This chapter describes aging with respect to people with acquired versus congenital disability. There is an emphasis on people with lifelong developmental disability, including intellectual disabilities, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy. General aging issues for this population are described, and then specific aging issues that are more prevalent and problematic are identified. The need for more vigilant health promotion and education is discussed.
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The anatomy, physiology, and function of the cardiovascular system along with age-related changes in the system. Selective disorders commonly experienced in the older population along with their description, presenting symptoms, and more prominent diagnostic measures. Treatment most often prescribed along with recommendations how to maintain good cardiovascular health as it relates to the disorders.
This chapter describes the current status of caregiving in the United States. Who are caregivers and what tasks they routinely do are discussed. The diversity of caregiving is also considered. Physical, psychological, social, and financial ramifications of caregiving are described along with benefits reported. The chapter concludes with recommendations on how healthcare professionals can support caregivers.
The meaning and use of complementary, alternative, and therapies integrative medicine along with the catagorical components are discussed. The history of these modalities from ancient time to the present are briefed. Discussion of various alternative and complementary therapies including herb and drug supplements, aromatherapy, massage, acupuncture, therapeutic touch, chiropractic, yoga, animal-assisted therapy, healing through music, meditation, mindfulness practice, and prayer is done. Referral to various books, organizations, and web sites are provided.
The meaning and description of the experience of death and dying and therapeutic approaches for individuals and significant others are discussed. Loss, grief, and mourning process in older adults are considered including disenfranchised grief, complicated grief, and therapeutic approaches. Hospice and palliative care options available are described. Suicide, rational suicide, and physician-assisted suicide/dying are outlined. Also discussed are advance directives including living wills, medical power of attorney, do-not-resuscitate orders, and ethical wills.
COVID-19and its impact on the dying, grieving, and funeral practices of the older age group are presented.
This chapter provides an overview of delirium and dementia, including primary dementias, secondary dementias, and reversible dementias. The distinction between mild and major neurocognitive disorders is described. An in-depth description of Alzheimer’s disease, including etiology, treatment, and general guidelines for care, is included. Other dementias including Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Lewy body disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and vascular dementia are also briefly covered. Secondary dementias (e.g., dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease) and reversible dementias (e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus) conclude the chapter.
The anatomy, physiology, and functions of the endocrine system are reviewed. Age-related changes and specific disorders are grouped together to better understand their impact on the system and health of the older adults. Special attention is given to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recommended care for diabetics is also outlined.
An overview of the gastrointestinal system as it relates to the nutritional status of the older individual is presented. The anatomy and physiology and age-related changes of the system are reviewed. Selected common age-related disorders are discussed along with their incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnostic measures, and interventions. The American Cancer Society’s 2020 screening recommendations for the intestines are then outlined.
The field of gerontechnology is described along with how research endeavors can be aided by gerontechnology. Practical applications that enhance the daily life of older adults and their caregivers are also discussed. Caveats of appropriate use of gerontechnology are considered. The chapter concludes with discussion of family technologists who can support older adults and their primary caregivers.
Health promotion, exercise, and the need to focus on these to enhance a healthy long life are discussed. Identification of significant areas of health promotion and barriers to achieving good health are presented. Next, disease prevention along with primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary preventive measures are listed. Healthy People 2030, the fifth national health initiative, and its objectives are outlined along with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Exercise, its meaning, and value in modifying age-related changes are briefed. Types of exercise programs; isometric, isotonic, and aerobic and their recommended use by older adults are listed.