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In human cancer, the role of genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and cellular repair mechanisms are becoming increasingly apparent. Recent studies have elucidated significant variations of the genetic codes that underpin cancer development in a variety of cancer subtypes. Genetic variations provide a backbone upon which cancer cells can adapt to overcome both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms designed to limit the growth of abnormal cells. This chapter provides an overview of the types of mutations, various epigenetic modifications, DNA repair mechanisms, and their relationship to the development of cancer, as well as various techniques utilized for the detection of these genetic alterations in cancer. With the development of new, advanced, and sensitive molecular techniques like next-generation sequencing and digital droplet polymerase chain reaction, our understanding of cancer biology is rapidly developing, and a critical appreciation and knowledge of these cancer-associated changes will likely lead to continued development of more effective therapies.
This chapter discusses the complexity of the role of the school social worker. It describes how to respond collaboratively and effectively to the variety of issues presented within public schools. The chapter provides a brief history of social work services in schools. It addresses recent demographics and trends and the scope of the problems in this specialty area. Specific legal and ethical issues of concern in the practice of school social work, and issues of assessment, prevention, and intervention are also discussed. The chapter describes the types of services provided through social work in schools, ranging from traditional child study team work to reentry services for students returning from correctional and/or treatment facilities. The chapter further examines the origin and development of school social work services in the United States.
- Go to chapter: Thinking Outside the Box: Tackling Health Inequities Through Forensic Social Work Practice
This chapter emphasizes the importance of improving health literacy. It describes the incorporation of cultural competence standards in forensic social work practice perspectives. The chapter also explains how to promote engagement of informal support networks in promoting health and well-being among diverse groups. Disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have long been overrepresented in the criminal justice systems. The elimination of health care disparities and ensuring the health care delivery system is responsive to minority groups is a social justice issue. The roles and function of forensic social workers that provide services to persons with these cultural norms can be expanded using a broader ecological framework and the applied social care model to develop intervention strategies and care plans with incarceration persons. Identifying and incorporating culturally appropriate practice approaches are challenging, yet necessary undertakings for forensic social workers.
This chapter examines the significance for vulnerable groups of social welfare policies and advocacy to meet basic human needs. It identifies key policies and programs established to meet needs of income, food, and shelter. The chapter encourages students to begin using research and statistical data to assess needs and adequacy of programs. It also identifies social work’s role and skills in addressing needs of vulnerable groups. The chapter focuses on the key role of social work professionals in establishing, maintaining, and improving programs needed to ensure a basic level of income for families with children (i.e., income security), access to adequate nutrition (i.e., food security), and access to adequate shelter (i.e., housing security). It also discusses the challenges faced by social workers who serve populations with the basic human needs, including offenders and victims of crime.
This chapter discusses in detail the scope of the problem of child maltreatment, and current evidence-based assessment and interventions in the child welfare system. It covers the history of child protection legislation, and describes the foster care crisis in the United States, including the foster care to prison pipeline, the impact of parental incarceration, and current policies such as reforms in the juvenile jurisdiction system. Additionally, trauma-informed care and the juvenile jurisdiction system is examined in light of recent trends to more closely align systems of care with neuroscience research and best practices for serving children and adolescents. The chapter reviews the relevant theoretical and practical approaches, including the application of neuroscience research, trauma-informed care, father engagement, and addressing secondary trauma among child welfare professionals. It also presents a case study and challenges of working with incarcerated fathers who may have children in the child welfare system.
This chapter discusses the concepts, underlying principles, benefits, and challenges of using “whole-family” approaches in social work. It articulates the theory and skills associated with family engagement as part of a human rights and social justice framework for social work practice in forensic settings. The chapter describes the ethical imperatives and evidence base supporting the use of family group decision making (FGDM) in regulatory settings. It engages whole families as partners in the use of FGDM in child protection and youth justice. The chapter also describes the theory, empirical support, and skills in use of FGDM, or family group conferencing (FGC). It concluded with an example of how alert forensic social workers must be to the potential for their best intentions to collide with the tenants of responsive practice and a quote from a child protection social worker who worked closely with the author on a pilot project using FGC.
- Go to chapter: Forensic Research and Evaluation: Program and Policy Interventions That Promote Human Rights and Social Justice
Forensic Research and Evaluation: Program and Policy Interventions That Promote Human Rights and Social Justice
This chapter describes how forensic social workers can use the knowledge and skills of intervention development to design or evaluate existing interventions with forensic populations or settings, and about funding for their cause. It articulates the language of program and proposal development to prepare forensic social workers to be the creators of programs needed for forensic populations. The chapter enables preparing forensic social workers to possess basic competencies for understanding the language and practice of program development and evaluation of forensic social work interventions. The chapter provides an overview of the different parts of the logic model and how it can be linked to program development and evaluation. It provides questions related to the common types of evaluation, which include a needs assessment and process, outcome, or efficiency evaluations. The chapter also reviews forensic intervention development using a human rights and social justice systems approach.
This chapter defines restorative justice and discusses the various forms that this approach to wrongdoing and offending may take. It reveals the relevance of restorative interventions to social work practice. The chapter recognizes pioneers in the field of restorative justice with special emphasis on social work theorists. It describes the various forms of restorative justice from micro level victim-offender conferencing to community-level healing circles to macro level reparative justice. The chapter argues for greater social work involvement in shaping policies that include restorative justice options in situations of wrongdoing and social work involvement in facilitating victim–offender and anti bullying conferencing. The chapter also describes aspects of restorative justice that address competencies related to advocacy for human rights and issues of spirituality.
Cancer patients may experience brain injury due to primary brain tumors, metastatic brain tumors, radiation related effects, and leptomeningeal disease. This chapter focuses on the factors unique to the rehabilitation of patients with brain tumors. Metastatic brain tumors are the most common intracranial tumors in adults. The most common primary cancers to metastasize to the brain include lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. As the management of these cancers has evolved (including the use of immunotherapy), their systemic manifestations have shown more response to treatment. Brain cancer patients benefit from rehabilitation and improve at similar rates to noncancer brain injury patients. Cancer treatments including radiation and chemotherapy can contribute to functional impairments. The Stupp Regimen is the most commonly used initial treatment, which includes radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy. Many glioma patients are receiving the Stupp Regimen while receiving rehabilitation.