This chapter aims to help clinicians learn stabilization interventions for use in the Preparation Phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment. Using these interventions will aid clients in developing readiness for processing trauma, learning how to manage symptoms of dissociation, dealing with affect regulation, and developing the necessary internal cohesion and resources to utilize the EMDR trauma-processing phase. Earlier negative experiences stored dysfunctionally increase vulnerability to anxiety disorders, depression, and other diagnoses. When assessing a client with a complex trauma history, clinicians need to view current symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression as reflections of the earlier traumas. The chapter outlines the strategies dealing with dissociative symptoms, ego state work, and internal stability that help clinicians to develop an individualized treatment plan to successfully guide the client through the EMDR phases of treatment.
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- Go to chapter: Stabilization Phase of Trauma Treatment: Introducing and Accessing the Ego State System
This chapter describes the current trends toward greater gender equality in couple relationships, what keeps old patterns of gendered power alive, and why equality is so important for successful relationships. Relationship vignettes like the ones just described are common. Sharing family and outside work more equitably is only part of the gender-equality story. Gender ideologies are replicated in the way men and women communicate with each other and influence the kind of emotional and relational symptoms men and women present in therapy. Stereotypic gender patterns and power differences between partners work against the shared worlds and egalitarian ideals that women and men increasingly seek. The concept of relationship equality rests on the ideology of equality articulated in philosophical, legal, psychological, and social standards present today in American and world cultures. The four dimensions of the relationship equality model are relative status, attention to the other, accommodation patterns, and well-being.
Infant depression has been studied as a phenomenon within psychology and psychiatry since the early 1970s. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health Disorders (fifth edition; DSM-5) eliminated the terminology “disorders usually classified in infancy, childhood, and adolescence” and classified them as neurodevelopmental disorders removing infantile depression as a discrete condition. Pediatric primary care providers (P-PCPs) who provide care to infants need to be familiar with the best available evidence for recognizing signs of infantile depression to avoid missing the opportunity for early recognition of this problem. Recognizing the signs of infant and/or maternal depression affords the opportunity for P-PCPs to implement strategies to intercept negative emotional infant development to positive emotional outcomes. This chapter discusses research on infant depression, signs and symptoms of infantile depression, and provides strategies to enable mothers and other caregivers to actively engage the emotional development of infants throughout the first year of life.
Faith community nurses (FCNs) are called upon to provide spiritual care as well as traditional nursing care, both in institutional settings and in the home, to congregants who suffer from chronic illness, have had surgery, or have had an accident. After conducting a holistic assessment of a patient who is chronically ill, a FCN can help the patient and his or her family copes with the disease and can provide comfort by listening, just being present, reading scripture, and/or praying. Sudden, unanticipated acute illness may pose serious emotional and spiritual problems related to fear of possible death or disability. Psychological depression may result from severe pain or fatigue. The leading chronic diseases in developed countries include arthritis, cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and stroke, cancer such as breast and colon cancer, diabetes, epilepsy and seizures, obesity, and oral health problems.
This book provides the foundations and training that social workers need to master cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). CBT is based on several principles namely cognitions affect behavior and emotion; certain experiences can evoke cognitions, explanation, and attributions about that situation; cognitions may be made aware, monitored, and altered; desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. CBT employs a number of distinct and unique therapeutic strategies in its practice. As the human services increasingly develop robust evidence regarding the effectiveness of various psychosocial treatments for various clinical disorders and life problems, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon individual practitioners to become proficient in, and to provide, as first choice treatments, these various forms of evidence-based practice. It is also increasingly evident that CBT and practice represents a strongly supported approach to social work education and practice. The book covers the most common disorders encountered when working with adults, children, families, and couples including: anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorder, sexual and physical abuse, substance misuse, grief and bereavement, and eating disorders. Clinical social workers have an opportunity to position themselves at the forefront of historic, philosophical change in 21st-century medicine. While studies using the most advanced medical technology show the impact of emotional suffering on physical disease, other studies using the same technology are demonstrating CBT’s effectiveness in relieving not just emotional suffering but physical suffering among medically ill patients.
