The anatomy and physiology and function of the male and female reproductive system and how it affects the quality of life in older age is described. Selected disorder of the male and female reproductive systems is discussed. Sexuality, its meaning and expression, as it relates to older adults and those who care for them are also explained.
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This chapter provides an overview of delirium and dementia, including primary dementias, secondary dementias, and reversible dementias. The distinction between mild and major neurocognitive disorders is described. An in-depth description of Alzheimer’s disease, including etiology, treatment, and general guidelines for care, is included. Other dementias including Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Lewy body disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and vascular dementia are also briefly covered. Secondary dementias (e.g., dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease) and reversible dementias (e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus) conclude the chapter.
An overview of the influence, processing, and adverse reaction of drugs in the lives of older adults. Cultural influences impacting drug ingestion along with a consideration of generic drugs and over-the-counter drugs. Adverse drug reactions are discussed and reasons for drug misuse. Lastly, a discussion of the more commonly prescribed drugs for this age group is presented.
This chapter reviews the anatomy, physiology, and function of skin, hair, and nails and the role skin plays in an individual’s life. Age-related changes in each of these entities along with selected disorders including xerosis; rashes, senile purpura, pruritus, solar elastosis, keratosis, psoriasis, skin tags, herpes zoster, pressure ulcers, and skin cancer are discussed. Lastly, there are recommendations on how to maintain healthy skin and prevent skin cancer.
An overview of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the urinary system and age-related changes is provided. Selective disorders common in older adults with description and common symptoms are discussed. Useful diagnostic procedures and treatments frequently prescribed to maintain urinary health in older age were elaborated.
The anatomy, physiology, and functions of the endocrine system are reviewed. Age-related changes and specific disorders are grouped together to better understand their impact on the system and health of the older adults. Special attention is given to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recommended care for diabetics is also outlined.
Significance of changes in biological, psychological, and social aging and their impact on lessened reserve capacity; the importance of understanding slowness, stress, pacing, and accidents in working with older adults; and the role of health promotion, disease prevention, and health maintenance in successful aging conclude the chapter.
Health promotion, exercise, and the need to focus on these to enhance a healthy long life are discussed. Identification of significant areas of health promotion and barriers to achieving good health are presented. Next, disease prevention along with primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary preventive measures are listed. Healthy People 2030, the fifth national health initiative, and its objectives are outlined along with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Exercise, its meaning, and value in modifying age-related changes are briefed. Types of exercise programs; isometric, isotonic, and aerobic and their recommended use by older adults are listed.
The anatomy, physiology, and function of the cardiovascular system along with age-related changes in the system. Selective disorders commonly experienced in the older population along with their description, presenting symptoms, and more prominent diagnostic measures. Treatment most often prescribed along with recommendations how to maintain good cardiovascular health as it relates to the disorders.
The field of gerontechnology is described along with how research endeavors can be aided by gerontechnology. Practical applications that enhance the daily life of older adults and their caregivers are also discussed. Caveats of appropriate use of gerontechnology are considered. The chapter concludes with discussion of family technologists who can support older adults and their primary caregivers.