The Instigating-Impelling-Inhibiting model of intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology, or “I3 Model,” is presented as a meta-theoretical alternative to traditional perspectives regarding treatment models for perpetrators of IPV. The I3 Model is a meta-theoretical approach to understanding IPV risk that, when applied to IPV intervention programs, incorporates practically any therapeutic component that aims to decrease individual's exposure to instigating contexts, target any individual or situational factor that impels IPV, and increase an individual's ability to inhibit an aggressive response. In this review, we first briefly summarize the IPV literature and existing intervention models. Second, we review the I3 Model and illustrate its promise as a guiding framework for understanding IPV risk and its broad relevance to etiology and intervention. Third, we discuss the conceptual application of this framework to intervention with IPV perpetrators. Fourth, we identify factors that may promote as well as complicate I3 Model-related intervention developments.
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- Go to article: Restorative Justice Approaches to Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Interventions
Domestic violence, and specifically, violence against intimate partners, has generated a large research literature in the last few decades, particularly in the area of policy and community response and intervention. However, less attention has been given to the use of more innovative approaches in such situations, namely the use of restorative justice (RJ) interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV). The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of how RJ approaches have been utilized in the context of IPV, systematically examine the available literature on RJ approaches to IPV, describe the interventions that have been developed and empirically tested, and synthesize the findings. This review summarizes existing empirical research and literature on RJ interventions for IPV. APA PsychNet, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, Medline PubMed, PsychInfo, PTSD Publications, SCOPUS, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Reference Center, SocINDEX, Sociological Abstracts, and Web of Science were systematically searched for English-language publications with no restrictions on the year of publication. As a result, 14 articles and 5 book chapters (empirical studies and reviews) on interventions were included in this review. Synthesized findings highlight the awareness and meaning of RJ, significance of community, goals and outcomes of RJ, timing of program implementation, and what types of IPV cases are best suited for RJ. Additionally, the review describes current research gaps as well as the challenges and barriers of implementing RJ interventions.
- Go to article: Intimate Partner Violence in Transgender Couples: “Power and Control” in a Specific Cultural Context
Intimate Partner Violence in Transgender Couples: “Power and Control” in a Specific Cultural Context
Applying a “power and control” lens to high-stakes conflicts involving a trans1 person and their intimate partner can both illuminate and distort the true picture of what is going on. This article discusses 6 ways in which discriminatory societal structures and/or cultural beliefs specific to trans people and their families can be wielded as power and control weapons by both trans people and their non-trans partners. These same “abuse tactics” may, however, simply be evidence of a lack of collaborative problem-solving beliefs and skills. The difference between the two is illustrated using common issues likely to be faced by a couple undergoing or contemplating a gender transition. This article ends with specific issues and concerns that should be addressed when safety planning with a trans person or their partner.
- Go to article: Couples and Family Interventions for Intimate Partner Aggression: A Comprehensive Review
Intimate partner aggression (IPA) is a widespread social health problem that impacts not only the couple but the family unit as a whole. The vast majority of interventions have focused on male-to-female violence that consists of dominance and controlling tactics and neglect the therapeutic needs of the couple and their children. Thus, the first goal of this review to discuss the situations in which couples therapy is ethical as well as review the small, but growing literature on the efficacy of couples intervention. The second goal is to review the impact that exposure to IPA has on childhood development and examine the existing intervention and prevention programs for child witnesses. Based on our review, the research suggests that couples interventions are ethical for couples experiencing low-level physical aggression and that these treatments are equally effective as standard treatments for IPA in reducing violence and recidivism. Our review also concludes that individuals who witness IPA between their parents during childhood often exhibit interpersonal and intrapersonal difficulties in adulthood related to this exposure. The existing intervention and prevention programs for child witnesses appear promising.
