Accurate identification of partner abuse (PA) victims and perpetrators is essential to secondary prevention of such violence. Important progress has been made regarding identification of female victims of PA but significantly less scholarly attention has been given to screening instruments that capture men’s PA experiences. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the history of PA screening methods/instruments used and to provide an organized critique of screening tools used with men today. A gender-inclusive approach was used to critique 8 PA screening tools along the following themes: theoretical/paradigmatic approach, language, abuse type, severity and frequency, format, and psychometric data. Strengths of the instruments included (a) use of gender-neutral language in item wording, (b) screening for multiple forms of PA, (c) assessment of frequency of violent acts, and (d) collection of psychometric data with men. Recommendations for future practice include a list of questions for clinicians to use when selecting a screening tool. These questions will assist clinicians and scholars to consider the strengths and limitations of each tool and make more informed choices about the instruments they are using to screen men. Future research recommendations included (a) a call to the field to use a gender-inclusive framework in developing PA screening tools, (b) for developers to clearly label and outline theories or paradigms used to develop instruments, and (c) to obtain psychometric data for diverse groups of men, across various settings (e.g., community mental health agencies, private practice, college campuses).
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- Go to article: Identifying Male Victims of Partner Abuse: A Review and Critique of Screening InstrumentsSource:
- Go to article: Contributions to Parenting Under Stress for Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence
One in four women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Most of these women are mothers, raising young children, and parenting them under stressful conditions. This study examined a variety of parenting practices, and evaluated the contribution of child and mother demographic variables, the level of violence experienced by the mother, as well as mothers' mental health, to the parenting practices of 172 women exposed to IPV from diverse ethno-racial groups. Results indicate socioeconomic variables make little contribution to variance in parenting practices, be they positive or negative. Yet younger child age, maternal depression, and traumatic stress contribute to variation in negative parenting in families with IPV. Implications for future study and clinical work are discussed.
This pilot study examines the impacts of a 12-week community-based intimate partner violence intervention program delivered in British Columbia, Canada. The Stop Taking it Out on your Partner (STOP) program targets males who have engaged in abusive behaviors toward their intimate partners; most are voluntary participants. The STOP program was evaluated in three sites across the province (once program per cycle), with a total of 39 enrollees. Thirty-seven men completed the pretest survey; analyses focus on the 22 participants who completed pretest and posttest questions regarding knowledge and skills learned, and the 15 participants who completed the Abusive Behavior Inventory (Shepard & Campbell, 1992) regarding psychologically and physically abusive behaviors. Results suggest that participation in STOP contributed to significant decreases in both physical and psychological abuse. Further, program participants increased in their use of cognitive behavioral strategies to avoid violence. Implications for intimate partner violence intervention and future research are discussed.
- Go to article: Controlling Behaviors as a Predictor of Partner Violence Among Heterosexual Female and Male Adolescents
Controlling Behaviors as a Predictor of Partner Violence Among Heterosexual Female and Male Adolescents
This study investigates the prevalence of adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, IPV victimization, and controlling behaviors among 486 heterosexual high school students. Participants completed surveys that measured three types of IPV victimization (sexual, physical, and psychological) and two types of controlling behaviors (intimidation and threats). Results reveal high prevalence of dating violence in youth: 46% emotional violence, 34% physical violence, and 16% sexual violence. Participants had a mean age of 15.7 years, 51% of the sample was male, and all participants were in a current relationship. Structural equation modeling explored the relationship between “violent attitudes” and “controlling behaviors” predicting IPV perpetration. The study found no gender differences between IPV perpetration and IPV victimization. However, gender differences were found regarding females’ IPV victimization being reduced when controlling behaviors are not present. Interestingly, IPV victimization is reduced by not having controlling behaviors and only having violent attitudes. The study posits that gender socialization may attribute to females reducing their IPV victimization when controlling behaviors are not present.
- Go to article: When Is It Abuse? How Assailant Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Protection Orders Influence Perceptions of Intimate Partner Abuse
When Is It Abuse? How Assailant Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Protection Orders Influence Perceptions of Intimate Partner Abuse
Incidents of intimate partner violence (IPV) are considered more serious when perpetrated by a male than when perpetrated by a female, and IPV among gay men and lesbians are perceived as less serious than IPV among heterosexual couples. This study examines how assailant and victim sexual orientation and protection orders (POs) influence individuals’ evaluations of abuse in a case of simple assault. Respondents (N = 640 college students) were provided with scenarios of IPV among opposite- and same-sex couples with or without a PO. IPV was more likely to be perceived as abuse when a PO was in effect but less likely to be considered abuse when the couple was gay/lesbian. The IPV incident was most likely to be considered abuse when perpetrated by a heterosexual male and least likely to be considered abuse when perpetrated by a gay male. Female respondents were more likely to consider IPV more abusive when perpetrated by heterosexuals with POs than gay/lesbians with or without a PO. Although male respondents rated IPV between opposite- and same-sex couples with a PO similarly, they were less likely to identify IPV abuse in same-sex conditions when no PO was issued. Current findings emphasize some of the disparities in perceptions of what constitutes abuse among same- and opposite-sex couples.
- Go to article: Healing Circles as an Alternative to Batterer Intervention Programs for Addressing Domestic Violence Among Orthodox Jews
Healing Circles as an Alternative to Batterer Intervention Programs for Addressing Domestic Violence Among Orthodox Jews
Orthodox Jewish (OJ) families living with violence have concerns that are specific to their culture and tradition. This article, based on a 2009 study at New York University (S. F. Zakheim, 2009), explores the possibility that mainstream interventions developed to address domestic violence lack features that make them optimal for use among OJ families.
