Associations of substance dependencies and experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) were examined in a community sample of 146 female participants in a longitudinal study of couples. The women with a history of dependence on hard drugs (but not alcohol, cannabis, or sedatives) were more likely to also have perpetrated IPV. However, only women dependent on cocaine were more likely to have been a victimized by their male partners. Psychological IPV was found to be more stable across time than physical IPV, but associations of substance abuse with IPV did not vary by IPV type. Findings were compared with results from a prior study of men’s substance abuse and IPV that also found associations between dependence on hard drugs (but not alcohol dependence alone) and perpetration of IPV.
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- Go to article: An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
This study determines the needs of men experiencing domestic abuse from an intimate partner. In-depth interviews with 6 men who sought support are analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four master themes (interpreted as needs) are identified from analysis, “recognition” (of male victims and the impact), “safety,” “accepting domestic abuse,” and “rebuilding.” A need for recognition is identified as the dominant theme influencing the capacity for the 3 remaining needs to be met. Domestic abuse is generally understood to be a gendered, heteronormative experience. Abused men are not acknowledged as “typical” victims. The lack of recognition prevented participants from accepting and recognizing their victimization resulting in delayed help-seeking and prolonged abuse. A joint commitment is required from policy and practice to raise the profile of abused men, challenge wider society's prevailing norms, and embed equal status for all victims.
This study employed a dyadic data analysis approach to examine the association between partners’ dispositional empathy and intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were collected from 1,156 couples, who were participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For both IPV perpetration and IPV victimization, significant actor effects for men and significant partner effects for men to women emerged: Men who were less empathic were more likely to perpetrate IPV and to be victimized. Similarly, women whose men partners were less empathic were more likely to perpetrate IPV and to be victimized. Findings partially generalized to analyses assessing the associations between empathy and the different types of IPV (psychological, physical, sexual IPV, and occurrence of injury from IPV) separately. The present findings show that men’s levels of empathy may carry more weight in determining their own as well as their partners’ aggressive behaviors than do women’s levels of empathy.
- Go to article: The Relationship Between Dating Violence and Bystander Behavior: An Initial Investigation
Preliminary research has demonstrated the utility of bystander interventions in reducing sexual assault (Coker et al., 2011; Moynihan & Banyard, 2008), and initial research has begun extending this type of intervention to dating violence broadly (i.e., physical and psychological aggression). However, there are many unexplored factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood that individuals will engage in bystander behavior. One such factor is previous experiences with dating violence and sexual assault. Thus, this study examined prior dating violence and sexual assault experiences and endorsement of bystander behaviors in a large sample of college students (N = 2,430). We hypothesized that individuals with a history of dating and sexual assault victimization would be more likely to report engaging in bystander behaviors relative to nonvictims. The relationship between prior dating violence perpetration on bystander behavior was also explored. Results demonstrated that individuals with physical and sexual, but not psychological, victimization histories reported more frequent bystander behavior. Furthermore, perpetrators of physical violence were more likely than nonperpetrators to report bystander behavior, particularly among females. Findings provide preliminary evidence that prior experiences with dating violence and sexual assault may impact bystander behavior. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
- Go to article: Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Aggression in Male and Female College Students From Mainland China: An Exploratory Study
Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Aggression in Male and Female College Students From Mainland China: An Exploratory Study
Using data from 209 college students from 2 universities in Mainland China, the prevalence and correlates of psychological aggression perpetration for men and women were examined. Results indicated that 82.8% of men and 90.4% of women had committed at least one act of psychological aggression against his or her current romantic partner over the course of their relationship. Being a victim of physical assault from his partner and higher levels of stress were associated with men’s perpetration of psychological aggression. For women, physical assault victimization, greater alcohol use, and higher levels of shame were all related to psychological aggression perpetration. The results suggest the need for additional research to understand the development of psychological aggression within this population and to further adapt and refine intervention programs to reduce such violence.
The knowledge of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is limited. This study aims to investigate the perception of seriousness of same-sex IPV. A vignette study was undertaken among 248 police students (69% males and 31% females) in Sweden. The vignettes portrayed an intimate partner relationship between two people and were available in four versions with the sex of the offender and victim being alternated. Perceptions of IPV were measured using the Opinions of Domestic Violence Scale (Ahmed et al., 2013). The results showed that regardless of gender, IPV was considered serious; however, same-sex IPV was perceived as less serious than victimization of a heterosexual female but more serious than victimization of a heterosexual male. Police interventions were found to be less needed for same-sex victims than for heterosexual female victims.
- Go to article: Gender Symmetry or Asymmetry in Intimate Partner Victimization? Not an Either/Or Answer
Gender differences in physical victimization, sexual victimization, injury, fear, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative community sample of 453 young couples. The prevalence of any physical victimization experienced by women and men did not differ (29% vs. 30%), but men reported more severe physical victimization than women. No difference in prevalence of overall injury was observed, but more women reported severe injury than men. Almost twice as many women as men reported being sexually victimized (28% vs. 15%). Physically victimized females reported more fear of their partners than physically victimized men and than nonvictimized women. Physically victimized men and women, sexually victimized men and women, and physically injured men and women all had more depressive symptoms than those men and women who were not victimized or injured. Severely victimized women were 3 times more likely than severely victimized men to have depression scores in the clinical range (27% vs. 9%). In sum, whether one finds gender symmetry regarding aggression and its correlates depends on more than simple prevalence of aggression by men and women.
- Go to article: Neurotransmitter and Neurochemical Factors in Domestic Violence Perpetration: Implications for Theory Development
Neurotransmitter and Neurochemical Factors in Domestic Violence Perpetration: Implications for Theory Development
Research on neurotransmitters and behavior is a vital and expanding area of study. As in other areas of empirical study of domestic violence, this remains an underdeveloped field of inquiry. Although a rigorous literature exists indicating a much broader range of neuropsychological risk factors for violence in general, policies regarding the study and treatment of domestic violence perpetration often disregard or forbid considerations of those factors. This current effort at theory development is a continuation of several prior works where the conceptual and empirical rationale for a broader explanatory theoretical framework for domestic violence perpetration is put forth. In this review, links between neurochemical anomalies, dysfunctional coping, and domestic violence perpetration are reviewed in light of their contribution to a biopsychosocial theory of domestic violence perpetration.