The case for major depression being an inflammatory condition has been advanced in the literature on neuroscience as well as in the literature on psychiatry. The correlational data suggested that depressed persons exhibit signs of systemic inflammation. One way to induce inflammation in the blood is to place a piece of the wall of a bacterium in the paw of an animal. There are other ways to induce systemic inflammation besides introducing fragments of a bacterial cell wall. Consistent with the view that behavioral depression involves inflammation, particular alleles for genes involved in the immune system have been identified as risk factors for depression. Mediterranean diets are associated with lower levels of inflammatory factors and lower levels of depression. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) releases factors that will inhibit the release of inflammatory factors from white blood cells and from the liver.
This chapter discusses the social psychology of humor, starting with a walk through how the presence of other people can make things seem funnier. It shows how humor can have a positive or a negative tone and it can focus on ourselves or on those around us. Self-enhancing humor makes stress tolerable. It can keep folks from viewing minor annoyances as unbearable disasters. The chapter sketches how humor can function to maintain the status quo. People who report using self-enhancing humor show less anxiety, neuroticism, and depression; better psychological well-being and self-esteem, and more extraversion, optimism, and openness to experience. When it comes to hierarchies, getting a feel for who’s cracking jokes and laughing can communicate who’s top dog. The chapter finally focuses on gender differences, and then sees how humor contributes to developing friendships, finding a date, and maintaining an intimate relationship.Source:
Behavioral Pediatric Healthcare for Nurse Practitioners:A Growth and Developmental Approach to Intercepting Abnormal Behaviors
This book uses a developmental approach to behavioral health for the entire pediatric population. Each section of this book is dedicated to the traditional developmental ages. Each opening chapter within the specific developmental age provides information for pediatric primary care providers to assess, identify, and intercept potential behavioral health problems through the use of a developmental approach to behavioral health assessments (infants, toddlers, preschool-age children, school-age children, and adolescents,). Assessment, screening, intervention, and treatment strategies are provided through analysis of the best available evidence by experts in the field of pediatric practice. Cutting-edge topics written by experts in the fields of pediatric primary care and pediatric behavioral health are highlighted in this book and include: infant brain development and outcomes from ineffective parenting; social determinants of health and effect on behavioral health; building resiliency in children; infant depression; behavioral problems in children with inborn errors of metabolism; autism, global developmental delays, and genetic syndromes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidities. The topics also include bullying social media and behavioral health; eating disorders; the autistic adolescent in residential treatment facilities; child behaviors within military families; foster care; toxic stress; trauma-informed care; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent; and holistic and integrative care, and holistic care, integrative medicine, and behavioral health. Within each developmental section, there are case studies that provide exemplary practices for assessing, diagnosing, and evaluating children presented with the particular behavioral health problem. Case studies include the following topics: failure to thrive in infancy; infant colic; toilet training; sleep disorders in children with autistic spectrum disorder and ADHD; toddler impulsive behaviors; nail biting; and adolescent substance abuse.
- Go to chapter: Overview of the Problem-Solving Therapy Process, Introductory Sessions, and the Case of “Megan”
This chapter presents the therapy manual detailing the specific treatment guidelines encompassing problem-solving therapy (PST). It is important during the initial sessions with a new client to develop a positive therapeutic relationship. Upon obtaining a brief version of the client’s story, it becomes important early in treatment to provide an overview of PST that includes a rationale for why it is relevant to, and potentially effective for, this individual. Problem solving can be thought of as a set of skills or tools that people use to handle, cope with, or resolve difficult situations encountered in daily living. Research has demonstrated that social problem solving is comprised of two major components. The first is called problem orientation. The second major component is one’s problem-solving style. The chapter also presents the case of a 27-year-old woman suffering from multiple concerns, including anxiety, depression, fears of “going crazy”, and prior alcohol abuse.
When Charles, a 46-year-old divorced male with an extensive psychiatric history of depression, substance abuse, and disordered eating resulting in a suicide attempt, erratic employment, and two failed marriages, began treatment with a clinical social worker trained in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), he was an angry, dysphoric individual beginning yet another cycle of destructive behavior. This chapter provides the reader with an overview of the standard DBT model as developed by Linehan. Dialectical behavior therapy, which engages vulnerable individuals early in its treatment cycle by acknowledging suffering and the intensity of the biosocial forces to be overcome and then attending to resulting symptoms, appears to be the model most congruent with and responsive to the cumulative scientific and theoretical research indicating the need for the development of self-regulatory abilities prior to discussions of traumatic material or deeply held schema.