One often used treatment, the Batterer Intervention Program (BIP), is predicated on the belief that resocializing the male abuser will eliminate the problem of violence in a domestic setting. The BIP method of treatment dictates that, once violence has been reported, a chain of legal and societal events must be set into motion. This treatment does not involve the victim and may not even take into account his or her own expressed desires.
This article considers that, within the OJ community, it may be necessary to view domestic violence from a different perspective. To this end, it compares two forms of intervention carried out with OJ families: the BIP and an innovative restorative justice approach called healing circles (HCs). The restorative justice theory, on which HCs are predicated, permits the victim (not the legal authorities) to define what restitution he or she receives from the perpetrator. Unlike the BIP, which targets the behaviors of the abuser only, HCs work with the entire family—and the broader community—even taking into account community rituals and individual characteristics. As a treatment method sensitive to cultural intricacies, the HC proved to be more effective than BIPs in dealing with domestic violence in the OJ community.
Bidirectional violence is not a recent phenomenon. Nonetheless, little attention has been given to the actual dyads of intimate violence. The aim of the present review is therefore to identify and examine research that involves both the male and female partner of couples experiencing problems with intimate partner violence (IPV).
A thorough literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and PsycINFO. This review includes only peer-reviewed articles conducting quantitative data analysis. The key inclusion criteria were the concept of bidirectional violence. Therefore, this review only includes studies where both partners participated in the study. A total of 70 studies were included.
A wide variety of psychological, social, and interaction variables were identified. Especially challenges related to alcohol, attachment, communication, jealousy, mental health and relationship satisfaction were identified. Results sheds light on how conflicts escalate and are important aspects of how IPV patterns are developed.
The present review demonstrates the importance of incorporating partner dynamics into our understanding of IPV. By putting less emphasis on the prevalence rates and instead focus more on the dynamics of the relationships, IPV appears to be a symptom of a variety of problems within the dyad. Therefore, it would be beneficial to target preventive efforts and interventions towards both members of the couple to directly address the unhealthy dynamics that are contributing to a pattern of IPV.
- Go to article: Perception of Risk in Intimate Partner Violence Is Influenced by Risk Scales, Perpetrator and Victim Gender, and Mental Illness Diagnosis: A Risk Communication Study With Laypeople
Perception of Risk in Intimate Partner Violence Is Influenced by Risk Scales, Perpetrator and Victim Gender, and Mental Illness Diagnosis: A Risk Communication Study With Laypeople
Despite considerable research on the predictive accuracy of risk scales, there is limited research exploring other factors that influence perceptions of risk. We recruited participants (N = 1,955) from Amazon's Mechanical Turk to read a vignette about a fictional intimate partner violence offender, varying risk level on a fictional scale (low or high), perpetrator gender (cis male, cis female, or transgender female), victim gender (cis male or cis female), and mental health diagnosis (none, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder). The strongest effect was for the risk scale, with offenders perceived as highest risk when the scale reported “high risk” as opposed to “low risk.” The other main effects were also statistically significant. Cases were perceived as riskier when the perpetrator was cis male or the victim was cis female. Regarding mental health diagnosis, the highest risk ratings were provided in the schizophrenia condition. There was also a significant interaction among risk level, perpetrator gender, and diagnosis. The extent to which participants relied on gendered stereotypes about the relationship between mental illness and violence when providing risk judgments should be examined in future research. Overall, these findings enhance our understanding of characteristics that are secondary to risk level but are likely to influence case management decisions in cases of intimate partner violence.
- Go to article: Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence in Muslim Society in Israel: Tragedy or Comedy
The purpose of the current study is to examine attitudes toward two types of violence—that perpetrated by men and that perpetrated by women—among a community of well-educated Muslims living in a Western country. Accordingly, two hypotheses were postulated, the first focusing on attitudes regarding men who perpetrate violence against women and the second focusing on attitudes toward women who perpetrate violence against men. The sample included 420 Muslim students who were studying in Arab institutions of higher education in northern Israel. The findings show that significant rates of both men and women think that “a woman hitting a man” might be seen as funny by their acquaintances. Meanwhile the vast majority of both men and women think that “a man hitting a woman” might be seen as sad by their acquaintances. However, the tendency to believe that such behavior would be viewed with sadness was stronger among women. The study helps to understand what the prevalent attitudes in society are, and has practical implications for raising public awareness around contexts of gender violence, as well as toward attitudes regarding violence among populations in transition from a traditional societal structure to a modern one.
- Go to article: A Group-Centered Approach to Exploring Sexual Respect in Batterer Intervention Programs
Intimate partner violence is a serious social and public health issue often treated via psychoeducational groups in batterer intervention programs. The topic of sexual respect is a universal component in these groups, but traditional approaches may be too structured to address its complexity. This article outlines examples of how to select and process issues related to sexual violence and sexual respect in a way that honors group dynamics and process and accounts for various stages of offender accountability. We offer a curriculum that uses a careful selection of topics that is related to the skills deficit of the members, while utilizing the power of the group to facilitate the discussion. Specifically, we outline how sexual respect can be addressed in the low-accountability forming stage, the medium-to-high accountability norming/storming stage, and the high accountability performing stage in batterer intervention programs.