The Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (CTS2) is one of the most widely used measures for assessing violence between intimate partners. Many studies exploring its psychometric properties show factor structures that vary according to samples, analysis, or scale forms employed. This work aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CTS2 in 819 undergraduates in Argentina. Some items had to be excluded from the analysis because of their null prevalence in this sample. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original five-factor model for perpetrated and suffered violence CTS2 forms indicated a good fit to the data in both men and women. Internal consistency was good for all subscales except for the perpetrated and suffered sexual coercion and perpetrated injuries subscales. The highest inter-factor correlations were found between the psychological aggression and physical assault subscales in the perpetration models, and between the physical assault and injuries subscales in the victimization models. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed, and future lines of research are proposed.
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- Go to article: The Relationship Between Paternal Characteristics and Child Psychosocial Functioning in a Sample of Men Arrested for Domestic Violence
The Relationship Between Paternal Characteristics and Child Psychosocial Functioning in a Sample of Men Arrested for Domestic Violence
It is estimated that upward of 15.5 million children live in homes where they are exposed to physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). Research indicates that IPV can have deleterious effects on children, including a variety of psychosocial problems, although there is much variability in outcomes of children exposed to IPV. Individual characteristics of the parents involved in IPV may be an important predictor of negative psychosocial outcomes for children. The current study expanded upon prior research and examined the simultaneous associations of paternal characteristics, including paternal IPV perpetration, and child psychosocial functioning (i.e., externalizing, internalizing, and attentional problems) among 153 men arrested for domestic violence and court ordered to attend batterer intervention programs. Analyses examined the relations between paternal alcohol and drug use, antisocial personality traits, hostility, posttraumatic stress symptoms, distress tolerance, IPV perpetration, and men's ratings of their child's psychosocial functioning. Results indicated that poor overall child psychosocial functioning was positively related to paternal antisocial personality symptoms and hostility. Subscale analyses revealed that child attentional problems were positively related to paternal hostility. Child externalizing problems were positively associated with paternal antisocial personality symptoms. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed.
- Go to article: Forms of Intimate Partner Rape Experienced by Latinas With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Forms of Intimate Partner Rape Experienced by Latinas With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects a large proportion of women in the United States and is a serious public health concern. Rates of IPV are even higher for Latinas in the United States. Approximately, 10% of women experience intimate partner rape in their lifetime, and IPV and intimate partner rape have been strongly linked to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little research has been done to distinguish different forms of intimate partner rape and their effects. This study examined intimate partner rape for 94 Spanish-speaking Latinas with and without a diagnosis of PTSD. Two forms of rape were assessed, physically forced rape and psychologically coerced rape, and 39% of the women were diagnosed with PTSD. A logistic regression (N = 62) was used to assess the relationship between PTSD and forms of rape. Results indicated that Latinas with PTSD reported more physically forced rape than Latinas without a diagnosis of PTSD. No significant difference in PTSD diagnosis was found for psychologically coerced rape. Future research should focus on investigating factors that potentially mediate the relationship between physically forced rape and PTSD.
- Go to article: Emotion Dysregulation as a Correlate of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Arrested for Domestic Violence
Emotion Dysregulation as a Correlate of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Arrested for Domestic Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem. Research and theory suggests that emotion dysregulation is an important correlate of IPV and thus may be a fruitful target of intervention efforts. However, examination of emotion dysregulation among women arrested for domestic violence, an understudied population, is nonexistent. The current study extended prior research by examining what components of emotion dysregulation related to IPV perpetration while controlling for substance misuse and antisocial traits, two robust correlates of IPV, in women arrested for domestic violence and court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (N = 71). In the current study, the emotion dysregulation component of Impulse Control Difficulties was significantly associated with the perpetration of physical IPV. Findings suggest a link between impulse control during negative emotional experiences and the perpetration of IPV among women arrested for domestic violence. Implications regarding findings and future research and intervention applications are discussed.
- Go to article: Interpersonal Problems and Family Relations as Mediators Between Attachment and Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence
Interpersonal Problems and Family Relations as Mediators Between Attachment and Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence
The current research explored whether interpersonal problems (IP) and family of origin relations mediate the association between attachment dimensions and intimate partner violence (IPV). The participants included 55 females in treatment for IPV as part of their probation. We examined the mediation relationships using a bootstrapping multiple mediation method. Results indicated that IP but not family type, significantly mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment, but not anxious attachment and IPV. Greater attachment avoidance was associated with higher levels of IP, which in turn, were associated with higher physical violence toward an intimate male partner. Several alternative models were tested resulting in nonsignificant mediation analyses, thus, lending support to the validity of the attachment avoidant mediation model. Suggestions were offered for treatment relevant to the results.
