more difficult to recognize the cycle of violence engaged in by the batterer.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted studies about adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors in those who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The high numbers of women who report childhood abuse and IPV and receive no assistance in healing from the psychological effects obviously will be seen in medical clinics, often too late to stop a disease process that might have been prevented had their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses been dealt with earlier. One of the most negative and lasting effects of IPV on women appears to be the impact on the women’s body image, which is related to their self-esteem. Although the health care system has attempted to deal with battered women, in fact both the structure and function are not set up to be helpful, especially when chronic illnesses are exacerbated by environmental stressors such as living with domestic violence.
The first interagency intervention programs were organized by activists in the battered women’s movement in the late 1970s. They focused on effecting changes in the way the police and courts handle individual domestic abuse cases, and included a rehabilitation component as an integral part of a larger intervention strategy. These programs valued the existence of education or counseling for men as important, but viewed them as secondary to criminal justice reform work. Given that any program for batterers is situated in the same public sphere as the battered women’s movement, any definition of accountability ideally should include an explicit commitment to cooperate with shelter programs. The experience of the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP) and other communities has been that victim-blaming practices and collusion with batterers are likely to occur when battered women and shelter advocates are actively involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the intervention process.
Because the funding environment and the interests of agencies are constantly evolving, it is important to systematically monitor changes in agency policies and priorities. This chapter identifies the major sources of funding for health and human service professionals, discusses ways to learn about the current and future interests of various funding agencies, and shows how to interpret calls for proposals. The chapter describes different pilot research mechanisms that are available to individuals in the formative stage of their research careers. Based on this information, the reader will be in a better position to develop a plan of action for tracking potential funding opportunities and responding with competitive applications. The chapter helps the reader identify potential sources of funding, understand how to track funding opportunities, comprehend calls for proposals, and prepare for conversations with program officers.
One secret to the art of facilitative leadership is preparation. Social workers prepare prior to seeing an individual client and work with a group a team, community gathering, or multiagency task force requires prior preparation. All groups create norms and group culture whether spoken or not and it is generally harder to undo or alter the established norms of a less-than-productive established group. This chapter helps one to be personally and professionally ready to be a participant, a facilitative leader no matter what their position is in the group. It covers the infrastructure and support of the group’s operation from minutes and communication to the seating arrangement and meeting site. The facilitative leader will be sensitive to cultural rules about voicing opinions and to gender and status mores that may play out in the dialogue. In addition to preparatory empathy, the facilitative leader engages in self-reflection and reviews previous interactions with other group members.
Disaster preparedness is a necessary component in mediating and moderating negative effects of disasters. Disaster response historically has been handled at the local level, with federal assets only being requested in large-scale events. Personal preparedness was a concept initiated within the individual, with little prompting from outside entities. In the case of hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons, the process of storm intensification and movement is gradual enough that meteorologists can give advanced warning so that public alerts can be broadcast to communities at risk to initiate disaster response behaviors. Taking the steps to become prepared requires significant personal and financial resources. Persons who have difficult social situations and limited resources have a harder time implementing the steps necessary to be prepared. There is little research on evidence-based interventions to increase preparedness levels; however, there is even more of a scarcity of research evaluating whether preparedness levels influence outcomes.
This chapter reviews the first stages of the qualitative research study planning process by providing an introduction to qualitative data analysis. It begins with an overview of the three major approaches to qualitative data analysis (interpretive, social anthropological, and collaborative social). From there one will learn the fundamental components of content and thematic analysis, followed by descriptions of the different working phases of the qualitative data collection process (e.g., formulating research questions, identifying potential participants, sampling, using non-probability sampling methods, data collection and data transcription). The chapter concludes with a focus on the importance of transcribing one's own data (instead of using data transcription software) and sets the stage for the next phases of one's research study: data coding, data interpretation and data presentation.
