Studies reveal that healthy and functional families exist in virtually all cultures. Health and well-being in these families are an interactive process associated with positive relationships and outcomes. In families, being healthy and well involves ethical accountability, such as promoting good relationships and balancing the give-and-take among members. In regard to health and wellness, one cannot assume that healthy individuals necessarily come from continuously healthy and well-functioning families. Communication is concerned with the delivery and reception of verbal and nonverbal information between family members. It includes skills in exchanging patterns of information within the family system. In fact, highly resilient individuals, who successfully overcome adversities, do well in life. A healthy marriage is complex and multidimensional. Roles in healthy and well-functioning families are clear, appropriate, suitably allocated, mutually agreed on, integrated, and enacted.
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The practice of behavior therapy has many features in common with that of other forms of psychotherapy, for example, the development of a collaborative working relationship between client and therapist. Behavior therapy is distinguished by its use of particular techniques to address specified problems, by its allegiance to psychological experimentation, and by its commitment to empirical validation. In application to the treatment of anxiety and related disorders, behavior therapy drew inspiration from studies of classical conditioning and experimental neurosis. Systematic programs of gradually confronting feared situations therapeutically, in the imagination or in real life, are familiar features of contemporary behavioral practice with anxious clients. Behavioral assessment is designed to provide detailed information that focuses and directs behavioral treatment. Treatment techniques involving self-control and self-management are viable because clients can alter the contingencies affecting their own behavior.
This chapter specifically focuses on violence in the nation’s schools by providing: an overview of youth violence including risk and protective factors, assessment items for preventing violence, and suggestions of intervention/prevention strategies for reducing youth violence and its impact. The professionals involved with the aftermath of violence have specific roles related to severity assessment and determining clinical needs. Counselors should gather information from multiple sources on multiple issues as no one personality profile for a violent youth or target exists. Focusing on behaviors and placing those behaviors in a social-ecological context provides the clearest understanding of potential risk and directs treatment options and modalities. The success of violence prevention programs though can never be perfect. Violence will sometimes still occur, leaving students to deal with the physical, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and spiritual consequences.
- Go to chapter: Enhancing Client Return After the First Session, and Alternatively Dealing With Early Termination
This chapter explores two separate occurrences in the counseling process: clients who do not return after the first session, and effectively dealing with early termination of counseling. Most practitioners are all too familiar with one or both of these phenomena in counseling and are often left wondering what happened during the process for it to end prematurely or to never begin. The chapter addresses probable reasons why clients do not return following the first session and offers practical strategies regarding how to minimize this occurrence. Professional disclosure provides clients with answers to many questions they might otherwise have about the process, policies, and procedures. Treatment goals and length of treatment will vary depending on counselor theoretical orientation. Cognitive behavior therapy, is usually short term, focusing primarily on symptom reduction through the development of client coping skills and self-efficacy, and less emphasis on the client-counselor relationship.
A national expert on managed care was invited to help explain what counselors were up against as they tried to be recognized as providers on insurance plans. Managed health care plans negotiate lower prices with therapists so that employers can give their employees discounted services. There are three types of managed health care plans: health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization (PPO) and point of service plan (POS). All licensed counselors who work with insurance and managed care plans must use the national provider identifier (NPI) number when filing an insurance claim. The specter of managed care has caused anxiety and frustration for counselors, but many times the issues can be tackled with an old-fashioned problem-solving approach. A medical billing software system allows the counselor to keep patient information on the computer and send claims directly to a clearinghouse that will format and send the claim to the insurance carriers.
This chapter begins with a discussion of the importance of a clear understanding of psychiatric diagnoses for all allied health professionals. Given the historical prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, it is a good use of our time to review the seminal diagnostic systems that inform diagnosis in clinical counseling. Clinical counselors and other mental health professionals may be the first health care providers to have established any type of therapeutic relationship with their client, revealing information that previously had never been a focus of any other professionals’ clinical attention. The accurate diagnosis of psychiatric conditions leads to appropriate referrals, selection of the most appropriate evidence-based treatments, and ultimately amelioration or elimination of problematic symptoms that negatively impact health and functioning. The most commonly used diagnostic system for psychiatric conditions worldwide is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) system.
Perhaps one of the most interesting skills one can learn in working with persons with disabilities is to assess what their mental and physical residual capabilities are in order to transfer these abilities into work skills. This chapter explores and discusses samples of a mental functional capacity evaluation (MFCE) and physical functional capacity evaluation (PFCE), then illustrates how each of these types of assessments may be used in establishing an appropriate work setting for clients with disabilities. MFCE and PFCE tend to be most often used in Social Security court hearings in an effort to determine whether an individual is capable of working at any job commensurate with his or her skills and abilities. The primary difference between both types of evaluations is that MFCEs assess an individual’s cognitive and emotional capacity, whereas a PFCE focuses exclusively on an individual’s physical capabilities.
This chapter discusses some of unique differences as they relate to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in military counseling and related services. It addresses some of salient issues for professional counselors who must assess, diagnose, and treat active duty and veterans. Overall, understanding psychosocial adjustment issues related to chronic illness and disability as well as working with clients that have psychiatric, substance abuse, and mental health issues are essential in healing traumatic experiences. The chapter assists professionals in building a rapport with the intent of establishing a strong working alliance within the military culture. It provides an excellent and comprehensive resource for helping professional counselors understand the difficult challenges that military personnel must navigate during various stages of their deployment cycle. A great deal of counselor education and research has been developed that focuses on preparing professional counselors in understanding the unique cultural attributes of a diversity of cultural groups.
African Americans constitute approximately 14% of the American population. They have been an integral part of this society since its conception, yet they face a myriad of issues. These issues include health issues, employment issues, health insurance issues, racism, and discrimination. In the area of employment, the unemployment rate for Blacks is more than twice as high as the White population, and the poverty rate is approximately three times as high. Racism and poverty are manifested in African American incarceration rates. The term African American as a descriptor includes many segments of the American population, including populations brought to America from West Africa during the slave trade. Many African American children have self-respect and positive self-esteem despite the specter of racism and discrimination. Religion and spirituality are an important part of American culture and this is no less so for the African American community.
This chapter offers a practical approach for facilitating disaster mental health and stress debriefing groups using a combination of crisis response models; specific guidelines for structuring such interventions and responding to individuals and groups; and resources to assist in personal and professional growth in the specialty area of disaster mental health response. Additionally, three case scenarios are provided at the end of the chapter for the purpose of practicing the skills of disaster mental health and stress debriefing interventions. Initially, the preintervention and planning stage is critical in assessing, coordinating, and communicating with others on the disaster team concerning the trauma survivors’ psychological, spiritual, and medical/physical level of functioning. The ethical and competent disaster mental health practitioner knows that he or she should never force emotions or shame individuals for not disclosing, especially early on in the grieving and healing process.