- Go to article: An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
This study determines the needs of men experiencing domestic abuse from an intimate partner. In-depth interviews with 6 men who sought support are analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four master themes (interpreted as needs) are identified from analysis, “recognition” (of male victims and the impact), “safety,” “accepting domestic abuse,” and “rebuilding.” A need for recognition is identified as the dominant theme influencing the capacity for the 3 remaining needs to be met. Domestic abuse is generally understood to be a gendered, heteronormative experience. Abused men are not acknowledged as “typical” victims. The lack of recognition prevented participants from accepting and recognizing their victimization resulting in delayed help-seeking and prolonged abuse. A joint commitment is required from policy and practice to raise the profile of abused men, challenge wider society's prevailing norms, and embed equal status for all victims.
- Go to article: Prevalence and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence in Canada as Measured by the National Victimization Survey
Prevalence and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence in Canada as Measured by the National Victimization Survey
National victimization surveys that conceptualize intimate partner violence (IPV) as crime can contribute to a better understanding of the most severe forms of victimization in the intimate partner relationship. Based on the 2014 Canadian General Social Survey on Victimization, this study examined the prevalence of victimization resulted from physical and/or sexual IPV, controlling behaviors and also consequences of IPV for both men and women in a sample representative of the Canadian population. Given the paucity of research on male victims of IPV at the national population level, this article specifically discussed the experiences of men who reported violence perpetrated by their female intimate partners. Results showed that 2.9% of men and 1.7% of women reported experiencing physical and/or sexual IPV in their current relationships in the last 5 years. In addition, 35% of male and 34% of female victims of IPV experienced high controlling behaviors—the most severe type of abuse known as intimate terrorism. Moreover, 22% of male victims and 19% of female victims of IPV were found to have experienced severe physical violence along with high controlling behaviors. Although female victims significantly more often than male victims reported the injuries and short-term emotional effects of IPV (e.g., fear, depression, anger), there was no significant difference in the experience of the most long-term effects of spousal trauma—posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms. This article argues that future research should explain the increased gap in reporting of the IPV victimization among men compared to women.
- Go to article: Femicide, Gender, and Violence: Discourses and Counterdiscources in Italy, by Daniela Bandelli
- Go to article: Contributions to Parenting Under Stress for Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence
One in four women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Most of these women are mothers, raising young children, and parenting them under stressful conditions. This study examined a variety of parenting practices, and evaluated the contribution of child and mother demographic variables, the level of violence experienced by the mother, as well as mothers' mental health, to the parenting practices of 172 women exposed to IPV from diverse ethno-racial groups. Results indicate socioeconomic variables make little contribution to variance in parenting practices, be they positive or negative. Yet younger child age, maternal depression, and traumatic stress contribute to variation in negative parenting in families with IPV. Implications for future study and clinical work are discussed.
- Go to article: Conceptualizing Controlling Behaviors in Adolescent and Youth Intimate Partner Relationships
Considerable evidence shows that adolescent intimate relationships influence the course of adult relationships, that is, whether relationship experiences are characterized by abuse or violence, or healthy, equitable dynamics. Controlling behaviors (CBs)—a phenomenon related to intimate partner violence (IPV)—are pervasive in adolescent intimate relationships, yet there is a lack of consensus on how to conceptualize them and subsequently, limited research which explores the role of CBs, including their role as warning signs for other forms of harm and abuse. As such, there are gaps in integrating CBs in policy and program interventions that could prevent IPV from the earliest stages. This article presents findings from in-depth qualitative research on adolescent relationship violence conducted in under studied settings of Brazil and Honduras. Adolescents described using or experiencing CBs in at least one form in 147 interviews with girls/young women and boys/young men aged 14–24 in rural and urban sites. Drawing from these empirical findings and conceptual and theoretical aspects from the literature, this article analyzes CBs in adolescent relationships and how they relate to IPV. By doing so, it seeks to offer a conceptual framework on CBs that could better inform policies and programs by being reflective of adolescent experiences, and ultimately more nuanced in promoting healthy adolescent relationships.