This chapter presents the anatomy review of the human heart. The human heart is a hollow four-chambered muscle that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The heart lies in the mediastinum in the thorax, pointing toward the left of the midline. The heart consists of four main layers: the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart muscle. The middle layer of the heart is called the myocardium. The innermost layer of the heart is the endocardium. The heart is divided into right and the left side. The right side of the heart contains the right atrium and right ventricle. The left side of the heart contains the left atrium and left ventricle. The heart has four valves: tricuspid valve, mitral valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve; acting as tiny doors that keep the blood moving in one direction.
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The chapter explores how to measure the electrical direction for the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave, as well as for other forces. It provides a method for determining the direction of the electrical force for any of these waves, or complexes, on the electrocardiograph (EKG). The heart produces electrical and mechanical energy on a continuous basis. Both forms of energy come from specialized cardiac muscle fibers. These fibers provide electrical signals and mechanical energy that physically pumps the blood. Although the EKG does not show that mechanical energy, it can be used to measure a variety of electrical events. When a force is abnormal in size or direction, it may indicate that the specific part of the heart producing the force is abnormal. Therefore, learning the normal electrical direction of forces in the heart provides a simple and scientific way of understanding and interpreting an EKG.
This chapter explains various types of heart blocks such as premature atrial contraction, sinus arrest and asystole. It explains various types of pacemakers such as ventricular pacemaker and artrial pacemakers. Junctional rhythm is a regular rhythm. A P wave is frequently not seen because the rhythm originates in the AV junctional node. Junctional rhythm may be a manifestation of digitalis toxicity, sick sinus syndrome, and acute inferior wall infarction. Pauses are most commonly caused by premature atrial contractions (PACs) that do not conduct down to the ventricle and generate a QRS complex. These are called nonconducted PACs (NCPACs). Asystole is a prolonged period of no electrical activity. Cessation of function of the sinus node is called sinus arrest. Normally, when sinus arrest occurs, another pacemaker must take over, such as the junction or the ventricles. Ventricular pacemaker rhythm demonstrates a vertical electrical artifact (EA) at the beginning of the QRS.
This chapter presents the case examples of pressure and volume overload on the left ventricle and provides list of criteria for the diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) on the electrocardiogram (EKG). It also describes and explains how to identify ST changes in LVH and LVH simulating anterior wall infarction on the EKG. LVH refers to an increase in the wall thickness or dilation of the left ventricle. LVH is often the result of increased pressure, or volume, within the left ventricular chamber. Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve allows the backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium. The most common cause of pressure overload is hypertension (HTN). Hypertrophy of the left ventricle increases the amplitude of the left ventricular forces, because more mass generates more electricity. In LVH, the frontal plane, the horizontal plane, or both may show increased QRS amplitude.
- Go to chapter: Social Work and the Law: An Overview of Ethics, Social Work, and Civil and Criminal Law
This chapter demonstrates how social work ethics apply to ethical and legal decision making in forensic social work practice. It discusses the context of social work practice in legal systems. The chapter also details the basic structures of the United States (U.S.) civil and criminal legal systems. It lays the foundation for the criminal and civil court processes in the United States and introduces basic terminology and a description of associated activities and progression through these systems. The chapter focuses on providing an introductory, and overarching, picture of both civil and criminal law in the U.S. and introduces the roles social workers play in these systems. It focuses on the ETHICA model of ethical decision making as a resource and tool that can be used to help forensic social workers process difficult and complex situations across multiple systems.
This chapter explains the theoretical basis for motivational interviewing (MI). It reviews the empirical evidence for the use of MI with diverse populations in forensic settings. MI involves attention to the language of change, and is designed to strengthen personal motivation and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. It is now internationally recognized as an evidence-based practice intervention for alcohol and drug problems. MI involves an underlying spirit made up of partnership, acceptance, compassion, and evocation. The chapter discusses four key processes involved in MI: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. It also describes five key communication microskills used throughout MI: asking open-ended questions, providing affirmations, offering summarizing statements, providing information and advice with permission, and reflective statements.
- Go to chapter: When the Unthinkable Happens: A Mindfulness Approach to Perinatal and Pediatric Death
This chapter explores traumatic grief and loss and discusses various treatments for it. It focuses on mindfulness-based interventions for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Traumatic grief appears relatively responsive to the psychosocial approach, particularly when it includes exposure elements, such as retelling the story of the loss, reutilization, and building tolerance to the emotions associated with loss. More recently, Thieleman, Cacciatore, and Hill have presented evidence for a mindfulness-based, psychosocial approach for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Western culture’s interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially, and practices have been integrated into a variety of general, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), mindful- ness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Of all mindfulness practices, one of the most cost-effective strategies to help providers working with bereaved parents is meditation.
This chapter highlights key elements of adolescent growth and development and outlines communication strategies to serve as a guide for health care clinicians. It provides a summary of research findings on the adolescent female bereavement response to an early pregnancy loss prior to 20 weeks gestation like miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or elective termination. To gain a greater understanding of the adolescent response to pregnancy loss, it is helpful to review normal adolescent emotional and psychological development. Erik Erikson’s classic developmental theory offers an outline of the psychosocial tasks of adolescents. Blos described three separate phases of adolescence: early, middle, and late, which evolve throughout the transition from childhood to adult hood. Sanders’s integrated bereavement theory has been used to organize grief responses and the bereavement process. When adolescents have experienced an early pregnancy loss they will experience grief responses that are physical, emotional, social, and cognitive in nature.