- Go to article: Therapists' Experiences of Working With Iranian-Immigrant Intimate Partner Violence Clients in the United States
Therapists' Experiences of Working With Iranian-Immigrant Intimate Partner Violence Clients in the United States
Mental health practitioners have a responsibility to provide effective interventions to all their clients, accounting for each client's cultural context and values relevant to their well-being. In this study, eight therapists who have worked with Iranian-immigrant intimate partner violence (IPV) clients were interviewed to answer two questions: (a) What have therapists who work in the United States learned about challenges of working with Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? and (b) What suggestions do these thera-pists have for improving services to Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? In response to this question, six main themes were found: (a) Clients' lack of knowledge, (b) cultural acceptance that men are not accountable for their behaviors/gender norms in patriarchal culture, (c) women's sense of disempowerment (victim's role), (d) clients do not disclose IPV due to a sense of obligation, (e) clients' fear of consequences of disclosing, and (f) clients' difficulty trusting therapists and the mental health field. In response to the second question, that is, what suggestions do these therapists have for improving the services to Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? three main themes emerged: (a) clients need for knowledge and psychoeducation, (b) the services for Iranian-immigrant clients are not culturally appropriate, (c) therapists need to have a broad perspective of clients. Results add to the understanding of IPV grounded in the Iranian immigrant culture and ultimately contribute to a culturally based conceptualization of IPV among Iranian immigrants to sensitize therapists regarding culturally appropriate interventions that reflect the concerns of the Iranian living in the United States.
- Go to article: Determinants of Domestic Violence in Pakistan: A Qualitative and Econometric Analysis
Domestic violence exists in every country, irrespective of the culture, ethnicity, age, income, and education of the women. World Health Organization has estimated that approximately 35% of women worldwide had experienced sexual or physical violence. The present study has attempted to analyze the role of different socioeconomic indicators on the prevalence of domestic violence. In this regard, data of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017–2018 has been used and logit models have been estimated. It has been found that women married below the age of 18; living in rural areas; have more children; whose mothers experienced violence; feared their husbands; with little or no autonomy in decision-making; had a bank account; married outside of the family; and had not inherited any land or property were significantly more vulnerable victims of domestic violence. It has been found that women's education, education of her husband, and exposure to media by creating awareness may protect women from domestic violence. Furthermore, working women are more likely to face domestic violence, but women who have started working before marriage are significantly less vulnerable victims of domestic violence. However, the age of women herself, the age of husband, age of household head and wealth of household, living in the nucleus or joint family, receiving any support from Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) have no significant role in determining the domestic violence in Pakistan.
- Go to article: Understanding Victims of Interpersonal Violence, A Guide for Investigators and Prosecutors, by Veronique N. Valliere
- Go to article: Self-Defense and Legal Decision Making: The Role of Defendant and Victim Gender and Gender-Neutral Expert Testimony of the Battered Partner’s Syndrome
Self-Defense and Legal Decision Making: The Role of Defendant and Victim Gender and Gender-Neutral Expert Testimony of the Battered Partner’s Syndrome
This study investigated the influence of defendant characteristics, expert testimony, self-defense elements, and battered partner attributes on conviction in a homicide trial. An online sample of 442 U.S. mock jurors evaluated a self-defense scenario, provided a verdict, and answered questions pertaining to defendant culpability, legal elements, and battered partner attributes. Results showed that heterosexual female defendants were most likely to meet legal requirements of self-defense. Female participants were more likely to believe that heterosexual female defendants exhibited attributes associated with the battered partner’s syndrome (i.e., suffered from abuse and learned helplessness). Male participants were less likely to believe that homosexual male defendants suffered from attributes associated with the syndrome. There were no effects of expert testimony on the battered partner’s syndrome. Logistic regression analysis indicated that self-defense legal elements and belief that the defendant should have left the abusive relationship predicted greater likelihood of conviction. Limitations and implications for jury selection and attorney arguments are discussed.
- Go to article: Family Violence and Family Safety: An Approach to Safe Practices in Our Mental Health Services
This article describes a methodology for safe therapeutic practice developed more than 16 years in the specialist family violence service—Reading Safer Families, UK (Cooper & Vetere, 2005). This article focuses on how a safety methodology developed in a specialist service can be adapted for use in mainstream mental health and therapeutic services, across the life span, when violence is of concern.