This chapter presents cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based techniques specifically for practicum and internship students and other trainee clinicians. The author explains how he introduces behavioral activation to a kid. It is harder for a kid to be depressed if he is doing fun things, and easy for kids to understand having fun. The brain releases higher doses of mood-lifting neurotransmitters when we socialize, are physically active, and are doing novel, fun things. Behavioral activation is a tried-and-true stable of CBT. A common presenting complaint among depressed or stressed kids is poor sleep. In the author’s practice, kids most complain about a difficulty falling asleep, followed by a difficulty staying asleep. A good starting point is to consider what a good sleep schedule looks like. This chapter shows some of the strategies for combating insomnia. Collectively, the recommendations try to create a comfortable context, a relaxed body, and an unfettered mind.
This chapter introduces a behavioral therapy as a psychological approach to treatment that assumes that mental health problems derive from external forces that impinge the individual. It focuses on the empirical works of two major researchers, Ivan P. Pavlov and Burrhus F. Skinner, who developed learning theories that have serious implications for the treatment of emotional concerns. The chapter addresses the cognitive behavioral therapy movement, both historically and practically. Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, has taken the behavioral therapy movement the internal versus external locus of influence boundary. It addresses how cognition, which is an internal psychological process involving language and perception, can be associated with behavioral techniques to improve case conceptualization and to affect treatment outcomes positively. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapist will first and foremost address the cognition and will try to change the thoughts that are associated with problem behaviors.
This chapter provides an overview of best practices that managers and leaders exemplify. Analyzing practice behaviors of leaders and managers is valuable because behaviors are actions that contribute to the overall culture of an organization or academic institution. Although both roles have trenchant agendas, the commensalism between leaders and managers is how they build relationships with staff to promote viable changes and enrich organizational cultures. The chapter discusses managing ambiguous and complex organizational situations. It helps one to understand appropriate professional behavior and recognize how to promote and manage diversity and cross-cultural competence. The chapter identifies ways to initiate and facilitate innovative change processes. It promotes understanding of performance-based leadership and how to perform multiple roles. The chapter describes moral leadership and discusses the importance of team building, coalition building, and facilitating successful processes. The chapter describes how to foster relationships with staff.
- Go to chapter: The Best of Intentions: What Goddard Teaches us about the Development of Intelligence (and the Rough-and-Tumble World of Science)
The Best of Intentions: What Goddard Teaches us about the Development of Intelligence (and the Rough-and-Tumble World of Science)
This chapter presents a balanced overview of the man and his work to illustrate the complicated history of intelligence theory and testing. In 1904 the French government commissioned a group of experts to create a mechanism for identifying low-achieving students who would benefit from special education services. Henry Herbert Goddard brought the Binet-Simon scale to the United States and translated it into English, replacing mental level with mental age. Feeble-minded was the original term for the highest of the low-performing groups, but the descriptor came to be an all-encompassing term that confounded low intellectual functioning with other problems including epilepsy, substance abuse, and evidence of moral deficiency. Obama signed Rosa’s Law, mandating that the phrases mental retardation and mentally retarded be removed from federal health, education, and labor policy and replaced with intellectual disability and person with an intellectual disability.Source:
Risman posits a tension between an individual’s interest in relationship equality and a social system still imbued with gender expectations and assumptions. Given the growing evidence that equality enhances relationship satisfaction and stability, the author’s are interested in what processes or situations help couples move in the direction of greater equality. Couples vary widely in the extent to which gender is central to their family organization, but three fairly distinct patterns emerge: postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. The institutional tensions between gender hierarchy and the ideal of marital equality described in the scholarly literature on family are articulated frequently by couples. Three factors stimulate a move toward equality in couples are awareness of gender issues, dual commitments to family and work, and situational pressures. Traditional couples need help in defining the meaning of relational equality for themselves within external definitions of male and female roles.
