This chapter opens with the challenge Nightingale and her close colleagues faced in establishing nursing as a profession when the ethical standards of the existing (secular) nurses were (generally) so low. The ethical issues she had to deal with in her own school, soon after it opened, are discussed three thorny problems with appointments. Anyone reading Nightingale’s writing on nursing will be struck by how often and how forcefully she insisted on high ethical standards. The reason for the emphasis on ethical standards is obvious enough in the task Nightingale faced in raising the new profession from its disreputable past. The International Council on Nursing (ICN) established its Code of Ethics in 1953, again based on Nightingale principles. It identified four responsibilities: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health, and to alleviate suffering. The code asks nurses not only to act ethically themselves, but to challenge unethical practices.
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The caring nature striven for is that which has the potential to “gently shake the world”, as Gandhi said, and to move healthcare toward the whole-person, whole-planet healing that Nightingale. This work continues to be an invitation to pause, intentionally create space for reflection and intention, and move into the world with a refined sense of purpose, presence, and authentic power. Caring Science is not the property of a particular profession or system; it does not belong to the annals of nursing any more than the halls of medicine, finance, or law. Nurses have simply been granted the privilege of ushering the texture of its message into the stratosphere; a nursing lens has been the kaleidoscope of sacred human interaction chosen for this tender phase of its being and becoming.
Muslims believe that Islam is the completed and perfected religion that incorporates Judaism and Christianity. The primary objectives of Islamic law are protection of life, religion, body and mind, property, family, and lineage. Islam is a monotheistic religion that believes in one God, Allah. Faith and health were described by Prophet Mohammad as the most important attributes one could possess. Disease can be mainly physical, but often there can also be spiritual and mental components affecting the disease process. Muslims address illness and suffering first by following the religious prescriptions for healing alongside medical therapies. Muslims pray for strength, hope, and patience for the sick, potentially in the presence of the sick person, who is comforted by this. Respecting the modesty of Muslim women is paramount. Keep their bodies covered as much as possible during nursing and medical procedures.
This chapter talks about mentor intelligence as a source of excellence. In order to perform successfully in a complex profession like nursing, there are beginning threshold requirements such as intellectual intelligence (IQ) and specialized knowledge and skills. Further, it is thought that working at a high level of excellence in one’s field requires emotional intelligence. However, the lack of Mentor Intelligence presents major impediments in developing one’s full potential to the highest level. The chapter provides ten tips for raising nurse’s mentor intelligence. The tips include such as cultivating the three ingredients of Mentor Intelligence, practicing nursing profession in a culture of mentorship and collegiality, sharpening nurse’s communication skills and their message, networking, becoming a mentor-leader, and being a “forever” student of mentoring, and developing the art of mentoring others. Three ingredients of Mentor Intelligence include mentoring mentality; mentoring lens; and mentoring momentum.
Communication is one of the most essential skills required to provide quality evidence-based care for the dying and their families. Dying individuals and their families need nurses to convey their humanity and accessibility to gain their trust and be comforted during their final journey. Another method to improve communication was developed by Wittenberg-Lyles, Goldsmith, Ferrell, and Reagan called the COMFORT nursing initiative. Mindful presence is essential as it emphasizes the use of empathy, active listening, demonstrates an understanding of cultural humility, employs effective nonverbal communication techniques, and acknowledges the nonverbal cues of the individual receiving care. This chapter applies these communication techniques to the sample case of Steven’s end-of-life care, one can easily see how essential communication was to providing the resources and support for Steven, his family, and the nurses providing care.
Career opportunities are projected to grow faster for nursing than all other occupations through 2026. The advantage of a career framework with multiple stages is that one doesn’t start out expecting to be fully developed at the beginning. Mentoring is needed throughout a career, not just at the start. This chapter provides an overview of the career model that the author has fleshed out over time, greatly influenced by Dalton, Thompson, and Price’s classic article (1977) on stages of a professional career and subsequent work. There are five career stages whereby the individual moves from: (a) becoming prepared, to (b) demonstrating the ability to work independently and interdependently in achieving professional goals, then (c) developing others and the home institution, then (d) advancing the profession and healthcare, and eventually (e) daring to be a truth teller. Exerting leadership presupposes complete career development, going through all five career stages.
Anxiety is a global health problem. Anxiety predisposes individuals to many physical illnesses, mental health issues, behavioral disturbances, and inappropriate reactions. In professions such as nursing, the work environment can increase anxiety levels. Personal growth for the individual has been cited as being one of the consequences of anxiety identified. Empirical referents are classes or categories of actual phenomena that by their existence or presence demonstrate the occurrence of the concept itself. There are many valid and reliable instruments that measure anxiety, such as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hospital Admission Depression Scale (HADS). Anxiety is depicted through an array of symptoms that range from behavioral to psychological. The presentation of attributes related to the concept of anxiety, along with its antecedents and consequences, may enable registered nurses to identify anxiety when present in self and/or colleagues and thus provide the necessary support.
Since ancient times, self-knowledge has been regarded as the key to effective leadership. No nurse is good at all aspects of nursing; therefore, each nurse needs to figure out what will be her or his area of special contributions. Instead of focusing largely on weaknesses, organizations should identify their employees’ strengths for the purpose of using them strategically and then managing to those strengths. It is better to admit one’s limitations early on, and deal with them, rather than spend years trying to hide them. No one really likes criticism, but criticism is the lifeblood of professional development and improvement; therefore, leaders need to know how to give and accept criticism in an ego-enhancing way. Self-knowledge is never complete; it is achieved through ongoing introspection, candor, figuring ourselves out in different situations, and looking at ourselves through the eyes of others.
Heart failure (HF) is a terminal disease. Predicting the illness trajectory is much harder in HF than in cancer. Nursing has a key role in the management and outcomes of patients with HF. Patients often turn to nurses for information on their disease especially in the end stages of the disease. A coordinated effort by nursing has been developed as to how to help patients with not only the physical symptoms of HF but also the psychosocial aspects. In caring for the patient with advanced HF, there are clinical, evidence-based therapies that should drive clinical decision making. This chapter helps the reader to understand the disease of HF: how important disease management is, how nurse-based HF interventions can lead to positive outcomes, and, most importantly, how to communicate with patients and families regarding their treatment options and what is important to them in the final phase of their life.
This chapter explores all aspects of American health care and its impact on a wide variety of health communication contexts and audiences. It discusses how health care delivery is taught to providers, how disease and wellness are communicated to patients, how providers share information with each other, and how health care organizations disseminate messages to members, stakeholders, and/or customers/clients/patients. The chapter focuses on health care pedagogy and how it is impacted by and/or alters health communication and health care delivery. It discusses the various ways medicine and nursing cocultures can be identified and categorized, through their artifacts, goals, communication behaviors, education, and so forth. The reality that nursing and medicine cocultures share languages, common goals, and values are some of the reasons why health care is as productive and effective as it is in America today.