An overview of the anatomy, physiology, and functioning of the respiratory system is provided. Age-related changes in the respiratory system along with selected specific disorders commonly experienced by older adults and measures useful in preventing and living with respiratory dysfunctions are explained.
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The meaning and use of complementary, alternative, and therapies integrative medicine along with the catagorical components are discussed. The history of these modalities from ancient time to the present are briefed. Discussion of various alternative and complementary therapies including herb and drug supplements, aromatherapy, massage, acupuncture, therapeutic touch, chiropractic, yoga, animal-assisted therapy, healing through music, meditation, mindfulness practice, and prayer is done. Referral to various books, organizations, and web sites are provided.
Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, including the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, are described. Age-related changes in the nervous system are described. Common nervous system disorders are briefly discussed with Parkinson’s disease covered in greater depth. Sleep, aging-related changes with sleep, sleep disorders, and dangerous consequences of untreated sleep disorders are highlighted. The chapter concludes with brief consideration of how aging impacts memory and learning.
This chapter describes the current status of caregiving in the United States. Who are caregivers and what tasks they routinely do are discussed. The diversity of caregiving is also considered. Physical, psychological, social, and financial ramifications of caregiving are described along with benefits reported. The chapter concludes with recommendations on how healthcare professionals can support caregivers.
This chapter provides an overview of delirium and dementia, including primary dementias, secondary dementias, and reversible dementias. The distinction between mild and major neurocognitive disorders is described. An in-depth description of Alzheimer’s disease, including etiology, treatment, and general guidelines for care, is included. Other dementias including Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Lewy body disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and vascular dementia are also briefly covered. Secondary dementias (e.g., dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease) and reversible dementias (e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus) conclude the chapter.
The anatomy, physiology, and function of the immune system, lymphatic system, and lymph nodes are reviewed. Age-related changes of the immune system along with selected specific disorders that may be found in the older age group are discussed.
HIV/ AIDSin this population along with the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease is defined.
Significance of changes in biological, psychological, and social aging and their impact on lessened reserve capacity; the importance of understanding slowness, stress, pacing, and accidents in working with older adults; and the role of health promotion, disease prevention, and health maintenance in successful aging conclude the chapter.
This chapter reviews the anatomy, physiology, and function of skin, hair, and nails and the role skin plays in an individual’s life. Age-related changes in each of these entities along with selected disorders including xerosis; rashes, senile purpura, pruritus, solar elastosis, keratosis, psoriasis, skin tags, herpes zoster, pressure ulcers, and skin cancer are discussed. Lastly, there are recommendations on how to maintain healthy skin and prevent skin cancer.
The field of gerontechnology is described along with how research endeavors can be aided by gerontechnology. Practical applications that enhance the daily life of older adults and their caregivers are also discussed. Caveats of appropriate use of gerontechnology are considered. The chapter concludes with discussion of family technologists who can support older adults and their primary caregivers.
An overview of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the urinary system and age-related changes is provided. Selective disorders common in older adults with description and common symptoms are discussed. Useful diagnostic procedures and treatments frequently prescribed to maintain urinary health in older age were elaborated.