This chapter discusses the components of a biopsychosocial assessment, the components and function of the mental status examination, biopsychosocial responses to illness and disability, and the biopsychosocial factors related to mental health. It describes the indicators of psychosocial stress, basic medical terminology, the indicators of mental and emotional illness throughout the lifespan, and the types of information available from other sources (e.g., agency, employment, medical, psychological, legal, or school records). The chapter then explains methods to obtain sensitive information (e.g., substance abuse, sexual abuse), the indicators of addiction and substance abuse, the indicators of somatization, co-occurring disorders and conditions, and the symptoms of neurologic and organic disorders. It explores the indicators of sexual dysfunction, methods used to assess trauma, the indicators of traumatic stress and violence, and common psychotropic and non-psychotropic prescriptions and over-the-counter medications and their side effects.
This chapter discusses the components and function of the mental status examination, biopsychosocial responses to illness and disability, and biopsychosocial factors related to mental health. It explores the indicators of mental and emotional illness throughout the lifespan, symptoms of neurologic and organic disorders, the dynamics and effects of loss, separation, and grief, and the impact of physical and mental illness on family dynamics. The chapter then describes the indicators of behavioral dysfunction and of traumatic stress and violence, the effects of life events, stressors, and crises on individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities, and the indicators and risk factors of the client's/client system's danger to self and others. It discusses the effects of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse on individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities, the characteristics of perpetrators of abuse, neglect, and exploitation, and common psychotropic and non-psychotropic prescriptions and over-the-counter medications and their side effects.
This chapter focuses on the racial identity development of Black or African American college students and of students who identity as biracial or multiracial. Although racial identity development theories do not support biological distinction between racial groups in the United States, they recognize how different conditions of domination or oppression of various groups have influenced their construction of self. In this chapter Black is used to refer to the racial identity of U.S.-born persons of African descent who may categorize themselves as Black, Black American, African American, or Afro Caribbean. The term biracial is used to describe persons with two parents of differing monoracial or multiracial descents. It is worth noting that some individuals may claim Black racial identity although neither of their parents identify as Black, such as the case of civil rights activist Rachel Dolezal. This chapter goes in depth into such alternative experiences of Black identity development.
For decades, televisions have been referred to as “boob tubes”. The “tube” side of the slang term referred to the huge cathode-ray tubes that powered the viewing screen in the Stone Age of television. This basic belief persists, that time spent on entertainment media, particularly visual media is associated with reduced intelligence or academic performance. On the other hand, some investigators are examining whether newer forms of media can be used to promote learning. This chapter examines these concerns and beliefs and elucidates to what degree consuming entertainment media influences our academic achievement. Children who had watched fast-paced cartoon had reduced executive functioning compared to an educational show, or to perform a controlled drawing task. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has released a host of policy statements on media issues. These have ranged from media violence to “Facebook Depression”, the belief that time spent on social media causes depression.
- Go to chapter: Book Outline by Parts and Domains From the Network for Social Work Management and the Council on Social Work Education Competencies and Practice Behaviors by Chapters
Book Outline by Parts and Domains From the Network for Social Work Management and the Council on Social Work Education Competencies and Practice Behaviors by Chapters
This chapter provides information on where the Network on Social Work Management (
NSWM) and the Council on Social Work Education ( CSWE) Competencies and Practice Behaviors appear in each chapter. It outlines by book parts and domains from the NSWMand the CSWEcompetencies and practice behaviors by chapters. Part one provides information on leadership and management theory and practices with the intent of developing effective leaders in social work, social work higher education, and human service organizations. Part two covers how to effectively manage human resources, the budget and other financial resources, and information technology and social media. Part three provides the knowledge base and theory from which to develop advanced administrative skills that are critical to organizational growth and survival. Part four covers the final domain from the Network for Social Work Management: community collaboration.
This chapter discusses a suggested game of working with borderline personality disorders in the partial hospitalization program (PHP)/intensive outpatient program (IOP) setting. It reviews the challenges of working with the borderline personality patient and parent. The chapter discusses the individual, group, family, and milieu issues that exist when the borderline personality belongs to the patient, and family issues that arise when the borderline personality appears in the parent. In terms of the individual challenges, whether in treatment planning or individual therapy, many borderline patients is treatment savvy but claim that nothing yet has helped their problems. In group therapy sessions, individuals with borderline personality play a number of extreme and difficult roles that are challenging for the clinician. Clinicians and treatment teams often experience countertransference toward patients with borderline personality disorder. The clinician and clinical staff should practice mindfulness and objectivity about patient attacks and maintain a professional demeanor.
