The purpose of this chapter is to outline particular consequences of trauma when it occurs during adolescence, as well as what one might expect subsequent to earlier childhood traumatic events that occurred. This aim is accomplished in the following sections: (a) Trauma-Relevant Issues in Adolescence and (b) Counseling Implications. These major sections are followed by a summary of the chapter and an online list of relevant resources.
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Psychological trauma is complex and sometimes difficult to understand, and its various manifestations can be challenging for the treating counselor. Psychological assessment and testing can provide the counselor with tools to hone clinical judgment and understanding of clients’ trauma experiences beyond what is available in the counseling interview. After providing an overview of psychological assessment in general, we discuss the types of assessment methods available and provide specific instruments that can be of use in the assessment of psychological trauma. These methods include structured interviews, trauma-specific tests, and broad-based personality assessment tests, including self-report and performance-based methods. The chapter ends with a discussion of best practices in the psychological assessment of trauma along with recommendations for integrating assessment into counseling practice.
- Go to chapter: Racial, Ethnic, and Immigration Intolerance: A Framework for Understanding Violence and Trauma
This chapter focuses on the intolerance experienced by marginalized groups of people, based on race, ethnicity, and immigration status. It reviews current knowledge about violence-based trauma among minority groups and offers discussions that highlight historical patterns of and risk factors for
PTSD. The chapter briefly summarizes interventions and treatments that relate to race-based, ethnicity-based, historical, and intergenerational trauma.
This chapter examines the construct of evil from the perspective of moral psychology. The chapter first discusses contemporary theories of evil and common misconceptions about evil. The chapter then draws on examples from social psychology in order to examine the psychological and situational causes of evil actions. The relation between trauma and evil is then explored with an emphasis on Primo Levi’s account of Auschwitz and the concept of the “gray zone.” Finally, the chapter discusses the nature and possibility of healing and reconciliation (“moral repair”) after evil has been done.
This chapter focuses on issues related to mass violence and the effects of mass violence on the populace, both in terms of proximal and distal locations of those affected. The increase of mass violence has caused global concern. The effects of mass violence events continue to traumatize those who are affected. This chapter offers insight to help understand the impacts of mass violence on survivors, families, communities, and society.
- Go to chapter: Understanding and Responding to Affectional and Transgender Prejudice and Victimization
In addition to traumas that heterosexual and cisgender people experience, queer and transgender people face a heterosexist and cissexist culture, in which marginalization and trauma against them is normalized or minimized. In this chapter, the experience of hate crimes and violence, relational and interpersonal trauma, religious based-trauma, and sociocultural and political-based trauma are covered in relation to how it impacts Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (
LGBTQ) people. Clinical and counseling implications are discussed. The increase in mental health challenges is explained via the minority stress model. Implications for diagnosis and trauma-informed practices for queer and transgender people are discussed. Additionally, the role of the mental health professional as a social justice advocate is explored, including how social justice frameworks can be incorporated in the counseling environment.
- Go to chapter: Conclusion: The Continued Need for Developing an Integrative Systemic Approach to Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
Conclusion: The Continued Need for Developing an Integrative Systemic Approach to Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This final chapter focuses on synthesizing the information about trauma, stress, crisis, and disaster presented in the previous 32 chapters of this textbook. As an extension of analyzing the counseling implications presented across all of the chapters of this book, Chapter 33 presents the details of an integrative systemic approach to trauma (
ISAT) model, with the hope that it can expand upon and continue to construct the trauma scaffold described in the first four chapters of this textbook.
Sexual violence is a significant social problem worldwide, occurring at alarmingly high rates and is associated with a host of negative outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (
PTSD). The purpose of this chapter is to present an ecological model that enhances an understanding of survivor responses to sexual violence and informs treatment for sexual trauma. The chapter will examine the many systems that affect survivors’ recovery and will provide an overview of clinical guidelines for treating sexual trauma, including prolonged exposure ( PE), trauma-informed CBT( TF- CBT), cognitive processing therapy ( CPT), and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( EMDR).
This chapter focuses on the importance of clinical supervisors having sufficient knowledge about trauma, stress, crisis, and disaster in order to supervise and mentor adequately. Supervisees are likely to bring complex cases into supervision, cases that involve multiple dimensions of crisis, stress, loss, grief, disaster, and trauma. For counselors serving traumatized clients, the potential for experiencing vicarious trauma increases. Supervisors need to possess the trauma-informed skills to offer relevant clinical supervision as well as to guide, mentor, and support supervisees on issues related to counselor self-care, in the face of dealing with stressful clinical scenarios.
The distress of populations affected by genocide, war, and the specific phenomenon often referred to as “ethnic cleansing” and political violence is typically viewed through the lens of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (
PTSD) (the word “war” is used in the rest of this chapter to refer specifically to “ethnic cleansing”). However, there have been increasing critiques of the assumed universal applicability of the trauma paradigm, from psychologists and psychiatrists, as well as anthropologists and sociologists, engaged with individuals and societies affected by mass violence. This chapter reviews how the specific characteristics of genocide, war, and political violence pose challenges to biomedical and Western psychological framings of trauma. It argues the need for greater attention to cultural context, intersecting structural oppressions, and social justice and considers how narrative- and arts-based tools, underpinned by principles drawn from multicultural and decolonial approaches, may assist in this endeavor.