This chapter presents a case study of a 16-year-old high school student who was identified as biracial and a product of divorce. He reported living with his White mother, stepfather, and younger half-sibling, and frequently visited with his Hispanic father and stepmother. The patient was an academically gifted student with a keen interest in science and math, and informed his interest in pursuing medical school in the future. He reported that beyond his family, his biracial identity did not influence him much. The patient was diagnosed with social anxiety, which appeared to be a more appropriate diagnosis. To accomplish the therapeutic goals, the author utilized a mixture of cognitive behavioral and humanistic strategies along with mindfulness with the patient. The mix of strategies was useful for the patient as he enjoyed the cognitive behavioral strategies that reminded him of his areas of strength.
This chapter shows the evolution of sex offender legislation at the local, state, and federal level and a brief overview of the policies throughout the past century. Knowledge about sexual behavior and identity was still in its infancy mid-century, and homosexuality was considered socially unacceptable and deemed a mental disorder. Much of the shifting focus on explanations of sexual violence in the 1970s and 1980s was a result of the rise of feminist researchers in the late 1960s. They began to focus on sexual behavior and the reactions to victims of sexual abuse. Several states have passed legislation allowing for the civil commitment of “sexually violent predators” (SVPs) to a psychiatric facility if they are assessed as having a mental abnormality or personality disorder and are dangerous to themselves or others. Some federal laws had a broader scope aimed at protecting children, particularly from sexual exploitation and trafficking.
- Go to chapter: A Brief History of Racism in the United States and Implications for the Helping Professions
The United States was founded on the principles of White supremacy. While there was a social contract enshrined in the Constitution and Declaration of Independence, there was an explicit racial contract that viewed only White people as fully human. Native Americans were subjected to genocide. Enslaved Africans were brought to the United States to work in cotton fields. Mexicans living in the Southwest lost not only their nationality but also their rights and were subjected to White terrorism. And Asians were legally barred from entering the United States, while those already in the United States experienced pogroms, social isolation, and were not allowed to become citizens. At the same time, White ethnic groups were encouraged to immigrate from Europe. While many, like Jews, Italians, and the Irish, were initially not considered White and experienced profound discrimination, they all eventually became White. This chapter traces these developments through different eras of
U.S.history and considers the meaning of this history for the work of helping professionals.
This chapter presents the development of the contemporary child welfare system in the United States, including the rich history of “child saving” of the 19th century. The initial era of child protection focused on private efforts to aid the children of the poor, if children received any protection at all. Concerns about child labor emerged in the 1800s in the United Kingdom. Clearly, not all children had the benefit of families that could provide for them in loving homes. Cases of child abuse could mean criminal prosecution of the abuser. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974 provided states with funding and clarified the definitions of abuse and neglect, including that all children under the age of 18 should be protected from maltreatment. Children of color are more likely to be living in poverty.
Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, authoritarianism, and religious fundamentalism can help predict who’s funny and who will appreciate different kinds of gags. Humor can have direct effects on physical health and psychological well-being; it can buffer folks against the slings and arrows of daily hassles. A keen understanding of ways that people develop jokes can helps to generate and appreciate them, which might make their social interactions more fun or help the occasional speech, toast, or presentation. Relaxation and meditation probably have a better impact on psychological well-being than humor does. Developing optimism would probably have a more direct effect on handling stress than becoming a comedian would. If the thought of being funny for its own sake makes sense, or at least means appreciating wit when it’s around, that’s the best justification for developing a good sense of humor.Source:
Student developmental models that can be used to understand various students in groups and their development include identity models, such as Chickering and Reisser’s model, as well as Levinson’s model; psychosocial models, such as Erikson’s model; intellectual and ethical developmental models, such as Perry’s model; moral developmental models, such as Kohlberg’s model; cognitive models, such as Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s models; and experiential models, such as Kolb’s model. For a broad and universal understanding, these and other student developmental theories are integrated into the group theory. This chapter provides a discussion of group theory in relation to various salient student development theories. It addresses a brief introduction about the need for inclusion and multicultural awareness for students and student groups. The chapter discusses aspects for understanding successful student group development regarding group types, group leader guidelines, group processes, and learning reflection of student groups through a multicultural lens.
This chapter presents a case study of a 14-year-old African American female. She had strong beliefs in the family system and felt protective of her children. She was in trouble at school due to bullying other students through social media comments. Her suspension from school for texting inappropriate pictures prompted her mother to bring her to counseling. The author’s initial concerns focused on addressing the patient’s feelings of sadness and hopelessness related to her low self-esteem. The therapeutic alliance is the foundation for counseling effectiveness. The counseling goal centered on increasing the patient’s self-esteem and decreasing her reliance on approval by friends via social media. Using brief solution-focused therapy with her was a good choice. By coming to terms with her feelings of sadness and hopelessness and recognizing the effect of her sexualized behaviors, the patient made positive changes in her lifestyle.
Many adults understand the pressures of having multiple responsibilities that require attention in a variety of life circumstances. Whether giving attention to work, friends, school, religious activities, romantic relationships, family, or even recreation, adulthood requires the ongoing ability to multitask a variety of expectations and responsibilities. Before reaching adulthood, each person has experienced influences that affect how we think, feel, and react to life’s circumstances. This chapter offers professionals and educators one model for understanding these influences and their impact on college students who oftentimes are transitioning to a new world of adult responsibilities for the first time. Ecological theory originally developed out of the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner (1977) within the field of developmental psychology. The concepts described in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory offer a number of important implications for supporting students in a college setting.
This chapter presents a case study of a Caucasian high school student, who came to counseling because of her anxiety about school, music, family, and relationships. Based on the initial interactions, the patient appeared to be an introvert with adequate social skills. Her hyperawareness of others’ opinions of her, her avoidance of criticism, her unrealistic expectations of herself, and her fear of not performing well contributed to an almost constant state of anxiety. She continued to process the anxiety she experienced when multiple stresses started piling up in her life. The patient agreed she needed to be honest with her mom about her stress. By counseling, she developed skills for managing anxiety, lessened her dependence, and strengthened her internal locus of control. The most effective strategy involved role-playing, because she needed concrete interventions, and it helped her build confidence in her ability to implement what one practiced.
This chapter defines the term “budget” and explains the importance of the budget for a nonprofit organization. It describes the different types of budgets and provides the most common budget approaches. The most common types of budgets are an operating budget, a cash budget, and a capital budget. The chapter also describes the process of developing a budget in a nonprofit organization and presents the relationship between the budget and financial sustainability in nonprofit organizations. Budget techniques are central to the successful operation of all organizations. A budget enables organizations to allocate scarce resources, control operations, and manage performance. A budget is the translation of an organization’s plans and priorities. The chapter helps the readers to learn the basic concepts and practices of budgeting in nonprofit organizations. It also explains the essential role played by budget approaches and techniques in the successful and sustainable operations of a nonprofit organization.
Developing a budget for a grant proposal is similar to writing other sections of the application. It takes time, careful thought, knowledge of technical budget terms, and an understanding of the budgetary requirements and restrictions of both the funding agency and the investigator’s institution. It is important to begin developing a budget for a proposal as early as possible in the grantwriting process. As soon as the investigator has identified a project idea and its specific aims, they should consider the budget to ensure that the proposal idea and aims are realistic from a funding perspective. This chapter helps the reader understand the language of grant budgets, consider the policies and requirements of both the agency and the reader’s institution, identify the components of a budget, write a budget justification, and determine when to use the National Institutes of Health (
NIH) modular budget format.
This chapter focuses on how some successful nonprofit agencies began building a new culture of partnership within the nonprofit sector through successful collaborations, less formal arrangements under which all involved parties maintain their independent governance but work together for a common cause. By taking a collaborative, community-based approach, the partnership has seen success in connecting residents to resources that allow them to improve their quality of life as well as in fostering capacity building and best-practice sharing in local nonprofit organizations. Recent trends underlying the accelerated collaboration in the nonprofit sector include: tremendous growth, squeezed balance sheets, greater demand for services, contracting budgets and sector contraction. Collaboration among nonprofits can take many forms, from coordinated programming to full-fledged mergers. The entrance of new intermediaries such as the Lodestar Foundation’s Collaboration Prize and Boston’s Catalyst Fund is likely to help step up the pace of nonprofit collaboration.
This chapter takes the longer view on how the reader can become positioned for success over time in order to make a significant impact on a particular area of healthcare. Although the chapter focuses on research, the points are relevant to systematically building grant funding to support training and educational innovation as well. The chapter discusses the importance of applying a strong work ethic, garnering support for the necessary resources to do impactful scientific work, mapping a strategy for writing sequential grant applications, and planning for the dissemination of the products of program of research. It also defines what is meant by a program of research. The chapter helps the reader identify resources and strategies for building a program of research and understand the expectations and the process for disseminating results of a program of research.
This chapter looks at the evolving technological environment around online learning. The Distance Education and Learning Technology Applications department (DELTA) at North Carolina State University, who are experts in instructional design and technology within the college setting, share concrete examples and discussions they engage in when working with new and seasoned instructors who are delivering content online. For students to learn from their experience there should be a conversational space, where students can reflect and talk about their experience together. It can be a daunting process to develop a course online, and particularly difficult to take a course that has community engagement and experiential learning at its core. The authors focused on the learner’s needs first and this lens drove the majority of the decisions. They recommend using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Model (TPACK) framework to help plan what technology can support the pedagogical and content knowledge.
Justice is a professional imperative that forms the bedrock of the social work profession. While most are familiar with the concept of social justice, social workers must also integrate social justice with economic and environmental justice. To engage in justice-informed practice, social workers must understand current debates regarding individual versus social responsibility, equality versus equity, among others. This chapter provides opportunities for students to understand how engaging in just practice may be enhanced, or limited, by our value base. In order to be justiceinformed practitioners, students must develop awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses in relating to other people and how personal discomfort and fear contribute to preconceptions as well as social oppressions. This chapter highlights the ways that self-awareness and critical thinking skills relate to social, economic, and environmental justice practice with individuals, families, and communities and how social identities shape our views and influence systems of oppression.
Residential placement is indicated when a youngster becomes unmanageable at home, when outpatient- or community-based treatment does not work, or when it is mandated by the court. In discussing the successful rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents, Romig emphasizes that the focus should be on teaching the delinquents skills “that have been documented as improving their subsequent community behavior”. Adolescents in general are often portrayed as being in a state of constant emotional upheaval and unwilling to communicate with adults in a socially appropriate manner. An effective residential program should provide opportunities for participating in special activities to enhance the self-esteem and skill development of its residents. Treatment at Ocean Tides is grounded in the belief that successful rehabilitation results from a combination of a good program and talented, committed people. At Ocean Tides, a positive orientation is used in a variety of specific ways in the program to rehabilitate the residents.
Cancer surveillance has always been a primary care task and cancer is often first detected in the primary care setting. A patient’s experience with a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment is often complicated by the presence of preexisting conditions that require management and vigilance throughout the treatment of cancer. Aging physiology coupled with comorbidities, whether related to cancer or its treatment, contributes to the complexity of cancer care across the cancer continuum. Although cancer treatments have improved the survival time for cancer patients, some cancer-directed therapies can cause adverse side effects, also known as late effects, which may appear a few months to years after cancer treatment has been completed. The most common forms of cancer treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplant. Tumor stage is important for determining the severity of a patient’s cancer diagnosis and the decision of how to treat a cancer.